Us history Fort Burrows

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US History

Fort Burrows

UNITED STATES TIME ZONES The United States uses nine standard time zones. From east to west they are Atlantic Standard Time (AST), Eastern Standard Time (EST), Central Standard Time (CST), Mountain Standard Time (MST), Pacific Standard Time (PST), Alaskan Standard Time (AKST), Hawaii-Aleutian Standard Time (HST), Samoa standard time (UTC-11) and Chamorro Standard Time (UTC+10). View the standard time zone boundaries.

Daylight Saving Time begins at 2:00 a.m. local time on the second Sunday in March. On the first Sunday in November areas on Daylight Saving Time return to Standard Time at 2:00 a.m. The names in each time zone change along with Daylight Saving Time. Eastern Standard Time (EST) becomes Eastern Daylight Time (EDT), and so forth. Arizona, Puerto Rico, Hawaii, U.S. Virgin Islands and American Samoa do not observe Daylight Saving Time. Read more about the new federal law that took effect in March 2007 which extended Daylight Saving Time by four weeks.







Friday  8/15/2008  5:24 am  HST

Friday  8/15/2008  7:24 am  AKDT

Friday  8/15/2008  8:24 am  PDT

Friday  8/15/2008  9:24 am  MDT

Friday  8/15/2008  10:24 am  CDT

Friday  8/15/2008  11:24 am  EDT

Early Europe, Africa, & Asia

Chapter 2.2 ♥♥ Read pages 18 – 25
As the Sky turned from Peach to Baby Blue,

the warming aromas of the countryside rose to my nose and gave me Hope”

How you should describe something. A Meaty Sentence! Burrows, 2015

The period from about 500AD to around 1500 is known as the Middle Ages During the early Middle Ages, invasion and war were common. People in Europe had to find new means of defending themselves.

Let’s Dance – Killers – ‘Hold On’

Why this matters to Fort Burrows 8th graders today … I Need 4 volunteers to READ
Scientist believe that sometime during the last Ice Age, hunters crossed a land bridge connecting Asia and present-day Alaska. They traveled South in search of food and shelter and settled in North, Central, and South America. They established great cultures, including the Aztec, the Maya, the Inca, and the Texan civilizations. The cultures of North Americas in North America reflected the land and climate of the regions in which they lived.
Meanwhile, civilizations in Asia, Africa and Europe developed advanced technologies and searched for new trade routes. Asians sailed along the East coast of Africa. Europeans journeyed to Asia and the Arab people followed trade routes to Africa. Finally, searching for a new trade route to Asia, Christopher Columbus, {CC} brought Europe into contact with the Americas. Competition for new lands in the Americas created and worsened tensions among European nations. The exploration and settlement of the Americas laid the foundation for the eventual development of the United States.
To Europeans of 500 years ago, traveling to the Americas, Africa, and Asia was much like going to another planet – a dangerous journey, with no assurance of a safe return. Those who made the trek, however, changed history. The world today would be vastly different if Europe had remained in relative isolation.
The new technologies that allowed Europeans to sail farther brought great changes to people in Europe and the Americas, just as developing technology significantly affects our lives today in ways we can’t always predict. Today people can fly from the United States to Asia in less than 1 day. News from Africa is broadcast worldwide within hours. Sending an e-mail to someone in Russia takes seconds. We live in a truly Global Age.


Renaissance – ‘cultural rebirth’ that occurred in Europe from the 14th through the middle of the 17th

centuries, based on the rediscovery of the literature of Greece and Rome

feudalism – system of rule by Lords who ruled their lands but owed loyalty and military service to a


manor – the lands controlled by the Lord of that land

self-sufficient – making/creating most everything an individual or community needs

Christianity – religion based on the teaching of Jesus Christ, 0AD (Protestants & Catholics)

Judaism – religion based on the Old Testament, c.2000BC (Jews)

Islam – religion based on the teaching of Prophet Muhammad, 600AD (Muslims)

Crusades – series of wars fought between Christians and Muslims over a region known as Holy Land

(Palestine) which is today called Israel

innovation – new methods and practical ideas

crankshaftlevers for imparting oscillatory motion to a rotating shaft, one end of the crank 

being fixed to the shaft and the other end receiving reciprocating motion from a hand

astrolabe – instrument used to help sailors determine their latitude position at sea

latitudethe angular distance North or South from the equator of a point on the earth's surface

Silk Road – overland route that linked China and the Middle East

caravan – group of people that travel together for safety

savanna – grassland of Western Africa

extended family – several generations of a family that live together

kinship – people that share a common ancestor

Renaissance – rebirth

clergy – people who have the authority to perform religious service

technological – knowledge related to ways of done things,

sometimes involving complex scientific knowledge

pilgrimage – specific journey for specific reason

textilecloth produced by weaving or knitting fibers together

monastery – place of residence by a community of persons under religious vows
Europe in the Middle Ages


Kings and Queens divided the land among Nobles in return for future Armies

Nobles ruled over the Peasants

Peasants farmed the land and could never leave without the Nobles permission

manor lands; the lord’s castle, the land around it, may include villages

900AD changes – technology grew more food

less fighting

more Trading began
Religion – Crusades - Growing Trade

Judaism (Jews) - Christianity (Catholics & Protestants) - Islam (Muslims)

Roman Catholic Church was the most powerful, controlled land, controlled education

Crusades – war between Catholics and Muslims over control of land,

?? What Lands ?? _____________________________________

out of War comes Technology and Trade

Italians were 1st to discover $$$ in trading with the Muslim world


One who professes belief in the teachings of Jesus Christ

ø ÷

Being A Christian church

having Hierarchy of Priests and Bishops

under the Pope

A member of any of several church denominations denying the universal authority of the Pope and affirming the Reformation Principles of justification by FAITH alone

ø ÷


Southern Europe, Italy, etc.


Northern Europe, Germany, etc.

ø ÷



ø ÷

Hail Mary

Hail - Honor or give Respect to

Amen Brother

Amen – Let it be so

Adults in America -- Summer 2015 2016

7 Religions of

Protestant Churches



the world

Catholic Churches







Historically Black Church
























Other Religion



Don’t Know



Technological Innovations

demand for ‘new’ goods – foods, spices, silk, rugs, etc. – Sharing of knowledge

Muslim sailing skills, using lateen (large triangular) sails created by Egyptians

Chinese magnetic compass and astrolabe

by 1500, Portugal had taken over the ‘Seas of Discovery’

10th century Muslim math-man invent pin-hole camera

Muslim engineer invented the crankshaft, still used to today in modern machinery

600 AD, Persians invented the windmill to grind corn

?? What did Texans use to grind their corn and wheat ?? ___________________
¿¿ How did the crusades affect trade in the Middle East ?

1. ___________________________________________________________________________

2. ___________________________________________________________________________

The Middle East [M-E]– Crossroad to Europe, Asia, Africa

Muslim Conquest

as trading spreads so did new religions and ideas

c.600AD, Islam religion began in Arabia {Arabs} in Southern Middle East, M-E

as the Arabs expanded, they conquered lands in North Africa, Spain, from Persia to

India, South Asia to Portugal, by trading and by fighting, they spread the new Islamic religion

Muslim duty to pilgrimage to Mecca annually, encourage trade among Muslim lands
Navigating the Seas

from China – perfumes, fabrics, jade and tea

Spice Islands of Indonesia – nutmeg, clove, mace

East Africa – cloth, indigo, sugar, spices, salt, and slaves

*** sadly, these skills to produce such items as indigo and sugar will make the East

Africans most desirable in America come 1600’s
Silk Road

overland route through grasslands, mountains and deserts linking China w/ M-E

Chinese prize, Silk, 1000s of years

traders created caravans to travel the dangerous route

?? What were some of the ‘dangers’ on the Silk Road ?? ________________________________
¿¿ How would you define the Silk Road ?

African Cultures and Technologies

City-States of East Africa

natural harbors create trade port {***important Boston, New York, Charlestown}

traded gold, hardwoods, ivory created powerful and wealthy City-States

these rulers traded humans SLAVES with groups around Indian Ocean

Swahili language – blend of Arabic words and African languages
Trading Kingdoms of West Africa

grasslands called Savanna

gained their power and wealth thru warfare and conquering neighboring lands
Ways of Life in Africa

small villages, survived by herding animals, fishing, farming

lived in extended family

kinship encourage a strong sense of community and protection

religion was believe in powerful Spirits that could help or harm the living

TRADE IN AFRICA and EURASIA {landmass of Europe and Asia}



Domesticated camels enabled North African merchants to cross the Sahara. Caravans could include merchants, missionaries, pilgrims, and scholars

Improvements in land and sea travel enabled goods and ideas to travel between East Asia, South Asia, the Middle east, and Europe



gold, copper, salt

ivory - artistic carving
Kola nuts – medicine
coffee beans - stimulant



advanced metal forging

technique for toolmaking

weaving technique for patterned textile

Universities – math, art medicine, law, geography, history

training – carpentry, fishing, tailoring



spices, perfumes, medicines, wines

textiles – silk & wool
copper, iron, silver



technique for pottery, ceramics, glazes, glass

study – math, medicine, engineering, agriculture, irrigation

architectural – domes & arches for mosques, temples, churches

surgical instruments


WHY a Camel Caravans: Merchant caravans in the 1400s traveled great distances in all kinds of weather over rough ground. Fresh supplies of food & water were not always available. The camel was a valuable business asset in these conditions. It was uniquely suited to travel on the trade routes of Asia and Africa. The camel’s wide, soft feet enabled it to travel sand or snow; its double rows of eyelashes, its ear hair, and its nostrils that closed protected its sensory organs from windblown objects; its hump stored fat; its coat provided warmth in winter.

Chinese Trade and Technology

Increase of Trade

one ruler called an Emperor

most isolated civilization of ancient times, thought & taught, center of the world

invented the rudder, used to steer large ships

created watertight method for ship hulls, reduced sinking

created the magnetic compass, used in navigation, always points North

Zheng He (JUNG HUH) had over 300 ships, largest was 400 feet long

traded w/ Southeast Asia, India, Arabia, East Africa

invented paper in 105AD

used a printing press

birthed ‘Gun Powder’, which Europeans will develop to use in guns & cannons
¿¿ How did new technologies improve Chinese ships ?

1. ________________________________________________________________________

2. ________________________________________________________________________

Europe’s Renaissance

trade with new countries increased the desires for ‘knowledge’

this burst of learning and innovation was called the ‘Renaissance’ (REN uh sahns)

1430s, German Johannes Gutenberg (GOOT un berg) developed printing press

with moveable type,

this was much easier in Europe due to only 26 letters in the alphabet

prior, all books were hand-written, now more books, cheaper cost,

expanded learning capabilities
¿¿ What effect did movable type and the printing press have on learning ?

1. ________________________________________________________________________

2. ________________________________________________________________________

New Trade Routes

English & French monarchy reeled in powerful feudal lords & regained control of their lands

Spanish and Portuguese Catholics ended fighting with Muslim Africans, RECONQUISTA !

Middle Eastern & Italian Merchants controlled the Mediterranean Sea

tales of Mansa Musa’s extreme wealth of GOLD turned Europe to look at Africa

NOW eager to increase wealth and stature began looking for new trade routes

Can You Say – Christopher Columbus ???
Portuguese 1st with Big Voyages and Further Exploration

1400s Prince Henry or Henry the Navigator, searched for routes to the African GOLD

encouraged the sailors to explore the coast of Africa

he created schools to teach sailors and captains techniques of navigation and ship building

a ‘new’ ship was created thru the school named the “Caravel” {KAR uh vel}

outfitted with lateen sails and rudder to allow trips to use full directional wind-power

Portuguese sailor traded cloth/textiles, silver, & grain for African GOLD & ivory

the Portuguese merchants traded for slaves and traded them in Europe

1497, Vasco de Gama sailed around the tip of Africa, Cape Hope, across the Indian Ocean to

India and the islands of Southeast Asia – SPICES was his game

Test Taking Tips: Tip for Answering Questions with MAPS

1. Read the Question completely.

2. Read the Map title and look at the map to determine what is shown in the map.

3. Look at the KEY or Legend. What symbols, shades, or patterns are used to show information on the Map? Find examples of each symbol;, shade, or pattern on Map.

4. Read the Question again. What information do you need from the map to answer the Question? Use the information in the Map title, the key, or the legend, and on the Map itself to find the answer.

5. Answer the question in your own words.

6. Read the answer choices and select the Best answer.


1. What advantages did Middle Eastern merchants possess that allowed them to take

such a central role in the expansion of overseas trade ?

­­ A. ______________________________________________________________________

­­ B. ______________________________________________________________________

2. What were the benefits of the feudal system in Europe in the Middle Ages ?

­­ _______________________________________________________________________
3. What were some of the main causes that led to the great burst of learning known as

Renaissance ?

A. ______________________________________________________________________

­­ B. ______________________________________________________________________
4.How did trade between China and other civilizations have long term effects worldwide ?

5. How did the crusades set the stage for the Age of Exploration that followed ?


of 2.2 Class Notes

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