Absolutism in Europe



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Unit 6 Chapters 21-24

Absolutism in Europe


  1. Define absolute monarch-

  2. Define divine right –

  3. What was the goal of absolute monarchs?

  4. To whom did absolute monarchs have to answer?

  5. Why did the middle class support monarchs?

  6. How did monarchs pay for their ambitions and goals?

  7. What broke down during the Reformation that opened the way for monarchs to assume greater control?



  1. Before the Protestant Reformation, who was the most powerful person in all of Europe – even more powerful than kings?





Five Powers Emerge to Dominate Europe after the Age of Exploration

Label and shade the following countries and cities

  1. Countries: England, France, Spain, Prussia and Russia

  2. Cities: London, Paris, Madrid, and Moscow



France

The French Wars of Religion

  • War fought between _________________________________________________influenced by John Calvin called Huguenots that lasted from 1562 to 1598

    • Only 7% of the French population were Huguenots, but this included 50% of the nobility who threatened the French monarchy

    • The house of Valois, the current family ruling France, was strongly Catholic – one king, one law, one religion

  • _________Saint Bartholomew’s Day Massacre

    • The French Queen Catherine de Medici convinces her son to order the killing of _____________ who are in Paris for the royal wedding of Catherine’s daughter to Henry of Navarre

      • Henry is part of the Bourbon family and a leading Protestant who is in line for the throne if the king dies without an heir

    • 3,000 die in Paris and up to 10,000 – 70,000 total

      • Catherine spares her new son-in-law

  • The last Valois king dies and Henry of Navarre is made king

    • He converts to Catholicism to gain acceptance

      • “Paris is worth a mass”

  • 1598 Henry ends the war by issuing the ___________________________

Recognized _______________________as the official religion of ______________ but gave _____________________________ _______________________________________________and to fortify towns in which they have a majority

  • Henry of Navarre is now __________________________

    • He _________________________________________________ and even built up a surplus

    • In 1610 Henry was stabbed to death by a fanatic Catholic and the throne passed to his young son Louis

Louis XIII and Cardinal Richelieu

  • Since Louis was a _____________________, his mother served as regent for several years

  • Once he was old enough to rule, __________________________________became his chief minister and advisor

  • Richelieu was determined to strengthen the French monarchy - _______________________________________________

    • Wanted to _________________________________________________________________

      • Took away some of the privileges granted to them in the Edict of Nantes

    • Saw __________________________________________, so Richelieu started to suppress them and used spies to uncover plots and revolts

    • Richelieu was also in charge of foreign policy

      • Main enemy of France was the Hapsburg family and he __________________________________ against the Hapsburgs in the Thirty Years’ War

  • Cardinal Richelieu dies in 1642 and Louis is assassinated the next year, leaving as the new king the five year old Louis XIV

Louis XIV

  • Becomes the ____________________________________, led France during a time of great power, glory, and prosperity

  • As a young boy, Louis had to flee Paris due to noble rebellions called the Fronde

    • Louis never again trusted the nobility

  • At age 18 Louis declared he would run the gov’t himself

    • “L’etat, c’est moi” = ________________________________________

    • Chose ___________________________ as his symbol, implying that ______________________________________________ and he was known as _____________________________

  • Louis made all the military, political, and economic decisions

  • Louis built the enormous _____________________________ twelve miles outside of Paris and moved the gov’t there

    • Required his nobles to either ____________________________________________

    • Nobles became more concerned with _________________________________ rather than _______________________ ___________________

    • Life at Versailles was expensive, ____________________________________________________________________________

  • Louis ________________________________________ the Edict of Nante and outlawed ____________________________________

  • Idea of a _______________________________ – Louis wanted to expand French territory and control western Europe

    • Modernized and enlarged the army – had the largest in Europe


Russia - Ivan IV the Terrible

  • First to claim the title ______________________________ and got rid of _______________________

  • Reforms during the “good period”:

    • Created a general council and a new legal code

    • Promoted military officers based on merit and reduced the power of the boyars (Russian nobles)

  • Then his wife Anastasia died and Ivan becomes unstable and violent

    • Sends away his closest advisors, takes away land from 1200 boyars, and destroys whole towns because he thought they were plotting against him

  • First to claim the title czar (caesar) and got rid of foreign rule

  • Reforms during the “good period”:

    • Created a general council and a new legal code

    • Promoted military officers based on merit and reduced the power of the boyars (Russian nobles)

  • Then his wife Anastasia died and Ivan becomes unstable and violent

    • Sends away his closest advisors, takes away land from 1200 boyars, and destroys whole towns because he thought they were plotting against him

Peter the Great

  • Main goal was to _______________________________________________________________________

    • Wanted to make Russia more like Western Europe

    • Process of _________________________________

  • Reforms

    • Built Russia’s ________________________ and modernized the army

    • Brought the ______________________________________ and started the first Russian newspaper

  • Built ___________________________________ as his new capital, was modeled after western cities

Prussia and Frederick the Great

  • Prussia was one of ________________________________________, but it was fragmented

  • Frederick the Great built a strong army for protection and made Prussia one of the most powerful German states, with Berlin as its capital

Thirty Years’ War

  • Began as a _________________________________ since the Peace of Augsburg did not recognize _____________________

    • Also, since the 1450s all of the Holy Roman Emperors came from the Hapsburg family and the newly crowned Ferdinand decided to exert his authority

    • Would be both a religious conflict and a conflict between emperor and his nobles

    • Lasted from ____________________________________

  • Starts when -

    • In response they throw his two Catholic advisors out a window

    • They survive because they land in a dung/garbage heap – known as the Defenstration of Prague

  • The two sides

    • Catholic =

    • Protestant =




    • Who doesn’t enter the war?

  • The _____________________________ ended the war in _______, with ________________ emerging as the dominant nation in Europe

    • Reinstated the Peace of Augsburg, now includes Calvinism

    • The German princes become sovereign and independent – _______________________________ lost its power

  • The Thirty Years’ War was the most destructive war yet due to the musket and increased use of guns

    • The battles took place on German soil, causing much destruction

      • Millions of Germans died, either in battle or starved to death

Spain

Charles of Spain and the Holy Roman Empire

  • Became King Charles I of Spain as a teenager

    • Territory included ______________, the Low Countries (________________________________________), along with ______________________________________

  • Three years later he ____________________________________________________ as the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V

    • Borrowed the money from a __________________________________________________

    • He now controlled parts of _________________________________________________________

  • He supported many Spanish explorers, along with Cortez, and brought much wealth to Spain

  • He fought against the _________________________________________ and rebellious _________________________________, along with dealing with ___________________________________

    • Decided to give up his throne and retire to a monastery

      • Gave his brother the ___________________________________________________________

      • Gave his son Philip, _______________________________________________________________


Philip II

  • Became king of Spain after his father abdicated and Spain ________________________________________________________ during his reign

  • Philip was a devout____________________ and his goal was to make _________________________________________ Catholic

    • He saw Spain as __________________________________to save Catholic Christianity from Protestant heretics

    • He fought many battles and wars for this goal

      • His greatest naval victory was when he defeated the Muslim Turks at the Battle of Lepanto in 1571




  • Dutch Revolt

    • Starts in the ____________, the Dutch want __________________ to practice ________________and they are tired of paying __________________

    • Dutch Calvinists begin to destroy churches and refuse to declare allegiance to Philip

    • Philip sends an army to the Netherlands to put down the revolt and set up a court to _________________ the leaders

      • The court was known as the _____________________________ that tortured and executed thousands

    • Resistance gathered in the north around a Dutch prince and the revolt went on for years until a ____________________________________________________

      • the seven northern provinces formed the independent state of the Netherlands while the southern provinces remained with Spain and Catholic

  • Philip had many problems with ___________________, especially with its queen, ____________________

    • He viewed her as a _____________________________ since she was a ______________________,

    • she refused to marry him after her sister died, she had aided the Dutch rebels, and she was allowing English ship captains to raid Spanish ships

    • These English “sea dogs” took much wealth away from Spain

    • Philip decided to _____________________________ and return the country to __________________________

  • In 1588 the Spanish Armada sailed towards England

    • It totaled 130 ships and 20,000 soldiers and also carried the Inquisition

    • Elizabeth rallied her troops to fight the Spanish

    • Due to English using fire ships and a storm that sank many ships, the Spanish Armada was destroyed and Philip failed in his goal to invade England

  • Philip spent a lot of money on warfare that ___________________________________________________________________


England

Elizabeth I

  • Elizabeth, the daughter of ________________________________________________, became Queen of England in 1558

    • During her reign, England became the leader of ______________________________________ and she laid the foundations for a world empire

  • Elizabeth worked to resolve religious conflicts

  • In foreign affairs, Elizabeth played a balancing act with ______________________________, supporting one and then the other to make sure neither _________________________________

    • She used her marriageable status as a way to make alliances, although Elizabeth never married – she refused to share or limit her power



  • Since she never married, her heir was her cousin, ________________________________________________________________

    • Mary had fled Scotland and had been living as a sort of prisoner in England for years

    • Unfortunately, it was discovered that Mary was plotting with _________________________________________ and she was beheaded for treason

  • When Elizabeth died in ____________, Mary’s son________________ became the new king of England


The Stuart Kings

  • Mary’s son, James was now _____________________ and also ___________________________________

    • Believed greatly in the divine right of kings, didn’t get along with__________________________________

    • Had problems with ________________________________________________________, who demanded that the Church of England be reformed

      • They felt it was still _____________________________ with elaborate ceremonies and the hierarchy

      • James refused most of the reforms, but he did agree to the publication of an English version of the Bible, called the _____________________________________________

  • Charles I became king on the death of his father James I

    • He too believed in ___________________________________ and had problems with ________________________

    • Many people felt that Charles was trying to ___________________________ (he married a Catholic princess)

    • Charles called Parliament to request money, but Parliament refused unless the king signed a petition that would place limits on his power

    • Charles __________________ Parliament and decides _________________________________and ____________________ and force bankers to give him loans – _____________________________________

    • Long Parliament – Charles is forced to recall Parliament years later when he is badly in debt

The English Civil War

  • Conflict between Parliament and the king to determine the power of each in governing England

  • Some members of Parliament rise up against Charles and disobey his wishes and rights

    • Charles then calls for troops to fight for him

  • Civil War breaks out in 1642 between supporters of the king (called ________________________) and supporters of Parliament (called ______________________)

    • ____________________ wins, mainly due to the New Model Army and its leader, ____________________________

    • His army was made up of _____________________________ who believed they were doing battle for_______

    • In 1646 the king surrenders and Cromwell purges Parliament of everyone who had not supported him and what is left is known as the Rump Parliament

  • Cromwell then puts the Charles on trial for treason and in 1649 Charles I is publicly beheaded

    • This horrified much of Europe.

    • Why?

Parliament abolished the monarchy and the House of Lords and declared that England was a _________________________ = _____________________________________________________________________________________________

    • Cromwell soon dismisses Parliament and sets up a ______________________________, ruling ruthlessly until his death in 1658

The Restoration

  • Many people were unhappy under Cromwell’s rule and after his death, Parliament voted to restore the monarchy in 1660

    • They invited ______________________, son of the slain monarch (CharlesI), to take the throne

Some changes -

    • Parliament got keep much of the power it had gained

    • The ______________________________________ is restored as the state religion

    • The _______________________________________ of 1679 = guaranteed that someone accused of a crime had the _____________________________________________

The Glorious Revolution

  • __________________, brother of Charles II, is next to sit on the throne in 1685

    • Problem arises in that James has become a _________________________ who names many Catholics to ________________________________

    • People aren’t too worried because James has two adult daughters who are Protestant who are next in line for the throne

    • Then James marries a Catholic princess who gives birth to a son – prospect of a Catholic dynasty

  • A group of nobles invites James’ daughter Mary and her husband, the Dutch leader William of Orange, to invade England in 1689

  • It is a “__________________________________________”, with _____________________________ and James II flees to ___________

    • Both William and Mary accept the throne, along with a _____________________, which gave Parliament the right to ___________________________

      • The Bill of Rights was central to England’s growth as a _____________________________

    • __________________________ of 1689 gave Puritans, not Catholics, the right of free public worship, although few people are persecuted for religion

    • ____________________________ – only Protestants could be monarchs and disinherited the Catholic branch of the Stuart line



Absolutism in –
Spain France Prussia Russia

When _______ retired he divided his lands, ___________ got Spain, Spanish Netherlands and its colonies. Phillip II saw no limits to his power

Cardinal Richelieu

is an _________________ for French king



______________

30 Years War is a very deadly war in Holy Roman Empire

At end of war, princes of German city-states become independent of Hapsburgs family.

30 Years War makes Prussians want a strong military for protection.


Russia is not like Western Europe.

1.____________ Church

2. Language not from Latin

3. Styles different


When his uncle king of Portugal died, Phillip seized Portugal and all its colonies, which gave him incredible wealth


Phillip II was __________ used his wealth and vast navy to try to attack __________ and Protestant England

What was the outcome?


Cardinal _______________ wants to make France powerful and French monarch _____________


Wants to weaken the ______________, rulers of Holy Roman Empires
France enters 30 Years War on side of _____________


___________ the Great becomes ruler of Prussia. He wants to centralize all power in ____________.
Frederick keeps building up

military to make Prussia

stronger.



________the Great wants to______________________ Russia. Takes trip around Western Europe.

westernization-

Peter the Great wants to centralize all power in _______

Ex. Brought the church under ___________ ______________________



Result of defeat?

Louis XIV wants to Centralize all power to _____________. L’etat c’est moi =








huge debt to other countries and repayments for loans,

Phillip II declares bankruptcy 3 times,

Spain never developed a _______________ class

Netherlands revolt



1. Builds_________.

2. Gets rid of ____ ______________

3. Controls Estate system. (1st, 2nd, 3rd)









Absolutism in England

Henry VIII

Created the _____________________________________and made the __________________ the head of the church



Henry’s Children made changes:

Mary Queen of Scotts

Elizabeth I

Mary reinstituted ____________________ and killed many _________________________


Elizabeth reinstituted __________________; created a huge debt and battled with ________________________ over money and died without heir

James I took over


Charles I took over and created a lot of turmoil

Oliver Cromwell

-argued with protestants over religious issues

-made an _________________________ or the King James Version


-fought with parliament over money

-Signed Petition of Right

-dissolved Parliament several times

-led to English Civil War

-king was executed
-Although a written constitution was made, Cromwell tore it up and created a ___________________________and his government lasted until his death


Parliament was reelected, and Charles II was asked to be king-Upon his death, his son, James II took over and tried to went against laws and favored Catholism
His daughter Mary and her husband, William were invited to be new rulers with a bloodless takeover


-This was The Restoration

-Glorious Revolution

-William and Mary vowed to recognize ___________________as partner in ruling

-England became a Constitutional monarchy

-A Bill of Rights was created

-a cabinet of administrators was also created




Scientific Revolution

Complete the following using your book chapter 22:



  1. Before 1500, how did scholars decide what was true or false?



  1. Describe the Medieval view of the earth and the planets. What is this theory called?



  1. What did Christianity teach about the placement of the earth?



  1. What was the Scientific Revolution?



  1. On what was the Scientific Revolution based?


Copernicus

Kepler

Galileo

Sir Isaac Newton












Vesalius

Boyle

Francis Bacon

Descartes












Enlightenment

p.629


Enlightenment-

Philospohes -

List and explain the five core beliefs of Enlightenment thinkers


  1. Reason –




  1. Nature –




  1. Happiness –




  1. Progress –




  1. Liberty -



Mary Wollstonecraft




What did she write?

What did she disagree with Rousseau about?


What else did she urge women to do?




Enlightened Monarchs -

Thinker

Country

Main ideas, beliefs, Impacts on society

Fredrick the Great









Joseph II









Catherine the Great













Their thoughts on…..


Hobbes


Locke

People







Purpose of Government







Type of Government







Rights







Overall Goals







Complete the following:



  1. Define revolution-

List the three causes of revolutions and describe each in your own words!!! (p.708)






1.

2.

3.

England








British Colonies











Complete the following chart:



Declaration of Independence
Who is the author of this document?



America was Influenced by the
___________________. America became a country during the heart of the Enlightenment. As a result, it was greatly influenced by the Enlightened thinkers. The Declaration of Independence as well as the US Constitution with its Bill of Rights would probably not
have existed if the_____________________ had not occurred.

“…All men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable RIGHTS, among these are

LIFE, LIBERTY, and the

Pursuit of Happiness…”

On whose ideas is this based?
____________________


The US

Constitution



“Article I: Legislative Power…

Article II: Nature and Scope of Executive Power…

Article III: Judicial Power, Courts, Judges…”

On whose ideas is this based?




“Every Bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives and the

Senate, shall, before it becomes law, be presented to the President; if he approves he shall sign it, but if not he shall [veto] it…”

On whose ideas is this based?


The Bill of

Rights


(in the Constitution)

“…The Senate shall have the sole power to try all Impeachments. When the

President is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside. Judgment in Cases of Impeachment shall not extend further than to removal of office…”

On whose ideas is this based?


Amendment 1: Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of RELIGION, or prohibiting the free exercise

thereof; or abridging the FREEDOM OF SPEECH, or of the PRESS…”

On whose ideas is this based?


Case Study - American Revolution 1775-1781

Great Britain (England) had gone through a civil war and then the Glorious Revolution during the 1600s, and as a result, citizens got used to having a say in government. The people that lived in the British colonies in the New World (like Virginia) were British citizens as well.



1 Britain believed in mercantilism. Therefore, it wanted colonies to make them rich. Britain really didn’t care much about what the colonists wanted. The colonists didn’t like this form of government. They wanted a government that did what they needed.

2 People in the colonies were very familiar with John Locke’s ideas. They agreed with him that people had basic rights that can’t be taken away. They also agreed with him that if a government was not good then the people had the right to rebel and create a new one that protected their life and liberty. They felt like the British government was not protecting their rights.

3 Britain kept raising taxes on the colonists, which hurt American businesses but helped Britain. Britain sent troops to keep order and then made the Americans pay for them with more taxes. Britain also only allowed American businesses to trade with Britain, which meant the Americans couldn’t sell to other countries that could pay more money.

4 Britain began passing laws and taxes that colonists had to follow without letting the colonists vote on them. Back in Britain, citizens had a say in government, but in the colonies the citizens did not. American colonists thought they were being treated unfairly. They wanted to be have a voice in deciding on laws.

5 On top of all this, many people in America had never liked the British government. For example, the Pilgrims and the Puritans had come to America because the government of Britain did not like the way they practiced their religion. Descendants of these groups still disliked Britain for the way their ancestors had been mistreated.

6 Finally, the Americans had begun to see themselves as Americans first and British citizens second. They had more in common with each other than they did the British all the way across the Atlantic. Americans began to feel that their people were being ruled by an outside people and instead they wanted independence. They loved their colonies and wanted them to grow into a powerful country independent of Britain.

Each numbered section above is an example of one of these causes of revolutions. Write the number from above in the blank next to the appropriate cause of revolutions.

_____ Social Injustice _____ Unpopular Method of Rule _____ Nationalism

_____ Enlightenment Ideas _____ Religious Intolerance _____ Economic Distress



Predict - What do you think will happen in America given what you just read?

Complete the following:



French Revolution Begins

1. The French were divided into three classes or estates, known as the Estates General. Who belonged to the following estates?

a) First Estate: ______________________________ b) Second Estate: _______________________________

c) Only about ______% of the people belonged to these two estates, yet they owned ______% of the land.

2. Everyone else belonged to the Third Estate, which made up more than 80% of the French people. This huge group included these three types of people:

a) __________________- Who were the well-off merchants and skilled workers who lacked the status of nobles.

b) __________________- Were cooks, servants, and others who were poorly paid and often out of work.

c) __________________- Were the farm workers.

3. What were the three factors that led to the French Revolution?

a) ___________________________________________________

b) ___________________________________________________

c) ___________________________________________________

4. Who was the king of France when the French Revolution began in 1789? _________________________

What was the name of his wife, or the queen of France? ____________________________

5. What was the name of the assembly of representatives from all three estates? ___________________________

6. What was the name of the French congress established by representatives of the Third Estate? _________________________

7. What was the name of the promise made by Third Estate representatives to draw up a new constitution called? _____________________________

8. On July 14, an angry crowd captured the _______________, a Paris prison.

9. What was the name given to the wave of violence that swept across France when peasants broke into and burned the houses of nobles called? _____________________________
Revolution Brings Reform and Terror

1. In August 1789, the National Assembly made a revolutionary statement that guaranteed rights such as liberty and property called the ____________________________

2. In the fall of 1791, the _____________________ replaced the National Assembly and decided to take away most of the king’s powers. This new assembly soon divided into two groups:

a) ____________________- Those favoring established or traditional ways of governing.

b) ____________________- Revolutionaries, or those people with extreme political views who wanted change.

3. Nobles and others who left France during the peasant uprisings and who hoped to come back to restore the old system were called _____________.

4. What was the name of the radical group of wage-earners and small shopkeepers that wanted a greater voice in the French government? ____________________

5. Why were kings from other countries concerned about the French Revolution?____________________________________________________________________________________________________

6. In 1792, the National Convention was formed. What was the name of the radical members of this political club called? ____________________

7. What happened to Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette in 1793? ________________________________________

8. What was the name of the device used to behead people during the French Revolution? ____________________

9. What was the name of the committee set up by the revolutionaries that tried “enemies of the Revolution,” and had them executed? _____________________ Who was the leader of this committee? _____________________

10. What was the name of the time period between 1793-1794 when thousands of people were beheaded? __________________________
Napoleon Forges an Empire

1. Napoleon Bonaparte was born in the year ________ on the Mediterranean island of ________________

2. In what year did Napoleon seize power in France? ___________ What is the term used that describes the sudden seizure of power, usually by military means called? _________________________

3. In 1800, a ________________, or vote of the people was held to approve a new constitution. The people voted for it overwhelmingly, and Napoleon took power as first ___________.

4. Napoleon made several changes that were meant to build on the Revolution’s good ideas:

a) He made ____________________ more fair and orderly.

b) He removed dishonest _________________ workers.

c) He started new public schools for ordinary citizens called ____________________

d) He gave the Church back some of its power by signing an agreement with the pope called a ______________, which gave him the support of the organized church.

e) He wrote a new set of laws called the ___________________, which gave all French citizens the same rights.

5. In 1803, Napoleon sold the largest part of France’s North American land called the _______________________ to the United States.

6. What was the name of the naval battle in which the British defeated the French navy, thus preventing Napoleon from invading England? ____________________________


Napoleon’s Empire Collapses
1. The use of naval forces to closing another country’s ports is called a ____________________

2. What was the name of Napoleon’s policy of preventing trade and communication between Great Britain and other European nations called? ______________________________

3. Who did Napoleon make as king of Spain in 1808? ____________________. This led to a war between France and Spain called the ______________________. Spanish peasant warriors who fought against French troops in Spain were called __________________. How many troops did Napoleon lose during this war? __________

4. In 1812, Napoleon invaded _______________. How many troops did Napoleon have during this invasion? ___________________.

5. What is the name of the strategy or policy of burning fields and slaughtering livestock so that enemy troops would find nothing to eat called? ______________

6. By the time Napoleon’s army left Russian territory, only ____________ of his soldiers were able to fight.

7. What five countries declared war on France after Napoleon’s disaster in Russia? ____________, ____________, ______________, ________________, and _______________. What was the name of the battle in which Napoleon was defeated in Germany in 1813? ___________

8. In what year did Napoleon give up his throne? __________ On what island was he exiled to? ______________

9. Who took the throne of France after Napoleon? ___________________

10. In what month and year did Napoleon escape from exile and boldly return to France where he took power and raised another army? ________/________

11. What was the name of the famous battle fought in Belgium where Napoleon was finally defeated for good? ________________. What was the name of the British general who defeated Napoleon? ______________

12. What was the name given to Napoleon’s last attempt to regain power? _________________________

13. What far-off island was Napoleon sent to after he was defeated in 1815? _____________. In what year did Napoleon die? ___________
Congress of Vienna

1. In 1814, leaders of many nations met to draw up a peace plan for Europe. This series of meetings was called the __________________________. Who was the key leader of these meetings? _______________________

2. What were the three goals that these meeting attempted to establish?

a) To make sure that the ______________ would not attack another country again.

b) To establish a condition called, ____________________, in which no one country became a threat to another.

c) To establish ____________________, or the restoring of monarchs to the thrones they had before Napoleon’s conquests.

3. What three countries formed the Holy Alliance in 1815? _____________, ____________, and ______________

4. What were the long-term effects of the Congress of Vienna?

a) They diminished the size and power of _________________ but increased the power of ___________ and ____________.

b) Nationalism spread to ___________, ____________ and ___________.

c) Nationalistic feelings would ________ and lead to other ____________

d) Spanish colonies would declare their _____________ from Spain

e) People began to see ______________ as the best way to ensure equality and justice.

Unit 6 Chapters 21-24

Name __________________

Complete the following:


Color and label the following:



  1. Britain

  2. French Empire

  3. Austrian Empire

  4. Kingdom of Denmark

  5. Kingdom of Sweden

  6. Prussia

  7. Spain

  8. Portugal

  9. Kingdom of Sardinia

  10. Kingdom of Naples

  11. Kingdom of Italy

  12. Grand Duchy of Warsaw

  13. Ottoman Empire

  14. Confederation of the Rhine

  15. Norway

  16. Kingdom of Sicily

  17. Illyrian Provinces

  18. Helvetic Republic

  19. Republic of Danzig

  20. Russian Empire




Unit 6 Chapters 21-24

Name __________________

Complete the following:

Absolutism in England??

Henry VIII

Created the Anglican Church and made the English Monarch the head of the church

Henry’s Children made changes:

Mary Queen of Scotts

Elisabeth I

Mary reinstituted Catholicism and killed many protestants

Elizabeth reinstituted Anglicanism; created a huge debt and battled with parliament over money and died without heir



James I took over


Charles I took over and created a lot of turmoil

-argued with protestants over religious issues

-made an English translation of Bible or the King James Version


-fought with parliament over money

-Signed Petition of Right

-dissolved Parliament several times

-led to English Civil War

-leader of anti-king forces was Oliver Cromwell

-king was executed

-Although a written constitution was made, Cromwell tore it up and became a dictator and his government lasted until his death


Parliament was reelected, and Charles II was asked to be king-Upon his death, his son, James II took over and tried to went against laws and favored Catholicism
His daughter Mary and her husband, William were invited to be new rulers with a bloodless takeover


-This was the Restoration

-Glorious Revolution

-William and Mary vowed to recognize parliament as partner in ruling

-England became a Constitutional monarchy

-A Bill of Rights was created

-a cabinet of administrators was also created



Case Study - American Revolution 1775-1781

Great Britain (England) had gone through a civil war and then the Glorious Revolution during the 1600s, and as a result, citizens got used to having a say in government. The people that lived in the British colonies in the New World (like Virginia) were British citizens as well.



1 Britain believed in mercantilism. Therefore, it wanted colonies to make them rich. Britain really didn’t care much about what the colonists wanted. The colonists didn’t like this form of government. They wanted a government that did what they needed.

2 People in the colonies were very familiar with John Locke’s ideas. They agreed with him that people had basic rights that can’t be taken away. They also agreed with him that if a government was not good then the people had the right to rebel and create a new one that protected their life and liberty. They felt like the British government was not protecting their rights.

3 Britain kept raising taxes on the colonists, which hurt American businesses but helped Britain. Britain sent troops to keep order and then made the Americans pay for them with more taxes. Britain also only allowed American businesses to trade with Britain, which meant the Americans couldn’t sell to other countries that could pay more money.

4 Britain began passing laws and taxes that colonists had to follow without letting the colonists vote on them. Back in Britain, citizens had a say in government, but in the colonies the citizens did not. American colonists thought they were being treated unfairly. They wanted to be have a voice in deciding on laws.

5 On top of all this, many people in America had never liked the British government. For example, the Pilgrims and the Puritans had come to America because the government of Britain did not like the way they practiced their religion. Descendants of these groups still disliked Britain for the way their ancestors had been mistreated.

6 Finally, the Americans had begun to see themselves as Americans first and British citizens second. They had more in common with each other than they did the British all the way across the Atlantic. Americans began to feel that their people were being ruled by an outside people and instead they wanted independence. They loved their colonies and wanted them to grow into a powerful country independent of Britain.

Each numbered section above is an example of one of these causes of revolutions. Write the number from above in the blank next to the appropriate cause of revolutions.

_____ Social Injustice _____ Unpopular Method of Rule _____ Nationalism

_____ Enlightenment Ideas _____ Religious Intolerance _____ Economic Distress



Predict - What do you think will happen in America given what you just read?


Unit 6 Test

Name _________________



Match the following with the best answer:

  1. _____ Divine right

  2. _____ Absolute monarch

  3. _____Cardinal Richelieu

  4. _____Peter the Great

  5. _____Westernization

  6. _____Oliver Cromwell

  7. _____Glorious Revolution

  8. _____Constitutional monarchy

  9. _____Enlightenment

  10. _____Social contract

  11. _____John Locke

  12. _____Thomas Hobbes

  13. _____Natural Rights

  14. _____Thomas Jefferson

  15. _____Checks and balances

  16. _____Estates general

  17. _____Tennis court oath

  18. _____Great fear

  19. _____Reign of Terror

  20. _____Napoleon Bonaparte

  21. _____Coup d’état

  22. _____Plebiscite

  23. _____Napoleonic code

  24. _____Continental system

  25. _____Blockade







  1. A direct vote in which a country’s people have the opportunity to approve or reject a proposal

  2. Three things people are born with; life, liberty, and property

  3. French administrator to Louis XIII that helped to build the power of the king and country to the eventual absolute monarchy it became

  4. The use of troops or ships to prevent commercial traffic from entering or leaving a city or region

  5. A sudden seizure of political power in a nation

  6. Measures designed to prevent any one branch of government from dominating the others

  7. The period when Maximilien Robespierre ruled France nearly as a dictator and thousands of political figures and ordinary citizens were executed

  8. A wave of senseless panic that spread through the French countryside after the storming of the bastille in 1789

  9. The bloodless overthrow of the English King James II and his replacement by William and Mary

  10. System of justice where in there was a uniform set of laws and eliminated many injustices in France

  11. Wrote Leviathan and belief that people were selfish and wicked and thus needed an absolute monarch

  12. An 18th century European movement in which thinkers attempted to apply the principles of reason and scientific method to all aspects of society

  13. A system of governing in which the rulers’ power is limited

  14. An adoption of the social, political, or economic institutions of western European countries

  15. A view that people, in order to escape a bleak life, had to hand over power to a strong leader who would create law and order for the best interest of the people

  16. A pledge made by the members of Frances National Assembly in 1789, in which they vowed to continue meeting until they had drawn up a new constitution

  17. Napoleon’s policy of preventing trade between Great Britain and continental Europe intended to destroy great Britain’s economy

  18. Wrote Two Treatise on Governments, believed people are reasonable and moral, can learn from experience and governments formed by the consent of the people to allow others to rule them

  19. General during the English Civil War and ruled Britain as a common wealth until his death

  20. An assembly of representative form all three of the estates or social classes in France

  21. One of Russia’s greatest reformers, wanted to westernize Russia and established anew capital

  22. Idea expressed in a speech to parliament by James I about the role and privileges of a king and how they get the power they have

  23. Political belief where in one rules should hold all to the power within the boundaries of a country

  24. A true figure of the Enlightenment, Author of Declaration of Independence, writer, and statesman

  25. A general during the French revolution who seized power quickly and ruled the nation as a hero to the French and a aggressor to the rest of Europe


Unit 6-7 Quiz 2

Name _________________


Match the following with the best answer:

  1. Congress of Vienna

  2. Dictatorship

  3. Nationalism

  4. Bourgeoisie

  5. Truce

  6. Haiti’s Revolutionary leader

  7. émigrés

  8. Peace settlement

  9. Legitimacy

  10. Scorched earth policy

  11. Compensation

  12. Waterloo

  13. Venezuelans Revolutionary leader

  14. Radical

  15. Balance of power

  16. Rev. Stage 1-Liberal reform

  17. Russification

  18. Argentina’s Revolutionary leader

  19. Metternich

  20. Rev. Stage 2-Radical bloodletting

  21. Nation-states

  22. Mexican Revolutionary leader

  23. Rev. Stage 3-Reaction to violence

  24. Rev. Stage 4-One strong ruler emerges

  25. Kaiser




  1. The belief that people should be loyal mainly to their nation

  2. Legality, rightfulness according to birth

  3. Jose’ de San Martin

  4. The groups that was most satisfied with the reforms of the National Assembly

  5. Situation in which no one country can gain control of some or all of the others

  6. Agreement to stop fighting; armistice

  7. German Emperor from the Roman title Caesar

  8. In the first half of the 19th century, a European who favored drastic change to extend democracy to all people

  9. Nobles who left France during the Revolution

  10. A payback for losses or services

  11. Toussaint L’Ouverture

  12. The process of forcing Russian culture on all ethnic groups in the Russian Empire

  13. The form of government in France when it was ruled by Napoleon

  14. Agreement about future relationships among countries

  15. The organizational meetings of the heads of European governments to establish long-term peace and security after the defeat of Napoleon

  16. Miguel Hidalgo

  17. An independent geopolitical unit of people have a common culture and identity

  18. Rule of Napoleon

  19. Simon Bolivar

  20. The practice of burning corps and killing livestock during wartime so that the enemy cannot live off the land

  21. Reforms of the national assembly

  22. Location of the final defeat of Napoleon led by the Duke of Wellington

  23. Rule under the Directory

  24. Reign of Terror

  25. Austrian Prince that was the most influential member of the Congress of Vienna








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