Apush key Concepts Period 8 & 9: 1945-2001 Key Concept 1



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APUSH Key Concepts - Period 8 & 9: 1945-2001

Key Concept 8.1: The United States responded to an uncertain and unstable postwar world by asserting and a oKey Concept 8.1: The United States responded to an uncertain and unstable postwar world by asserting and working to maintain a position of global leadership, with far-reaching domestic and international consequences
I. United States policymakers engaged in a Cold War with the authoritarian Soviet Union, seeking to limit the growth of Communist military power and ideological influence, create a free-market global economy, and build an international security system.

A) As postwar tensions dissolved the wartime alliance between Western democracies and the Soviet Union, the United States developed a foreign policy based on collective security, international aid, and economic institutions that bolstered non-Communist nations.



1. Yalta Conference (broken promises)-
2. Potsdam (Broken promises/suspicion)-
3. 1944 Bretton Woods Conference-
4. I.M.F. (Explain Role):
5. World Bank (Explain Role):
6. United Nations-
7. Truman Doctrine-
8. Marshall Plan-
9. NATO-
10. Warsaw Pact-

B) Concerned by expansionist Communist ideology and Soviet repression, the United States sought to contain communism through a variety of measures, including major military engagements in Korea and Vietnam. 




1. 1946 Churchill’s “Iron Curtain ”Speech-
2. “Containment Doctrine”-
3. George Kennan’s “Long Telegram”-
4. USSR tests its 1st Atomic Bomb 1949-
5. Communist’s defeat Nationalists in China 1949-
6. National Security Act 1947-
7. NSC-68-
8. CIA-
9. Domino Theory (Eisenhower)-
10. 1950 Korean “Conflict” Begins (Context of US involvement):
11. Truman’s Firing of MacArthur:
12. Eisenhower’s Role In Korea:
13. 1953 Armistice (Korea) at 38th parallel:
14. Vietnam “Conflict” (Context of US Involvement):
15. Eisenhower Administration & Vietnam, Dien Bien Phu, Geneva Accords/17th Parallel:
16. FFK & US Military Advisers to Vietnam (Why? Purpose):
17. JFK & Flexible Response:
18. JFK & Diem Coup:
19. LBJ –Tonkin Gulf Resolution:
20. LBJ & ”Escalation” IN Vietnam:
21. The Tet Offensive (Context & effect):
22. Nixon & Kissinger & Vietnamization:
23.The Pentagon Papers (What? Effect?)
24. Cambodia Bombings by Nixon (What?):
25. My Lai Massacre (What? Effects?):
26. Ford & Vietnam (Fall of Saigon/evacuation):
C) The Cold War fluctuated between periods of direct and indirect military confrontation and periods of mutual coexistence (or détente). 


1. Nikita Khrushchev (Significance):
2. Berlin Blockade-Airlift:
3. Eisenhower & Massive Retaliation
4. “New Look” Foreign Policy & “Open Skies” Philosophy (Eisenhower):
5. Bay of Pigs Invasion Attempt (JFK):
6. Flexible Response (As Foreign Policy-JFK):
7. JFK & Cuban Missile Crisis:
8. Suez Crisis:
9. Détente:
10. SEATO:
11. U-2 Incident:
12. “Kitchen Debate”:
13. Nixon’s visits China 1972:
14. Shanghai Communiqué:
15. Nixon Doctrine:
16. ABM Treaty (US & USSR):
17. S.A.L.T. I TREATY:
18. S.A.L.T. II Treaty (Carter Administration):

D) Postwar decolonization and the emergence of powerful nationalist movements in Asia, Africa, and the Middle East led both sides in the Cold War to seek allies among new nations, many of which remained nonaligned.

1. Post-WW1 & 2 Decolonization (Explain ONE example for each War):
2. CIA Coup in Iran 1953:
3. “Seven Sisters” Oil Monopoly:
4. Suez Crisis-
5. Eisenhower Doctrine
6. Lebanon aid
E) Cold War competition extended to Latin America, where the U.S. supported non-Communist regimes that had varying levels of commitment to democracy.

1. The Peace Corp
2. The Cuban Revolution/Fidel Castro 1959:
3. Che` Guevara & Cuban Revolution:
4. Alliance for Progress (JFK):
5. Cuban Missile Crisis
6. CIA Coup(s) in Honduras, Guatemala, & Nicaragua
7. USA Supports Fascist leaders in South America—Peron & Allende
8. Reagan invades Grenada
9. Bush Sr. invades Panama
II. The Cold War policies led to public debates over the power of the federal government and acceptable means for pursuing international and domestic goals while protecting civil liberties.

A) Americans debated policies and methods designed 
to expose suspected communists within the United States even as 
both parties supported the broader strategy of containing communism. 




1. US Loyalty Review Program (1947):
2. Dennis v. US (1951):
3. 1950 McCarran Act:
4. Smith Act 1940:
5. 2nd Red Scare:
6. Loyalty Oaths
7. Rosenberg Case:
8. H.U.A.C. (Purpose/Goal):
9. Hollywood Blacklists
10. Alger Hiss Case
11. McCarthyism
12. Loyalty Oaths
B) Although anticommunist foreign policy faced little domestic opposition in previous years, the Vietnam War inspired sizable and passionate antiwar protests that became more numerous as the war escalated, and sometimes led to violence. 


1. 1966-67 Fulbright Senate Hearings:
2. Draft Protests (Burning Draft Cards):
3. Beat Movement-
4. “Student Anti-War Protests”:
5. Free Speech Movement & Mario Savio;
6. Port Huron Statement-
7. SDS (Students for a Democratic Society)-Protesting for what? :
8. 1960’s “Counterculture-Hippies:
C) Americans debated the merits of a large nuclear arsenal, the military- industrial complex, and the appropriate power of the executive branch in conducting foreign and military policy. 


1. Sputnik
2. Eisenhower’s Farewell Address—opinion on “Military Industrial Complex”-
3. U-2 Incident-
4. Nuclear Arms Race (origins):
5. M.A.D. (Concept?):
6. Eisenhower “New Look/Massive Retaliation/Open Skies” Foreign Policy:
7. JFK “Flexible Response” Doctrine:
8. Gulf of Tonkin Resolution:
9. “Escalation” in Vietnam (LBJ):
10. “Vietnamization” (Nixon):
11. Nixon Doctrine:
12. War Powers Act (73)
D) Ideological, military,
and economic concerns shaped U.S. involvement in the Middle East, with several oil crises in the region eventually sparking attempts at creating a national energy policy. 


1. 1948 Creation of Israel (explain controversy):
2. 1953 Coup in Iran (US role?):
3. 1956 Suez Crisis (US interests?):
4. OPEC (Oil Producing Exporting Countries):
5. Nixon’s response to the 1973 6-day war in the Middle East
6. 1973 OPEC Oil Embargo:
7. 1974 OPEC Oil Price Hike:
8. US Department of Energy created (Purpose):
9. Iran Hostage Crisis (Carter)
10. Carter’s “Camp David Accords”
11. Beirut 83’ Embassy & base bombings:

Key Concept 8.2: New movements for civil rights and liberal efforts to expand the role of government generated a range of political and cultural responses.

I. Seeking to fulfill Reconstruction-era promises, civil rights activists and political leaders achieved some legal and political successes in ending segregation, although progress toward racial equality was slow.

A) During and after
 World War II, civil 
rights activists and leaders, most notably Martin Luther King Jr., combatted racial discrimination utilizing
 a variety of strategies, including legal challenges, direct action, and nonviolent protest tactics. 


1. A. Phillip Randolph (WWII in Civil Rights):
2. 1941 Executive Order 8802:
3. CORE (Congress of Racial Equality):
4. NAACP-
5. “Non-Violence”-
6. Thurgood Marshall-
7. SCLC-
8. SNCC-
9. Martin Luther King Jr.-
10. John Lewis-
11. Diane Nash-
12. Stokely Carmichael-
13. Emmitt Till Story-
14. Little Rock Nine:
15. Montgomery Bus Boycott-
16. Greensboro (4) Sit-ins spread (Direct Action 1960)-
17. March on Washington, 1963
18. Freedom Summer (1964)
19. The Freedom Riders-
20. Birmingham (Major Civil Rights Event)-
21. Selma (Role in Civil Rights Movement):
22. The Nation of Islam (leader Elijah Mohammed)-Malcom X-Cassius Clay/Mohammed Ali
23. Black Panthers-
B) The three branches of the federal government used measures including desegregation of the armed services, Brown v. Board of Education, and the Civil Rights 
Act of 1964 to promote greater racial equality. 


1. The Isaac Woodard Story
2. Truman-Executive Order 9980:
3. To Secure These Rights Committee on Civil Rights:
4. Truman-Executive Order 9980:
5. Truman-Executive Order 9981
6. “Dixiecrats” – Election of 1948:
7. Brown v. Board of Education, 1954:
8. The Southern Manifesto:
9. Civil Rights Act of 1964:
10. Voting Rights Act of 1965:
11. 24th Amendment:
C) Continuing resistance slowed efforts at desegregation, sparking social and political unrest across the nation. Debates among civil 
rights activists over the efficacy of nonviolence increased after 1965. 


1. Watts Riots
2. Malcolm X Assassination
3. MLK Jr. Assassination
4. “Black Power”
5. Summer Olympic Protest of 1968, Mexico City
6. COINTEL
7. Black Panthers
8. Huey Newton Assassination
II. Responding to social conditions and the African American civil rights movement, a variety of movements emerged that focused on issues of identity, social justice, and the environment.

A) Feminist and gay
 and lesbian activists mobilized behind claims for legal, economic,
and social equality. 




1. Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964-
2. Betty Friedan’s, “The Feminist Mystique”-
3. “The problem that has no name”-
4. Title IX-
5. W.I.T.C.H. (Define & explain):
6. N.O.W.(Define & Explain):
7. Gloria Steinem –
8. E.R.A.-
9. Phyllis Schafly-
10. The Stonewall Inn Riots-
11. “Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell”-
B) Latino, American Indian, and Asian American movements continued to demand social and economic equality and a redress of past injustices.


1. Cesar Chavez/Dorothea Huerta & the United Farm Workers Union


2. Delano, California Grape Workers Strike
3. La Raza Unida
4. Red Power/A.I.M.
5. Alcatraz 1968
6. Wounded Knee 1973
C) Despite an overall affluence in postwar America, advocates raised concerns about the prevalence and persistence of poverty 
as a national problem. 


1. LBJs “War on Poverty” (Identify & explain areas NOT prospering 1950’s-60’s)
2. Medicaid:
3. Medicare:
4. Head Start:
5. RFKs Trip to Appalachia 1968:
6. Nixon “indexes Social Security to the Inflation Rate”(Explain):
D) Environmental problems and accidents led to a growing environmental movement that aimed to use legislative and public efforts to combat pollution and protect natural resources. The federal government established new environmental programs and regulations. 


1. Rachel Carson’s Silent Spring-
2. Earth Day-
3. E.P.A.-
4. Clean Air (70) and Water Act (72)(s)-
5. Environmental “Superfund” (80) & Love Canal-
6. Endangered Species Act (73)-
7. 3-Mile Island (79)
8. Exxon-Valdez Accident (89)

III. Liberalism influenced postwar politics and court decisions, but it came under increasing attack from the left as well as from a resurgent conservative movement.

A) Liberalism, based on anticommunism abroad and a firm belief in the efficacy of government power to achieve social goals at home, reached a high point of political influence by the mid-1960s. 


1. Truman’s Fair Deal:
2. JFK’s New Frontier:
3. LBJ’s Great Society & War on Poverty:
B) Liberal ideas found expression in Lyndon Johnson’s Great Society, which attempted to use federal legislation and programs to end racial discrimination, eliminate poverty, and address other social issues. A series of Supreme Court decisions expanded civil rights and individual liberties. 


1. LBJ’s Great Society and WAR ON POVERTY
2. Chief Justice of the US Supreme Court- Earl Warren:
Warren Court CASES:

3. Mapp v. Ohio
4. Gideon v. Wainright
5. Escobedo v. Illinois
6. Miranda v. Arizona
7. Baker v. Carr (“one man, one vote”)
8. Engle v. Vitale
9. Griswold v. Connecticut
10. Roe v. Wade, 1973 (Burger Court)

C) In the 1960s, conservatives challenged liberal laws and court decisions and perceived moral and cultural decline, seeking 
to limit the role of the federal government and enact more assertive foreign policies. 




1. Goldwater (Rep.) 1964 Convention (Cow Palace, SF) and Presidential Election of 1964:
2. Young Americans for Freedom:
3. Ronald Reagan speech for Goldwater (64):
4. Neo-Cons- William F. Buckley Jr.:
5. Richard (Dick) Nixon, 1968 Election
6. Southern Strategy
7. George Wallace, 1968 Election:
8. COINTELPRO
D) Some groups on the left also rejected liberal policies, arguing that political leaders did too little to transform the racial and economic status quo at home and pursued immoral policies abroad. 


1. SDS (Students for a Democratic Society): (Purpose? Beliefs?):
2. The Port Huron Statement:
3. The New Left:
4. Beatniks-Hippies:
5. The Weathermen:
E) Public confidence and trust
 in government’s ability to solve social and economic problems declined in the 1970s in the wake of economic challenges, political scandals, and foreign policy crises. 


1. Credibility Gap
2. Pentagon Papers
3. Misinformation
4. Nixon-Watergate
5. Economic “Stagflation” 1970’s (Define & explain):
6. Social Security indexed to inflation:
7. 1970’s Stalemate in Vietnam:
8. Nuclear Treaties

F) The 1970s saw growing clashes between conservatives and liberals over social and cultural issues, the power
of the federal government, race, and movements for greater individual rights. 




1. Nixon’s Southern Strategy in 72’ election
2. Rise of New Conservative-Moral Majority
3. Swan v. Mecklenburg County, 1972 (Busing)
4. Bakke v. UC Davis, California, (Affirmative Action)
5. War Powers Act
6. CIA Hearings
7. ERA Amendment’s Failure
8. Moral Majority
9. Rise of Super P.A.C.s

Key Concept 8.3: Postwar economic and demographic changes had far-reaching consequences for American society, politics, and culture.

I. Rapid economic and social changes in American society fostered a sense of optimism in the postwar years.

A) A burgeoning private sector, federal spending, the baby boom, and technological developments helped 
spur economic growth. 


1. Continued Growth of Military Industrial Complex w/Nuclear Arms Race—Cold War Policies-
2. Computer-TV-Transistor? Robotics?
3. Baby Boom
4. Dr. Spock
B) As higher education opportunities and new technologies rapidly expanded, increasing social mobility encouraged the migration of the middle class to the suburbs and of many Americans to the South and West. The Sun Belt region emerged as a significant political and economic force. 


1. GI-Bill (Serviceman’s Readjustment Act):
2. Federal Government and Universities partnering (RAND, etc)
2. Suburbs
3. Franchise “Fast Food” & Motels (1950’s-60’s):
4. Interstate Highway Act (1950’s):
5. Sun Belt (Explain why it grew during WWII & after & later influence on the nation):
6. Levittown(s) Tract-Housing:
7. Census based Congressional apportionment gains in 1960 & 1970 & 1980 & 1990
C) Immigrants from around the world sought access 
to the political, social, and economic opportunities in the United States, especially after the passage of new immigration laws in 1965. 


1. Operation “Wetback” (Ike):
2. Immigration Act of 1965 (Explain the law & which groups of immigrants benefitted):
3. Immigration Act of 1985:
II. New demographic and social developments, along with anxieties over the Cold War, changed U.S. culture and led to significant political and moral debates that sharply divided the nation.

A) Mass culture became increasingly homogeneous in the postwar years, inspiring challenges to conformity by artists, intellectuals, and rebellious youth. 




1. Beat Movement
2. Jack Kerouac’s, “On the Road”:
3. Juvenile Delinquents:
4. Marlon Brando/James Dean (How did they differ from the norm?):
5. Gunner Myrdal’s, “An American Dilemma”:
6. J.D. Salinger’s, “Catcher in the Rye”
7. Joseph Heller’s, “Catch-22”
8. Arthur Miller’s, “Death of a Salesman”
9. Arthur Miller’s The “Crucible”
10. Hippies
11. Abbie Hoffman’s, “Howl”
12. Rock & Roll
13. Folk Music
14. Woodstock
15. Beatles
16. Andy Warhol
B) Feminists and young people who participated in the counterculture of the 1960s rejected many of the social, economic, and political values of their parents’ generation, introduced greater informality into 
U.S. culture, and advocated changes in sexual norms. 


1. “the pill” (Identify & explain the controversy):
2. Sexual Revolution 1960’s:
3. “Don’t Trust Anyone Over 18” (Who said it & meaning):
4. Counter-Culture:
5. Ken Kesey and The Merry Pranksters:
C) The rapid and substantial growth of evangelical Christian churches
 and organizations was accompanied by greater political and social activism on the part of religious conservatives. 


1. Televangelism:
2. Jerry Falwell’s “Moral Majority”:
Key Concept 9.1: A newly ascendant conservative movement achieved several political and policy goals during the 1980s and continued to strongly influence public discourse in the following decades.

I. Conservative beliefs regarding the need for traditional social values and a reduced role for government advanced in U.S. politics after 1980.

A) Ronald Reagan’s victory in the presidential election
of 1980 represented an important milestone, allowing conservatives to enact significant tax cuts and continue the deregulation 
of many industries. 


1. Reaganomics-Supply/Side Economics- “Trickle-Down Theory”
2. Economic Recovery Act, 1981
3. The Laffer Curve (Arthur Laffer)
4. The Budget and Trade debt/Deficit Explosion under Reagan & Bush I
5. Domestic Spending decreases by 40 Billion
6. Massive increase in Military Spending to end the Cold War
7. P.A.T.C.O. Strike
8. War on Drugs 1980’s :
9. Welfare Reform Bill (1990’s):
10. Deregulation of Communication Companies -1980’s: (What? & Effects?):
B) Conservatives argued that liberal programs were counterproductive in fighting poverty and stimulating economic growth. Some 
of their efforts to reduce 
the size and scope of government met with inertia and liberal opposition, as many programs remained popular with voters. 

C) Policy debates continued over free-trade agreements, the scope of the government social safety net, and 
calls to reform the U.S. financial system. 


1. N.A.F.T.A.
2. Deficit Reduction Bill;
3. “Contract with America”:
4. Welfare Reform (Clinton)
5. Health Care Reform Failure (Clinton)
6. 1987 Stock Market Crash
7. Savings and Loan Crisis:
8. Welfare Reform:
9. 2008 Stimulus Bill:
10. Obama Care (Explain elements & criticisms):
Key Concept 9.2: Moving into the 21st century, the nation experienced significant technological, economic, and demographic changes.

I. New developments in science and technology enhanced the economy and transformed society, while manufacturing decreased.

A) Economic productivity increased as improvements in digital communications enabled increased American participation in worldwide economic opportunities. 


1. Globalization

B) Technological innovations in computing, digital mobile technology, and the Internet transformed daily life, increased access to information, and led to new social behaviors and networks.


1. Bill Gates & Paul Allen, Microsoft
2. IBM
3. Steve Jobs, Apple
4. The “Dot.com” Boom & Bust 1990’s:
5. The Internet (Explain origins & impact):
C) Employment increased
 in service sectors 
and decreased in manufacturing, and union membership declined. 


1. NAFTA (criticisms on negative impact on US manufacturing?):
D) Real wages stagnated for the working and middle class amid growing economic inequality. 

II. The U.S. population continued to undergo demographic shifts that had significant cultural and political consequences.

A) After 1980, the political, economic, and cultural influence of the American South and West continued to increase as population shifted to those areas. 




1. Sun Belt
B) International migration from Latin America and Asia increased dramatically. The new immigrants affected U.S. culture in many ways and supplied the economy with an important labor force. 

C) Intense political and cultural debates continued over issues such as immigration policy, diversity, gender roles, and family structures 



Key Concept 9.3: The end of the Cold War and new challenges to U.S. leadership forced the nation to redefine its foreign policy and role in the world.

I. The Reagan administration promoted an interventionist foreign policy that continued in later administrations, even after the end of the Cold War.


A) Reagan asserted U.S. opposition to communism through speeches, diplomatic efforts, limited military interventions, and a buildup of nuclear and conventional weapons. 


1. U.S. Boycott of 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow (Carter)
2. Soviet invasion of Afghanistan
3. US Invasion of Grenada
4. “Evil Empire”
5. S.D.I. (Star Wars)
6. “Tear down this Wall”
B) Increased U.S. military spending, Reagan’s diplomatic initiatives, and political changes and economic problems in Eastern Europe 
and the Soviet Union were all important in ending the Cold War. 


1. Gorbachev – Perestroika & Glasnost
2. Fall of Berlin Wall:
3. Solidarity Movement in Poland-1980’s:
4. Reagan-Gorbechev Geneva Summit:
5. Reykjavik Summit:
C) The end of the Cold War
led to new diplomatic relationships but also
new U.S. military and peacekeeping interventions, as well as continued debates over the appropriate use of American power in the world. 


1. Grenada
2. Lebanon Suicide Bomb Truck 1980’s:
3. Nicaragua=Sandinista’s v. Contra’s
4. Panama invasion 1990’s:
5. Operation Desert Storm:
II. Following the attacks of September 11, 2001, U.S. foreign policy efforts focused on fighting terrorism around the world.

A) In the wake of attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon, the United States launched military efforts against terrorism and lengthy, controversial conflicts in Afghanistan and Iraq. 




1. Bush Doctrine
2. Operation Iraqi Freedom

B) The war on terrorism sought to improve security within the United States but also raised questions about the protection of civil liberties and human rights. 




1. 9/11
2. Al Qaeda
3. Patriot Act 2001:
4. Osama Bin Laden
5. ISIS:
6. Guantanamo Bay Detention & Torture:
C) Conflicts in the Middle East and concerns about climate change led to debates over U.S. dependence on fossil fuels and the impact of economic consumption 
on the environment. 


1. Arab Spring
2. Libya
3. Global Warming- Kyoto Treaty
D) Despite economic and foreign policy challenges, the United States continued as the world’s leading superpower 
in the 21st century. 


1. American Exceptionalism



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