Busch notes period 1 (1491 -1607) part 2 Key Concept 2: Contact among Europeans, Native Americans, and Africans resulted in the Columbian Exchange

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BUSCH NOTES PERIOD 1 (1491 -1607) PART 2
Key Concept 1.2:

Contact among Europeans, Native Americans, and Africans resulted in the Columbian Exchange and significant social, political, and economic changes on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean.
I. European expansionism into the Western Hemisphere generated intense social, religious, political, and economic competition within European societies.
A. European nations’ efforts to explore and conquer the New World stemmed from a search for new sources of wealth, economic and military competition, and a desire to spread Christianity.

B. The Columbian Exchange brought new crops to Europe from the Americas, stimulating European population growth, and new sources of mineral wealth, which facilitated the European shift from Feudalism to Capitalism.

C. Improvements in maritime technology and more organized methods for conducting international trade, such as joint-stock companies, helped drive changes to economies in Europe and the Americas.
II. The Columbian Exchange and development of the Spanish Empire in the Western Hemisphere resulted in demographic, economic, and social changes
A. Mutual misunderstandings (?) between Europeans and Native Americans often defined the early years of interaction and trade as each group sought to make some sense of the other. Over time, Europeans and Native Americans adopted some useful aspects of each other’s culture. (?)

B. As European encroachments on Native Americans lands and demands on their labor increased, native populations sought to defend their political sovereignty, economic prosperity, religious beliefs, and concepts of gender relations through diplomatic negotiations and military resistance.

C. Extended contact with Native Americans and Africans fostered a debate among European religious and political leaders about how non-Europeans should be treated, as well as evolving religious, cultural, and racial justifications for the subjugation of Africans and Native Americans.
GOLD, GOD, GLORY- The 3 g’s… motivations for expansionism…
Essential Question #1: Why do the Euros begin to explore and what conditions had to exist for this to occur?
1. Europe in the “middle-ages” was in crises; Feudalism-Nobles & Serfs, bubonic plague, witch-hunts, 100 years of war between Princes/Monarchies, fighting the spread of Islam- Crusades, and these great countries we are so aware of today…are a series of smaller principalities competing for influence with the 1 dominant force in Europe-The Catholic Church. The Ming Dynasty in China during that rises after the collapse of the Mongols in later 14th century and is seen perhaps as the strongest and most advanced force on Earth. Europe during the Middle Age is dark…and has yet to develop into the sophisticated and technologically advanced society we are more familiar.
2. THE CRUSADES- the desire of the Catholic Church to recapture the holy lands brings amazing changes across Europe. A call is made to all Princes to create armies (including their serfs) to fight the spread of Islam. The first crusade, 1096-1099, is called by Pope Urban III and huge #s respond, by 1099 this army wearing the Cross on their chests and made up from knights and commoners from all over Europe is successful in reclaiming the Holy Lands. Some of the Crusaders stay and create small city-states that they control and many return home covered in glory AND WITH A PLETHORA OF NEW EXPERIENCES, NEW KNOWLEDGE, AND NEW TASTES…
3. The consequences of the crusades were immense for Europe… socially, politically, and economically… Trade Networks were established the Christian city-states in the middle east which brought many new spices, textiles, and wealth…the returning commoners with their new knowledge/tastes from the world began to spread these ideas and enrich many outside the traditional ruling classes. Wealth = Power and as time passes the curtains of Darkness that characterize the middle ages begin to open… leading to the Renaissance of Europe… primarily due to the expanded trade and ideas flowing from the middle east and Asia… BUT… ISLAM is not defeated forever… Saladin in 1187 retakes Jerusalem, the Pope calls for the 3rd Crusade…although not successful completely in retaking the holy lands, “Good King Richard of England” (Robin Hood-King John, Richards Brother becomes King and signs the Magna Carta, in *1215, which for some is the beginnings of DEMOCRACY IN THE WORLD… does negotiate with Saladin for peace in the region… and CONTINUED TRADE) THE MONGOLS strength and OPEN FREE TRADE POLICIES during this period allow for even more goods and ideas to flow to Europe…

These varied elements began to slow the trade of goods to EuropeThe Ottomans and Italian city-states of Genoa and Venice monopolized the trade and prices for these goods soared….however the three centuries of free-trade influence would begin the Renaissance of Europe out of the dark middle ages and dramatically change how European Monarchies now very wealthy as well as the growing and influential business class that in some areas had begun capitalism, the end of Feudalism, and spots of non-monarchy led states with limited Republican governments…already in England (Magna Carta, 1215), with a mixed system or limited constitutional monarchy that would go through several changes before the English Bill of Rights is signed in 1689.

5. Conditions that had to exist before Europeans could begin their 300-year domination of the World through Imperialism…
A. Modern Nation-States are created {Feudalism to Capitalism}with the wealth consolidated through the crusades and free-trade…which allowed Monarchs to control vast armies now more technologically advanced and experienced due to their many wars….in Europe and against Islam… and THEY WANTED TO FIND A WAY TO REGAIN THE TRADE WITH THE EAST…DESIRE WAS STRONG…$$$$$ IS NEEDED TO PAY LARGE ARMIES, TAXING YOUR OWN PEOPLE CAN CAUSE MANY PROBLEMS…(ENGLAND AN EXAMPLE) THE MERCANTILIST ECONOMIC SYSTEM GOVERNED ALL EUROPE… A COUNTRIES WEALTH WAS FOUND IN “SPECIE”-GOLD AND SILVER {Wealth is limited, only so much Gold and Silver}…The government controlled the economy absolutely… you can either dig up more or trade for it… or…create COLONIES {Imperialism-Mercantilism} {WHICH WOULD SUPPLY BOTH SPECIE AND GOODS FOR TRADE…AND A PLACE TO SELL YOUR GOODS…A FAVORABLE BALANCE OF TRADE IS A WEALTHY NATION…A RICH MONARCHY… POWER*****
B. The Catholic Church encouraged these Monarchs, most…. To support and spread Christianity, ENRICH THE CHURCH WITH NEW SOULS AND WEALTH… as well as stop the powerful spread of Islam…
C. Technology had to be created that allowed for long-distance travel across the Oceans.
D. The Moors (Muslims in Portugal and Spain) had to be defeated and kingdoms united…Portugal does so by the mid 1300s, with the help of Prince Henry and his family, and Spain does so in the Reconquista {The violent Catholic Inquisition} in 1492, and in the same year unites the Country under Ferdinand and Isabella.
So the story begins… THE AGE OF DISCOVERY
Prince Henry the Navigator of Portugal begins his school in 1431, THE ESTUDO GERAL (later the University of Lisbon), to discover how to make long-distance ocean travel feasible, as well as unite the leading scholars in a variety of fields to advance knowledge …many had sailed to Africa but few came back… eventually the Caravel, a newly designed ship, with a large holding capacity with a deeper draft and narrower (highly maneuverable), with lanteen (triangular) sails which could use the wind from both sides is created. The Astrolabe and Mariner’s Compass allows for navigation across the oceans more accurately. The Astrolabe aids in navigation by finding latitude. Detailed Maps are made as they begin to explore are closely held secrets that, if lost, results in the captain’s death.
Africa- The Portuguese begin using their technological advancements (the Italian city-states had much of this advancement as well as some Islamic and Chinese sailors probably before PH…except the Caravel…) and begin to explore Africa.

Portugal begins to set up trade with many African Kingdoms along the Western Coast…Songhai for example.. and also claims many of the smaller islands off the coast during these voyages (where they establish Large Commercial Agricultural Plantations to grow SUGAR –with AFRICAN SLAVES AS THE LARGE LABOR FORCE)****HUGE*** They eventually begin to trade guns and other supplies with African Kingdoms, building trading forts along the coast, for GOLD, SPICES, AND SLAVES…THE BEGINNING OF THE ATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE***. Portugal eventually sails around the coast of Africa into the Indian Ocean and into India and the east and back…GENERATING MASSIVE WEALTH…. The Portuguese attempt to militarily conquer areas in Africa, but due to disease (malaria primarily) and strong African kingdoms…fail and so COOPERATE/NEGOTIATE TRADE DEALS instead where they can. The Massive Imperial conquest of Africa from an Imperial standpoint is still some years away…


The other powerful European Monarchs notice what Portugal is accomplishing… as trade flows from Portugal into Europe…AND THEY WANT SOME  …. The victory over the moors (Reconquista) and Ferdinand and Isabella’s marriage, SPAIN IS IN POSITION TO NOW COMPETE….

CC (Christoforo Colombo from Genoa (Italian city-state) and his brothers attempt to find a patron to sponsor their idea to travel west to go east…TO TAKE A SHORT CUT TO ASIA*** TO BYPASS AFRICA (controlled by Portuguese) and the Mediterranean (controlled by the Ottomans and Italian city-states)…they are denied in England but find favor from Ferdinand and Isabella, who supply him three ships…and supplies to make his initial voyage. (4 Total)

CC initially lands in the modern day Bahamas and later makes three more voyages across the Atlantic Ocean. Those voyages, and his efforts to establish permanent settlements on the Island of Hispaniola (Haiti-Dom. Rep. today) initiated the Spanish Colonization of the New World and leads to THE MOST CATACLYSMIC CHANGE PERHAPS IN ALL OF WORLD HISTORY. Although eventually appointed, “Admiral of All of the High Seas,” and “Viceroy and Governor of the Indies,” he is arrested and dismissed as Governor after his third voyage, and despite he and his brothers pardons and their being funded to take a fourth voyage –which ironically sees him visit Panama up to the Central American Coast, actually searching for an entry into the Indian Ocean–opening up the many of the most profitable expeditions later, his days governing New Spain had ended, due to his mismanagement and brutal tyranny of the Native Peoples, and he eventually returned to Spain in 1504. CC was promised 10% of everything…but never received anything close, nor does his family… and dies after many difficult bouts with disease in 1506 in Spain.

CCs Voyages and significant Early Events after Contact:

1st – 8/1492 sails from Spain with 3 ships…arrives in the Bahamas (San Salvador) by 10/12, and on this trip visits; Cuba, Hispaniola, and smaller Caribbean Islands, then returns to Spain, after building a fort on the island of Hispaniola and leaving crew (39 men, 28 survive his return) to guard this site, on 3/1493. Word of his accomplishments spread rapidly throughout Europe. His letter to the Spanish Court is printed and circulated in which he claims to have taken possession of a group of Islands on the edge of the Indian Ocean and suggests the mainland China might be nearby. He also gives a description of the natives whom he described most as peaceful, some as cannibals, and names them all, “Indians.” CC also brings back with him Natives, of whom 8 survive the voyage alive, to be sold into slavery… the BEGINNINGS OF THE TRADE IN NATIVE PEOPLES THAT CONTINUES IN THE NEW WORLD AND INTO ENGLISH COLONIZATION OF NORTH AMERICA.

****After CC’s 1st voyage…Pope Alexander VI, (a Spaniard), issues his famous BULL…***THE DOCTRINE OF DISCOVERY***

This pronouncement from the Pope…plays a central role in the Spanish Conquest of the New World. This document gives Spain a monopoly on the lands in the New World (Until the Treaty of Tordesillas, 1494, splits the World in ½ between Spain and Portugal, …the line actually runs through Brazil and allows the Portuguese to conquer here and establish massive Sugar Plantations with African Slave Labor)… which eventually leads to the plantation system coming to the West Indies along with the Sugar Plantations…continuing the growth of Capitalism and the Sugar Lords in England… and the Plantation System coming to the Spanish and later the Americas who depend on the trade with the Future French, Spanish, & English Sugar Colonies in the West Indies… Bahamas, Martinique, Hispaniola… (connections over time)
The “Papal Bull (announcement)” stated that any land not occupied by Christians was available to be “discovered,” claimed, and exploited by Christian rulers.” It also declared that, “the Christian Faith be everywhere increased and spread, & that the barbarous nations be overthrown and brought to the faith.”
This “doctrine of discovery,”****Huge****is accepted throughout the Christian World from this point forward…even after the Protestant Reformation in 1512, as justification for the taking of lands from Native Peoples around the world…even in the 1830’s use by the US Supreme Court as justification for taking Native Americans lands at the beginning of our westward expansion called, “Manifest Destiny.”
CCs 2nd Voyage*** 9/1493 - this voyage gives us the evidence of Spanish intentions to “COLONIZE” the New World…

17 Ships, 1200 men, and supplies to establish PERMANENT colonies in the New World; Priests, Farmers, and Soldiers would be the new colonists not just of exploitation but SETTLEMENT. God, Gold, and Glory…

Pedro de Las Casas…Bartolome’s Father is on this Voyage… Bartolome de Las Casas will become very significant in the determination of the Native People’s becoming “human” …. In the debate at Valladolidv. Juan de Sepulveda, who argues against de Las Casas… in 1542, called for by Spanish King Charles the V.***
CC’s 3rd Voyage – 5/1498 – with 6 ships, 3 directly to Hispaniola with supplies, and three to search for the shortcut to Asia. After landing on many Caribbean Islands and touching South America at Venezuela, he finally arrives in Hispaniola in August to find a revolt against his rule…especially that he lied about the riches to be found. Upon return this causes CC to be arrested due to his mismanagement and brutal treatment of his crew and the natives (whom he was supposed to be converting to Christianity) in 1500 he was removed as Governor. The New Governor, Nicolas Ovando, is just as brutal, and institutes the ENCOMIENDA SYSTEM (DEFINED LATER )****HUGE****
CC’s 4th and Last Voyage – 1502 – returns to Spain in 1504.

****Young, 18 year old, Bartolome de las Casas is on this voyage…***

This is Columbus’ last voyage to the New World… he is no longer Governor, survives a Hurricane, attempts to search for a passage to the Indian Ocean… explores the Coast of Panama up to Central Mexico, is stranded in Jamaica by another Hurricane, is rescued after one year…and returns to Spain to fight for his fortune…and dies in 1506. His Son Diego does become Governor of the Indies and rules from 1509 until 1518.
From 1492 until the revolutions of the 1820s and in Cuba until 1898…Spain builds an Empire…and begins a process that over the next 100 years will eventually conquer almost if not all of the Caribbean, Central, South America, and into North America.
****As a result of CCs voyages and the desire of Spain not just to exploit, but also to settle the Americas. The effect is that the THE COLOMBIAN EXCHANGE****massively huge***becomes the “Triangle Trade” in the late 1600s into the 1700s and during post WW2, is called “Globalization.” IS CREATED-- THE CATACLYSMIC EFFECTS ARE MASSIVE SOCIALLY, POLITICALLY, AND ECONOMICALLY IN EUROPE, AFRICA, & THE AMERICAS transforming the New and Old Worlds forever.

Columbian Exchange: The biological transmission that happens as the consequence of contact between the old world and the new world.
4 categories:
1-PEOPLE: handfuls go to Europe, the “Tainos,” natives of Hispaniola, go with Columbus back to Spain, which becomes a standard practice to kidnap the islanders to go to Europe as slaves, servants, or rarely guests (oddities to show off).
Most went from the Old World to the New World

Prior to 1820--- by immigration or forced by Slavery to New World were 5X as many enslaved Africans prior to 1820…than Europeans… (of the total African Slaves to the New World, 6% go to the British Colonies or USA--up until the end of the international slave trade in 1808 (Constitutional Compromise agreed to in 1789)

Overwhelmingly an African enterprise….Overwhelmingly MALE both in African and Europeans who arrive.

Consequently “interaction” and grafting…occurs… a new population of “Mestizos” (those of a mix of Native and Spanish blood) –which after a century constitute a growing % of population in New Spain. The largest groups being Natives…although we know that 90% perish in the 1st 100 years {Black Legend****HUGE} and Africans brought to reinforce the giant need for forced labor and later replace the dwindling # of Natives.
As time passed in New Spain…the Administrators of the Government began to create a CASTE SYSTEM and formal LAWS to ORGANIZE THE POPULATION… THUS IS BORN THE….
****Sistema de Castas or Sociedad de Castas:

Based on the principle that people varied according largely to their birth, color, race, and ethnic origin. It had an impact on every aspect of life—, including economics and taxation. The whiter the heritage a person could claim, the higher in status they could claim; darker features meant less opportunity.

Consider the impact of the spread of just…this idea alone… even today****

These ideas began in Spain to denote those without a taint of Jewish or Muslim heritage and were enforced after the Reconquista with the Inquisition (after 1492). In Spanish America, the idea of the purity of blood became an obsession and had consequences for marriage, eligibility for Government work, entrance into the priesthood, and specifically where you could settle in New Spain. In Spanish America racial categories were formal legal classifications. By the end of the Colonial Period over one hundred categories of variations of mixture existed. Even spreading into the United States…and continuing into the 20th Century… Where the Supreme Court in 1967? In the case of Loving v. Virginia, which prohibited states from making laws forbidding inter-racial marriage… 1967* just 49 years ago…people are still alive today who were affected by these laws….
Caste System (racial hierarchy) in New Spain: there are many subcategories of race that develop, as many as 100 by 1820. These often defined where you could work, whom you could marry (not legally but strongly enforced by families), where you could live or if you were allowed title to land, and the amount of taxes you paid. You can see the influence of this caste system, as the Southern Colonies become states after the Revolution and into the “ante-bellum” (before the Civil War) period, as well as after the War and into the “Jim Crow” era (1880s until 1950s-60s)…as many of these are adapted into law in many Southern states to determine freedom, jobs, locations to live, etc… (specifically the % of African Heritage before and the after the Civil War).
This Social Caste System is often represented as a Triangle due to the fewest #s of people at the top and depending on specific locations… the largest #s at the bottom, e.g., in Central and South America the Native Indians would be the largest #, and on many of the Caribbean Islands after the mid-1550s the Africans would be the largest # but… regardless of the location, pure African descent would be the lowest place in the order of racial hierarchy
Peninsulares (Spaniards and other Whites born in Europe)

Jobs as top officials in government, army, and Catholic Church.

Criollos (Spaniards and other Whites born in the Americas) [Creoles]

Lower level government jobs—city government—often became owners of mines and large ranches and mostly business elite.

Mestizos (mixed - Pure Amerindian and White)
Castizos (mixed - White with Mestizo)
Mulatos (mixed African and White)

1st generation… if they were born into slavery, e.g., Mother was a slave they would be slaves, unless manumitted (freed by owner) Further % of blackness could be defined as Quadroon-Octoroon, etc…

Pardos (mixed White, African, and Amerindian)
Indios (Amerindians)

One of the three “pure races” in Spanish America, many of Noble Indian birth from the Aztec or Inca could be higher in the system due to their nobility, but never higher than the Peninsulares or Criolles and this elevation slowly erodes by the early 1600s.

Zambos (mixed Amerindian and African mix)

Could include mixture of Asian decent due to some immigration from the Spanish East Indies (primarily Philippines).

Negros (Africans)

The Europeans were way ahead in domestication of animals and brought animals with them to replicate their lives in the old world.
-Cows, goats, pigs, sheep, horses
Unintended consequences:

1 – hoofed animals population explodes…no natural predators… extremely destructive of the existing resource base, which drastically transforms the ecological features in the new world. Ex… Sheep are introduced to the breadbasket of Central Mexico, which devastates the land and ruins the environment and the result is that today it is one of the poorest areas of Mexico.

2 – Causes friction between natives and Europeans. FENCES introduced to protect agricultural crops… not to keep animals in… animals were allowed to graze unguarded…which led to conflict.

3- Horses enable indigenous peoples, especially in the interior of the continents, North and South, to keep their independence longer…and transforms many cultures from settled agriculturalists to swift nomadic hunters… or improves the ability of the nomads, like on the Great Plains, to hunt more efficiently and war against each other more efficiently, thus creating more conflict among the tribes, or expand trading networks, etc… sheep and wool becomes the staple of weaving practices of the Navajo… is another example….

{The only large domesticated animal in the New World at contact was the Llama }

Most plants that are transmitted go from the new world to the old world…

¾ of the FOOD CROPS grown today IN THE WORLD originated in the New World.
2 most important crops:

CORN – staple food for people and animals throughout Africa, Asia, and Europe today.

Even used in our fuels…

POTATO – population explodes in Europe…ex. In Ireland 100 years after potato crop is introduced its population triples. Especially, peasants…a cheap crop to grow…and becomes a transformative in Europe.
Crops went to Africa as well… caloric value increased population offset African Slave Trade… consequences of contact…
American (New World) plants become cash cropstobacco, vanilla, chocolate, AND LATER American cotton
Old World crops to New worldrice, coffee, sugar they become central to the new world economy… PLANTATION AGRICULTURE—NEED FOR LABOR---**ENCOMIENDAS--- RELIGIOUS DEBATES---AFRICAN SLAVERY.
**Encomienda: a grant from the Spanish Crown to a colonist in New Spain giving them the right to demand tribute (gold) and forced labor from the Native inhabitants of an Area. The Colonist given this right…is supposed to take responsibility for instruction in the Christian Faith, protection, and instruction in the Spanish language.
Conflict develops among the Spanish because of the Encomienda system and begins with religious leaders who traveled with CC and later other leaders to the New World. {Like Bartolome de Las Casas} After a short time, Africans, are suggested to take the place of the Natives…to protect them… and with the addition of the Spanish demand, 1ST documented African Slave ship arrived in Hispaniola in 1521 (same year Cortes fights with the Aztecs in Mexico), to the already high Portuguese demand the ATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE EXPLODES.
Regardless of the time period…LABOR is needed in the Americas, whether it be African Slave Labor on Portuguese mammoth commercial plantations growing Sugar or in the Spanish Silver and Gold Mines or the Spanish’s own massive commercial Sugar Plantations or other ventures. The encomienda system is controversial.. and the story of conflict begins with Bartolome de Las Casas, who arrives in the Americas, on Hispaniola, in 1502 with a land grand to seek his fortune, and soon after renounces his grant, goes to Rome takes his religious vows as a Dominican priest, returns to Hispaniola in 1512 as the first ordained priest in the Americas and denounces the Spanish exploitation of the Indians and military conquest of the new world he is not alone and is joined by many priests who are in the New World and have witnessed these atrocities committed in the name of GOD.

Remember that the Spanish are very religious, The Inquisition is happening in Spain against the Jews and Muslims and this fervor travels with them to the New World, and the Catholic Church, still, is the most powerful body on earth… (The Protestant Reformation does not occur until 1517)… The Church sends a huge number of Priests- Dominicans, Franciscans, Jesuits… with each voyage to convert to Christianity the Natives AND to “guide” the Spanish Administrators… and there is a POWER CONFLICT between the two groups… for sure… Who was in charge…The Church or the State… in this distant land?

B. de Las Casas and a fellow priest Antonio Montesino begin to preach that he Encomienda System was a Mortal Sin… uh oh… as a result the Laws of Burgos** are pronounced in 1512, the 1st set of laws governing the behavior of Spaniards with regards to their relationships with the Natives in the New World and the 1st of numerous reforms to come as a result of Las Casas and others efforts to help the Natives... Las Casas is given the title, “Protector of the Indians.” Las Casas goes back to Spain, where he convinces the new Spanish King, Charles I, to announce in 1530 the prohibition of enslaving Natives, and then travels to Rome to encourage Pope Paul III to intervene and Pope Paul issues the Bull of 1537,*** which forbids the enslavement of the Native Americans. Las Casas returns as the Bishop of Guatemala later Chiapas…and continues to preach and write for reform, “A Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies,” published in 1542. Which coincides with the NEW LAWS OF THE INDIES FOR THE GOOD TREATMENT AND PRESERVATION OF THE INDIANS- 1542, issued by King Charles I AND PROVIDED FOR THE GRADUAL ABOLISHMENT LEGALLY OF THE ENOCOMIENDA SYSTEM. The Indians were now only required to pay tribute, and if they worked were supposed to be paid wages in exchange for their labor. All Encomienda grants would cease after the individual who owned the gift from the King died, and not passed on to their heirs although this does help many…due to conflict with the powerful land owners this was revoked in 1545.
B. de Las Casas does not give up his hope of freedom for the Native People of the Americas, and as a Christian Humanist, continued to write, preach, and even debate for their benefit. In 1550, one of the most significant debates in world history occurs, The Junta(jury) of Valladolid, King Charles V of Spain ordered all further military expansion to cease in New Spain and called together a jury (junta) of eminent doctors and theologians to hear both sides of this issue. Bartolome de Las Casas, represented the Native Peoples. Juan Gines de Sepulveda, represented the interests of the colonists and landowners who benefitted from the Encomienda System. Sepulveda based his arguments largely on Aristotle, stating the Indians were predisposed to Slavery, and were barbarians who practiced cannibalism, idolatry, and sodomy…Las Casas argued in response that, Indians were fully capable of reason and were not therefore barbarians and should be brought to Christianity without force or coercion…he additionally notes that every individual was obliged by international law*** (first time ever pronounced) to prevent the innocent from being treated unjustly.
Bartolome de Las Casas legacy is massive and although 90% of the natives die within the 1st 100 years of settlement {Black Legend} wars against natives continue as Spain conquers all of Central and South America, the condition of Natives does improve… over time due to his and many others genuine efforts.
The Repartmiento System introduced in 1542, by the New Laws, gradually begins to weaken the encomienda system by the early 1600s… due to the labor being administered by Spanish Government officials rather than the owner of the land, also due to the idea that the Spanish to expand and Keep Control of such a large empire… would need to ACCOMMODATE… THE NATIVES…
Later, beginning, in 1567, Priests began the Reduction System or Toledo Reforms, which resettled many natives into towns with protection from abuse due to the strong enforcement by soldiers and priests at the missions (Churches) and presidios (Military Forts) that were part of the towns and communities. Although highly disruptive due to their relocation, this effort does greatly improve the assimilation of the native peoples with education, faith, and medical care provided to them.

One note: due to the changes in Native populations and protections This does cause a MASSIVE INCREASE IN THE IMPORTATION OF AFRICAN SLAVES TO THE NEW WORLD**** and without question the African Diaspora has great impact as we go forward in history.
DISEASE: very one-sided…Indians die in the tens of millions {Black Legend}…Europeans do not die… in comparable #’s …only one Disease, syphilis, goes back to Europe…of course with some deadly significance…but overall very minor.
Question: why was it so lopsided? Most diseases come from the relationship between humans and domesticated animals…Europeans were significantly more advanced in domesticating animals…because of this and due to the fact there were not the supply of large mammals to domesticate in the Americas, only the Llama, Natives are crushed by these diseases.
Smallpox, measles, whooping cough, influenza, bubonic plague, chicken pox, etc…devastating and unknown in the new world…
Massacre v. Disease – in the Black Legend***huge***… a demographic collapse in the New World.

One explanation is the idea of Virgin Soil Epidemics

No one in the Americas had ever had these diseases…immune systems cause all to have the disease at the same time, thus no one is healthy to take care of those who are sick… so they die in massive #’s. In the Old world, many of the adults had been infected as children recovered and were now immune so they could help the children overcome the disease.
Moral implications: fundamental transformation was totally uncontrollable and unintended… so is there anyone at fault? Waves of epidemics… disease never exists in a vacuuma communities ability to overcome a disease is relative to their strength as a community and if you are being enslaved, worked to exhaustion, not being well fed, all of your institutions destroyed…your ability to overcome disease is weakened…so it is not which killed more; Warfare, Murder, Work, … because they happen together…. in concert to devastate the Native Americans, thus combining with the later Protestant Reformation, 1517… after which the PROTESTANTS… USE THIS AS PROPAGANDA AGAINST THE CATHOLIC CHURCH… THE BLACK LEGEND IS BORN… ***

Consequences of Colonialism on Indian v. Indian relationships and conflicts…these people are enduring a radical transformation, which happens all at the same time… thus magnifying the effects and leads to one native group taking advantage of another due their weakness and the Europeans facing diminished foes…thus, some Native Tribes, benefit with alliances with the Spanish (trade, goods, and weapons) , and later French, Dutch, and English…or some benefit from the weakening by disease of enemy tribes, or benefit if they live in the interior so they are independent longer… but obviously most do not benefit…they leave and run further away, become enslaved, or die. Perhaps some who mate with the Spanish could be said to have benefitted depending on your perspective.
The impact of the massive deaths to those who survive… is incredible…something that we cannot imagine today…Those Natives wondered why the Europeans did not die… these strangers must be…??? GODS???
The toll:****
50 years after Columbus’ initial landing, ALMOST ALL OF the Indians on the island of Hispaniola had died. Overwork, disease, massacre, warfare – 1492-appx. 200000 and by 1551- appx.200 left.
This pattern repeats across New World****… Massive population loss… but it varies… and is primarily dependent on the context of the Natives relationship with the Europeans and geography.
This Demographic collapse [most important fact]The Black Legend” --allows for the dramatic changes that occur later....the 90% of population loss due to Disease, warfare, massacre, overwork…allows for the Europeans to attempt to re-create their civilizations in the New World…and they are successful… PERHAPS CREATING EVEN BETTER CIVILIZATIONS THAN THAT EXIST IN EUROPE… (THE ENGLISH AMERICAN COLONISTS THOUGHT SO!!!)*****
What happens next: … Spaniards begin to explore… more of the New World…into the borderlands of modern North America… New Mexico, Florida, Texas, California…and continue this process of DEMOGRAPHIC transformation…LATER COMES: the Dutch, French, British, and PRIVATE ECONOMIC POWERS JOINT/STOCK COMPANIES…e.g., The East and West India Companies of Britain, France, and Holland (Dutch) individually, LATER THE VIRGINIA COMPANY (JAMESTOWN), come to dominate many areas around the world. THIS IS SPECIFIC EVIDENCE TO SUPPORT THE CHANGE FROM FEUDALISM TO CAPITALISM… Q: How much influence do Joint-Stock Companies come to have on their own Government policies in the New World…and in the Old World???? **** Public and Private interests combining**** is this dangerous or necessary for progress 


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