Chapter 9 Vocabulary

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Chapter 9 Vocabulary

  1. Greenback- Congress passed the Legal Tender Act in Feb. of 1862. This act created a national currency & allowed the government to issue paper money. These paper bills became known as greenbacks

  2. Conscription- forcing people into the military – 1862 Congress passed a militia law requiring states to use conscription if they could not recruit enough volunteers

  3. Habeas corpus- refers to a person’s right not to be imprisoned unless charged with a crime & given a trial

  4. Attrition- the wearing down of one side by the other through exhaustion of soldiers & resources

  5. Robert E. Lee- was a career military officer who is best known for having commanded the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia in the American Civil War.

  6. Copperheads- was a member of a vocal group of Democrats located in the Northern United States of the Union who opposed the American Civil War, wanting an immediate peace settlement with the Confederates. Republicans started calling antiwar Democrats "Copperheads", likening them to the venomous snake. The Peace Democrats accepted the label, but for them the copper "head" was the likeness of Liberty, which they cut from copper pennies and proudly wore as badges.

  7. James Mason- was a United States Representative and United States Senator from Virginia. He was a grandson of George Mason and represented the Confederate States of America as appointed commissioner of the Confederacy to the United Kingdom and France between 1861 and 1865 during the American Civil War

  8. John Slidell was an American politician, lawyer and businessman. A native of New York, Slidell moved to Louisiana as a young man and became a staunch defender of southern rights as a U.S. Representative and Senator

  9. Trent Affair- also known as the Mason and Slidell Affair, was an international diplomatic incident that occurred during the American Civil War. On November 8, 1861, the USS San Jacinto, commanded by Union Captain Charles Wilkes, intercepted the British mail packet RMS Trent and removed, as contraband of war, two Confederate diplomats, James Mason and John Slidell. The envoys were bound for Great Britain and France to press the Confederacy’s case for diplomatic recognition in Europe

  10. Anaconda Plan - or Scott's Great Snake is the name widely applied to an outline strategy for subduing the seceding states in the American Civil War. Proposed by General-in-Chief Winfield Scott, the plan emphasized the blockade of the Southern ports, and called for an advance down the Mississippi River to cut the South in two. Because the blockade would be rather passive, it was widely derided by the vociferous faction who wanted a more vigorous prosecution of the war, and who likened it to the coils of an anaconda suffocating its victim. The snake image caught on, giving the proposal its popular name.

  11. Bounty- a sum of money given as a bonus – to individuals who promised to serve three years in the military.

  12. Blockade runner- small, fast vessels the south used to smuggle goods past the blockade

  13. “Stonewall” Jackson- Thomas Jonathan "Stonewall" Jackson was a Confederate general during the American Civil War, and one of the best-known Confederate commanders after General Robert E. Lee

  14. David G. Farragut- was a flag officer of the United States Navy during the American Civil War. He was the first rear admiral, vice admiral, and admiral in the United States Navy. He is remembered in popular culture for his order at the Battle of Mobile Bay, usually paraphrased: "Damn the torpedoes, full speed ahead!" by U.S. Navy tradition.

  15. Ulysses S. Grant - was the 18th President of the United States following his highly successful role as a war general in the second half of the Civil War.

  16. George B. McClelland- was a major general during the American Civil War and the Democratic Party candidate for President in 1864. He organized the famous Army of the Potomac and served briefly as the general-in-chief of the Union Army

  17. Emancipation Proclamation - is an order issued to all segments of the Executive branch (including the Army and Navy) of the United States by President Abraham Lincoln on January 1, 1863, during the American Civil War. It was based on the president's constitutional authority as commander in chief of the armed forces

  18. hardtack – a hard biscuit made of wheat flour, beans, & potatoes flavored sometimes with dried salt pork

  19. prisoners of war – soldiers captured by the enemy in battle

  20. 54th Massachusetts – One of the African American regimens that fought at Fort Wagner & Charleston Harbor

  21. Elizabeth Blackwell – the first female physician in the US started the first training program for nurses

  22. United States Sanitary Commission – an organization that provided medical assistance & supplies to army camps & hospitals

  23. Clara Barton – nursed soldiers on the battlefield

  24. forage – searching & raiding for food – as they marched

  25. siege – to cut off its food & supplies & bombard it until its defenders gave up

  26. Ambrose Burnside – took over for Gen. McClelland after Lincoln fired McClelland

  27. Joseph Hooker – replaced Burnside after fired by Lincoln – fought at Fredericksburg & Chancellorville, Virginia

  28. George Meade – replaced Hooker – led troops at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania

  29. Pickett’s Charge – A mile wide line of Confederate troops marched across open farmland to Union positions on Cemetery Ridge

  30. William Tecumseh Sherman - was an American soldier, businessman, educator and author. He served as a General in the Union Army during the American Civil War (1861–65), for which he received recognition for his outstanding command of military strategy as well as criticism for the harshness of the "scorched earth" policies that he implemented in conducting total war against the Confederate States. Military historian B. H. Liddell Hart famously declared that Sherman was "the first modern general".

  31. pillage – looted

  32. mandate – a command from the voters

  33. Philip Sheridan - was a career United States Army officer and a Union general in the American Civil War. His career was noted for his rapid rise to major general and his close association with Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant, who transferred Sheridan from command of an infantry division in the Western Theater to lead the Cavalry Corps of the Army of the Potomac in the East

  34. Sherman Necties – twisted steel of the destroyed railway in the south

  35. March to the Sea - the name commonly given to the Savannah Campaign conducted through Georgia from November 15 to December 21, 1864 by Maj. Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman of the Union Army in the American Civil War. The campaign began with Sherman's troops leaving the captured city of Atlanta, Georgia, on November 16 and ended with the capture of the port of Savannah on December 21.

  36. Thirteenth Amendment – Abolished Slavery

  37. Appomattox Courthouse – Lee surrenders to Grant here on April 9, 1865

  38. John Wilkes Booth – assassinated Abraham Lincoln at Ford’s Theatre

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