Innovations and Impact Period 6: 1865-1898 Do Now

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Innovations and Impact

Period 6: 1865-1898

Do Now:

  • Identify as many of these late 19th C. inventions as you can:

  • Questions 1-3 refer to the excerpt below:

“Competition therefore is the law of nature. Nature is entirely neutral; she submits to him who most energetically and resolutely assails her. She grants her rewards to the fittest; therefore, without regard to other considerations of any kind…Such is the system of nature. If we do not like it and if we try to amend it, there is one way in which we can do it. We take from the better and give to the worse…Let it be understood that we cannot go outside this alternative: liberty, inequality, survival of the fittest; not-liberty, equality, survival of the unfittest. The former carries society forward and favors all its best members; the latter carries society downward and favors all its worst members.”

  • William Graham Sumner, social scientist, The Challenge of Facts, 1882

  1. The ideas expressed in this excerpt most clearly show the influence of which of the following?

  1. John Locke’s Second Treatise of Government

  2. Adam Smith’s The Wealth of Nations

  3. Thomas Jefferson’s Declaration of Independence

  4. Charles Darwin’s On the Origins of Species

  1. Which idea would Sumner most likely support? 

  1. Socialism

  2. Laissez-faire

  3. Manifest Destiny

  4. Gospel of wealth

  1. Which of the following developments would be most consistent with the beliefs expressed in the excerpt?

  1. Consolidation of wealth by an elite

  2. Expansion of rights for women

  3. Passage of anti-trust legislation

  4. Spread of organized labor


  • 1866: Transatlantic cable allowed for messages to be sent overseas in minutes

  • 1900: cables linked all continents  ____________________________________________________  internationalized markets & prices

  • New inventions became essential tools for business:




  • Increase in output of goods  marketing

  • R.H. _________, Marshall Field, Woolworth’s “_____________________”

  • Mail Order Companies:

    • Sears, Montgomery Ward

      • Catalogs known as “______________________”

      • Similar Modern Day Company: ___________________________________________________

  • Packaged Foods, Refrigerated Railcars, Canning  change in eating habits

Impact of Industrialization:

  • Concentration of Wealth

    • 1890s: wealthiest 10% of pop. Controlled 90% of nation’s wealth

    • ________________________________________________ forms

    • Horatio Alger Myth:

      • the "classic" American success story and character arc from "_________________________”

      • Horatio Alger, Jr., wrote wildly popular novels after the Civil War

  • Expanding Middle Class

    • “White-collar” workers filled administrative roles

    • ____________________________________________: accountants, clerical workers, salespeople  increased demand for other middle-class professionals (lawyers, doctors, public employees, storekeepers)

  • Wage Earners

    • By 1900: ⅔ of all working Americans worked for __________ (10 hrs, 6 days a week)

    • Average wages = less than $_______/year

  • Working Women

    • Only _____% of married women worked outside home

    • Most workers _________________________________

    • Factory work was usually extension of home:  _________________________________________

    • Demand for __________________________ = women replacing male occupations as secretaries, bookkeepers, typists, telephone operators

    • This led to lost status and lower wages/salaries for these now feminized positions

  • Labor Discontent

    • Factory work:

      • Monotonous

      • ____________________________________________________________________________

      • Railroad & mining = ________________

      • Exposure to chemicals, pollutants

    • Rebellion against intolerable working conditions by missing work or quitting  20% dropped out of industries & smaller % joined unions

Thinking Like A Historian:

  • “America Picks Up the Telephone”

    • Read & analyze the 6 documents with your partner (HIPP!)

    • Then, complete the “Analyzing the Evidence” questions together

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