CH 35 Part 2 Notes The Rising Sun in the Pacific Japan knew after their spectacular victory at Pearl Harbor as well as the successes of their simultaneous attacks on the Philippines, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Guam, Wake Island, etc…THAT THEY WOULD HAVE TO WIN QUICKLY ---OR SLOWLY BLEED OUT---LOSE. Japan next invaded Burma and cut the “Burma Road” (our lifeline to supply China and Jiang Jieshi-Chang Kai-Shek) –due to this American aviators had to fly our supplies “over the hump” (Himalayan Mts) to reach our Chinese Allies… Japan also invaded the Oil-rich Dutch East Indies and defeated a combination force of the British-Australian-Dutch armies… The Philippines defended by America were attacked at the same time as Pearl Harbor---and managed to succeed in slowing down the Japanese (A SOURCE OF IMMENSE PRIDE IN AMERICA AND GAVE US HOPE)---for 5 months---*****General Douglas MacArthur-Supreme Commander of the Pacific-- withdrew finally to the tiny island of Corregidor in Manila Harbor down the Bataan Peninsula---with about 20,000 American Troops and nurses—with a larger force of the Philippine Army.
On April 9, 1942 –the defenders almost starved---surrendered—but not before MacArthur was rescued by Submarine to Australia—pledging –“I shall return”—which he will but for a couple of years---and during that horrible two (2) years—the Americans who surrender suffer immensely on the “Bataan Death March” to Japanese Prison Camps*****This 80 mile march saw many American Servicemen murdered and tortured throughout their captivity---really one of the horrors of becoming a “prisoner of war” to the Japanese---who felt that anyone who surrendered was a coward—due to their strict “bushido” code—and thus did not treat prisoners well –by May6, 1942 the Japanese were in complete control and had not lost a battle up to this point---things were looking increasingly bleak for the Alllies in the Pacific**** Remember: due to the ABC-1 Plan—the focus for the Allies was on defeating Germany first—and holding on in the Pacific---the American soldiers fighting in the Pacific—especially in the Philippines never forgave FDR for this decision—and suffered immensely due to this choice**** Japan’s High Tide at Midway***(this battle, is seen as the “turning point” in the Pacific Theatre*****
We had broken the Japanese Code---and knew they were going to attempt to take Midway Island--- deep in the Pacific----The Japanese send a force to the Alaskan Islands (on which they are successful in taking a couple of the outer islands (which we later take back) ---as a diversion***but we know their plan--- and we are ready----
Just before the battle of Midway---AT THE BATTLE OF THE CORAL SEA*****(A NAVAL BATTLE FOUGHT EXCLUSIVELY BY AIRCRAFT CARRIERS---THAT DO NOT PHYSICALLY SEE EACH OTHER—WE FIGHT TO A DRAW****AND STOP A JAPANESE INVASION OF AUSTRALIA********HUGE************THIS IS THE FIRST TIME WE “SLOW DOWN” OR STOP THE JAPANESE IN THE PACIFIC IN MAY OF 1942***this is also the first time in world history were the opponents never saw or fired a direct shot in battle---all fighting is done “beyond the horizon.”
Midway************huge*************you need to know******the turning point****** Midway would be a significant victory for the Japanese, wanting to extend their defensive perimeter---and also give it a base from which to attack Hawaii and the American Mainland---if Midway is taken by the Japanese it would possibly give them a position that we could never overcome***** Technology is huge here*** with the Japanese code broken we knew where they were going***BUT IN THE HUGE PACIFIC IT WAS STILL DIFFICULT TO FIND THEIR FLEET*****
FROM JUNE 3-6, 1942 ADMIRAL CHESTER W. NIMITZ (SUPREME NAVAL COMMANDER IN THE PACIFIC)******* ORDERS ADMIRAL RAYMOND SPRUANCE TO ATTACK THE LARGER JAPANESE INVASION FLEET--- as the Japanese begin to attack Wake with their planes loaded with bombs--- (key)***they both find the other fleet***this is key due to the delay in changing the Japanese planes on their aircraft carriers from carrying bombs to carrying torpedoes to attack the American fleet---while the Japanese have their “flat tops” (aircraft carriers) changing their weapons American Planes catch them---and SINK 4 AIRCRAFT CARRIERS*****AND CRUSH THE JAPANESE---FORCING THEM TO WITHDRAW BACK TO JAPAN****this is huge due to the large loss of experienced fighter pilots and loss of carriers---the USA had 17 new carriers built and ready to go---and tons of personnel coming***the Japanese due to their lack of resources could not replace the experience pilots nor the Carriers*** THIS MARKS THE BEGINNING---OF AMERICAN DOMINATION OF THE SKIES AND SEAS IN THE PACIFIC---ALTHOUGH MUCH MORE RUGGED FIGHTING WILL COME AS WE ”ISLAND HOP”[Leapfrogging] *************ON OUR WAY TO JAPAN****** Note: The Japanese diversion in Alaska, they temporarily take two of the outer Aleutian Islands**** begins the America-Canada partnership to shore up the defense of Alaska---and the Famous “AL-CAN” Highway is built to facilitate transportation to this rugged outpost**** (an important development as we head into the “cold war” battles with the USSR—especially Korea---and in the future the placement of ICBM’s (intercontinental ballistic Nuclear Missile) here targeting the Soviet Union and China. American Leapfrogging Toward Tokyo America after Midway*** (June 1942) could now begin to test the defensive perimeter of the Japanese and slow down their move to take Australia---
Guadalcanal Island (part of the Solomon chain)**********American Marine and Naval forces fight savagely here****legendary**** THE FIRST STOP ON THE WAY TO TOKYO BEGINS WITH THIS “JUMP.”
In August of 1942, American Marines are amphibiously landed here---and gain a small toehold on this island*** difficult to defend---this is the scene of hellish fighting and suffering for American soldiers***BUT THEY SURVIVE***AND THIS GIVES US OUR PLACE FROM WHICH TO MOVE TOWARD JAPAN**** BY SURVIVING NEAR STARVATION (our naval forces are initially crushed***no supplies for months***) and continuous Japanese “BONZAI” (SUICIDE ATTACKS) ---OUR BOYS HOLD ON AND EVENTUALLY OUR NAVAL FORCES COME AND RE-SUPPLY THE COURAGEOUS MARINES*** 6 LONG MONTHS LATER*** BY FEB 1943 WE COMPLETELY CONTROL THE ISLAND****American losses 1700—Japanese losses over 20,000*** This casualty rate (10 to 1)*******continued in every remaining battle for the rest of the Pacific War**** (suicide was preferable to being captured)
On page 840 in our text (digital edition) you need to see the Map of the Pacific theatre and read the caption******************************** which explains our strategic choices in this area**** it visually shows how we “hop” or “leapfrog” from island to island****tough fighting which includes several amphibious landings on many islands as we get closer and closer to Japan so that we finally can begin to bomb Japan**** General MacArthur in Australia (Supreme Army Commander in the Pacific) in coordination with Admiral Chester W. Nimitz (Supreme Naval Commander in the Pacific) began to plan our “LEAPFROGGING OR ISLAND HOPPING” STRATEGY TO DEFEAT JAPAN****MAC* begins in New Guinea and takes control by August of 1944—the Navy and Marines have their own course of “leapfrogging” and began with Guadalcanal---we “bypass” the most heavily defended islands---moving ahead of them and cut their supplies off---leaving them to whither “on the vine,” By August of 1943-one year after first landing on Guadalcanal, we retake Attu and Kiska in the Aleutians--- And at Tarawa the Navy and Marines begin to “hop” and by Feb, 1944 we take the Marianna’s Islands---(which are key****due to the ability from here to bomb Tokyo**** The Greatest Sea Battle in World History is next---the battle of the Philippine Sea****June 20, 1944*** a closely fought and narrow but devastating loss by Japan here is the beginning of the END for the Emperor*** The US sinks several Japanese Aircraft Carriers and with the massive losses of experienced pilots, planes, and ships----they are weakened considerably. By November of 1944 with complete victory in the Marianas---and in the Philippine Sea--- THE USA BEGINS TO BOMB JAPAN “ROUND THE CLOCK” ---AND MacArthur begins to plan his “return” ---a massive invasion by the US Army of the Philippines*****huge*** where we see for the 1st time the hellacious “kamikaze” attacks (suicide planes full of explosives crashing into US ships) on our forces. The Allied Halting of Hitler ****The USA in all of its initial battles with the Axis powers struggled---mostly due to its inexperience compared to the Axis militaries—Japan had been at war since 1931---and Germany and Italy in essence since the late 1930’s—The USA was seeing its initial actions beginning in Dec. 1941 and into 1942---BUT we were quick learners---we had to be---changing tactics, technology, and the miracle of production allow us to catch-up and surpass the more experienced Axis powers eventually--- The battle for the North Atlantic—
Germany using its U-Boats to hunt Allied shipping bound for GB---in “Wolf packs” is very successful—initially—in the North Atlantic, Caribbean, and South Atlantic. The combination of Air and Naval use of sophisticated new “Radar” technology with intelligence gathering from the broken German “enigma” code (@ Bletchley Park-GB using the 1st “computers”---Allows the Allies to begin to “hunt” the U-Boat “packs” and render them much less effective by 1943-----Which in turn allows us to bring our Industrial and Technological prowess to our allies---through the Lend-Lease Program---$50Billion worth---making us the “Arsenal of Democracy” and our supplies turning the tide in many battles upcoming around the world.
Hitler on land—By late 1942 we began to send the Bombers into Europe against key German industrial facilities---especially synthetic oil manufacturing and airplane manufacturing---again the progress was slow and very risky--- huge losses initially – followed by technological and production improvements eventually allow us to begin to dominate the skies--- especially as the Eastern Front was chewing up the Germans in huge #’s in a huge turn of momentum---
North Africa—The “Desert Fox” –German General Erwin Rommel---becomes a legend—German forces had driven eastward from Libya—and were at the gates of Egypt---and about to take the Suez Canal and cross into the Middle Eastern Oil fields--- However, again with the aid of US Sherman Tanks recently sent to aid the British—Gen. Montgomery “monty” is able to push Rommel back , in late 1942, somewhat and delay what was once thought was inevitable--- US soldiers will fight Germans on land first in North Africa very soon—this will be the beginning of a 2nd front that will move from Africa to Sicily to Italy and ultimately to Europe on D-Day on June 6, 1944. Eastern Front (USSR)
The Soviet Armies sudden success at Stalingrad and Kursk---in late 1942, gives Germany its first major defeats---in huge battles with millions of soldiers involved--- Within a year—end of 1943 the Russians begin a Counter-offensive that will end in Berlin in late 1945**** in just a year they re-capture over 2/3rds of the initial huge loss of territory from 1942. The USSR begins to wear out the Germans—War supplies and men ---to the point that it would eventually allow the Allies to land an Army in Europe in June of 1944---The Soviet Union takes huge losses during this phase of the War---Stalin consistently calls for a “2nd front” from the Allies---and is consistently suspicious of the delays--- does not support our 1st efforts in North Africa to Sicily to Italy---and is not satisfied until we actually invade with a huge force on D-Day***The USSR loses over 20 million “soldiers” not counting civilian casualties--- and consistently call for the 2nd front to divert German soldiers from the East—to the West.
A Second Front from North Africa to Rome FDR and the Americans were eager to begin an invasion of France in late 1942 or early 1943 (D-Day is June 6, 1944) BUT---the British were not as enthusiastic at this time---The USA and GB decided to attack Germany through its “SOFT UNDERBELLY” –THE MEDITERRANEAN (NORTH AFRICA TO SICILY TO ITALY)(So an invasion into France was delayed (much to Stalin’s anger and suspicion) The USA goes to North Africa to 1st battle the German Army & the “Desert Fox” in November 1942****
The largest amphibious landing in world history until D-Day---happens as the US Troops invade Western North Africa--- The Supreme Commander of the combined forces in Europe US General Dwight D. Eisenhower leads this invasion force to join with the British to decimate the Germans. Over 400,000 American, British, Canadian, and Free-French Forces---850 ships—land in North Africa---Initially again the US Troops are crushed at Kassarine Pass, Tunisia---The 1st large scale battle involving American troops v. the Nazi’s on land in WWII.***Immediately following this horrific loss---Eisenhower places a legendary US General in Command***General George Patton***who dramatically changes tactics and morale---and transforms the US Army into a fierce and unpredictable FORCE OF DESTRUCTION***PATTON & EISENHOWER’S TACTICAL AND PRACTICAL CHANGES BRING VICTORY OVER ROMMEL—he is recalled to Europe to begin to fortify the French beaches---By May of 1943 (6 months after landing) the British and American forces have forced the Germans completely out of North Africa.
CASABLANCA CONFERENCE****(HUGE—YOU NEED TO KNOW ALL OF THE WAR MEETINGS AND AT LEAST ONE SIGNIFICANT decision made at each)
1 – Put more into the pacific fighting the Japanese
2- Invade Sicily
3- Increase the pressure on Mussolini and Italy (whose troops were crushed in Africa—consistently***)
4 - *****most importantly***the AGREE TO CALL FOR AN “UNCONDITIONAL SURRENDER” OF GERMANY, JAPAN, AND ITALY***** This is big---no conditional surrender to allow these militaristic regimes to continue past the end of the war or no separate peace asked for by any ALLY***(like the USSR in WWI) The demand of an “Unconditional Surrender” proved to be one of the most controversial acts of the War***---supposedly encouraging the Axis to fight to the “last man”---in retrospect this policy does not lengthen the war at all---and surely does rid the world of a few dangerous dictators for sure*** Sicily is Next--- US and British Forces surprise the Germans by invading Sicily instead of Greece** (we fool them using espionage)---Patton and Montgomery encircle the island after the amphibious landings and force combined German and Italian Armies to escape to Mainland Italy---freeing Sicily in August of 1943 and giving us a base from which to next invade Italy. It is at this point that Mussolini is deposed***and Italy surrenders soon after******HOWEVER*****GERMAN TROOPS AND THE REMAINING ITALIAN FASCIST TROOPS LOYAL TO HITLER STILL CONTROL EVERYTHING**** (the initial Italian surrender was important symbolically but not really in practical effect) The Italian Theatre of War was horrific---some of the filthiest, bloodiest, and most frustrating fighting of the War***The US and British Troops were allowed to land---by the Germans---then they pounded them on the Beaches***and it seemed as if our armies would be destroyed***slowly we take inch by inch –mile by mile--- in a slugfest through mud, mountains, and very tough German soldiers****After Allied victories at Monte Cassino and Anzio---Rome was finally taken on June 4, 1944 (two days before the momentous D-Day invasion of France on June 6, 1944---Brutal fighting continued until May 2, 1945---(5 days from complete German Surrender) The Italian “second front” opened up the Mediterranean and diverted some German forces from the suddenly victorious but suffering USSR on the Eastern Front-----it also delayed our invasion of France (D-Day) for a year---and allows the USSR to pretty much take control of Eastern Europe***A CONTROL THEY WILL KEEP –FOR THE MOST PART---UNTIL 1990***AND THE FALL OF THE IRON CURTAIN OF COMMUNISM****