Era 6 Review Guide for eoc exam Inventors during the Industrial Age

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Era 6 Review Guide for EOC Exam
Inventors during the Industrial Age

  1. Andrew Carnegie wrote the “Gospel of Wealth, stating his belief that the wealthy who had acquired wealth had to be morally responsible in giving their money away back to the community.

  2. Andrew Carnegie became a wealthy entrepreneur of the steel industry in the late 1800s.

  3. Andrew Carnegie’s basic concept in his “Gospel of Wealth” concerning the responsibility of the rich is to give back to the community before your death

  4. Gustavus Swift invention of the Refrigerated Box Car had a great impact on the meatpacking industry.

    1. The refrigerated box car help revolutionize Meatpacking industry.

  5. Bessemer process greatly reduced the price of making steel.

  6. Alexander Graham Bell is the inventor of the telephone.

  7. Pierre Samuel DuPont was the inventor of smokeless gunpowder and associated with the chemical and explosives industry.

  8. George Westinghouse associated with inventing the Railroad Airbrake and AC electricity.

  9. Thomas Edison invented the light bulb along with many other inventions in the early 1900s.

  10. George Pullman was the inventor of the railroad sleeping/luxury car.

  11. John D. Rockefeller became a wealthy entrepreneur of the oil industry during the late 1800s.

  12. Charles Goodyear was the discoverer of the vulcanization process for rubber.

  13. Cornelius Vanderbilt became very wealthy in the railroad industry.

  14. Philip Armour associated with the meat industry

Innovations that changed society during the Industrial Age

  1. Telegraph and Telephone helped revolutionize American communication in the late 1800s, by allowing coded messages to be sent or allowed for instant verbal communication

  2. Electricity made daily and business life easier and safer in the late 1800s.

  3. Electricity was the leading factor for the increased production of workers and the growth of new industries in the late 1800s

  4. Land and money provided by the government was the most critical factor of building Railroads in the U.S in the late 1800s

  5. Railroads played a major role in expanding the America economy during the late 1800’s creating a single national market for raw materials and consumer goods.

  6. Coal and Steel industries expanded due to the growth of the railroad industry.

  7. Three technological advancements contributed to the cattle ranching boom

    1. Railroad, Refrigerated Box Car, Barbed Wire

  8. The spread of diseases through contaminated water supplies forced many cities to build reservoirs to collect water and purify it before being used

  9. The Canning process was developed to help people preserve food for increasingly longer periods.


  1. “New Immigrants” primarily come from Southeastern Europe.

  2. “Old Immigrants” primarily came from Northwestern Europe

  3. “old” immigrants settled in the U.S. and became Mid-West/Great Plains/Farmers

  4. New immigrants came to the U.S. and settled in crowed cities and took low paying jobs.

  5. The major port of entry for the majority of immigrants entering through the Eastern seaboard was Ellis Island

  6. Religious freedom, political freedom, economic opportunities, cheap land, crop failures, overpopulation, and the introduction of large steamships offering cheap passage contributed to the increase Immigration to the U.S.

  7. Nativists were American born citizens that opposed immigration or favored strict immigration laws.

  8. Education was the most likely aid in the assimilation of immigrants into American society.

  9. Jane Addams established a settlement house, known as Hull House, in Chicago to help the urban poor and immigrants.

  10. The violent massacre of Russian Jews, known as POGROMS, in the late 1800s caused many of these Jewish people to immigrate to America.

  11. Gold Rush was the leading factor for immigration to California.

Gilded Age: Corruption and Muckrakers exposure led to a variety of reforms:

  1. Black Friday, Credit Mobilier, and the Whiskey Ring were all creative financing scams that occurred under President Ulysses S. Grant.

  2. The Whiskey Ring was the name of the scandal which involved a group of distillers bribing government officials in order to avoid paying a high tax on liquor (Under the Grant Administration)

  3. Black Friday was the short-lived crisis in the United States in which two financial speculators attempted to control the gold market, artificially inflating the price of gold, thus causing thousands of people to suffer financial losses.

  4. Credit Mobilier was the name given to the scandal involving railroad construction that took place under Grant’s administration.

  5. Jacob Riis exposes Slum poverty in tenement houses in New York City in his book “How the Other Half Lives”?

  6. William Marcy “Boss” Tweed controlled Tammany Hall, the political club that ran New York City’s Democratic Party that cheated the city of millions through fraudulent city contracts and extortion.

  7. Political machines such as Tammany Hall derive their strongest support from Immigrants and the poor/ in return for their votes the political machine helped provide them with jobs and housing

  8. Granger Laws were passed to regulate the rates being charged unfairly to farmers by railroads.

  9. Populist political party did the Farmer’s Alliance form in 1891?

  10. Interstate Commerce Act was passed in order to regulate or curb the abusive prices of the railroad industry and was the first federal regulatory agency designed to protect the public interest from business combinations?

  11. Civil Service reform was prompted by the assassination of James Garfield.

  12. Pendleton Civil Service Act established a merit system for hiring government workers, thus ending the spoils system where elected officials appointed friends and supporters to government jobs, regardless of their qualifications.

  13. The Dawes Act 1887 granted farmland to Native Americans as a part of a plan to assimilate them into American society.

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