Period IV (1450-1750 CE): Global Interactions 4.1 Globalizing Networks of Communication and Exchange
I can evaluate the world context that allowed global, rather than just trans-regional, circulation of goods (The development of new maritime technologies [caravel, compass, astrolabe/sextant, etc] and the reemergence of European power created a new global economy based primarily around maritime trade, reducing the role played by land-based empires).
I can assess how this new global circulation (think silver, sugar, etc.) caused prosperity for merchants (new trade goods, joint-stock companies, mercantilism) and governments (ability to tax goods, use of free labor/indentured servants, accumulation of weal=power) in old trading regions like the IOMS (European powers, cotton), Mediterranean (liquor/guns to Africa, connecting Eurasian trade), Sahara (new kingdoms gain power due to slave trade), and Silk Roads (trade of Asian goods, reduction of importance due to shift towards maritime trade), and also disruption (fall of the Mongols, Portuguese attempt to monopolize IOMS trade, Dutch control in Java Indonesia, isolationism of Japan/China, rise of gunpowder empires).
I can explain how Europeans built on previous knowledge to develop new tools in cartography, like revised maps (more accurate, facilitates trade and exploration, Mercator Projection Map), innovations in ship design, as in the caravel (faster, more maneuverable, shallow hulls, lateen sails, facilitate exploration), and improved understanding of global wind and current patterns (monsoons, Atlantic System circular pattern, facilitates and speeds up trade).
I can analyze why these technological developments made transoceanic travel and trade possible (increased knowledge leads to a decrease of risk which increases exploration, colonization, and trade. Established shipping routes and the growth of port cities were based on this knowledge).
I can describe and analyze examples of transoceanic maritime reconnaissance.
I can describe the naval voyages of Ming Dynasty Admiral Zheng He (Attempted to show Chinese superiority in the Indian/Pacific Ocean region through the use of his treasure ship fleet [Chinese Junk ships] & collection of Tribute)
I can explain how they enhanced Chinese prestige in the Indian Ocean (Inspired awe amongst various cultures they came in contact with and established tribute states with China).
I can explain the debate within the government of the Ming stimulated by Zheng He’s voyages (Better to go out to other empires creating tribute states, or focus that money on the problem of northern borders and continued raids by nomadic pastoralists peoples like the Mongols).
I can describe the Portuguese global trading-post empire and how it developed along coastal regions (Initial focus on exploration led by Prince Henry the Navigator and a desire to cut out the middle man [Muslims] in an attempt to connect Europeans with India/Asia. Search for a sea route to IOMS leads to the development of port cities along the coast of Africa, India, SE Asia, and Oceania. Use of gunpowder weapons gave them a distinct advantage).
I can analyze how this trading empire developed as a result of Prince Henry the Navigator’s school (Education and implementation of new technologies combined with funding of explorations) and increased travel to and trade with West Africa (Connecting with well established African kingdoms primarily for the trade of salt and gold).
I can recognize the state-led Spanish sponsorship (Ferdinand and Isabella) of their maritime voyages (western route to the Indies for spices) and how their specific sponsorship of Columbus led to increasing European interest in travel and trade across the oceans (Initial tales of success in finding route to Indies would lead to an understanding that a “New World” had been found and with it, new opportunities for trade and colonization).
I can recognize that, while the Portuguese and Spaniards established routes to Asia, other Europeans (French, British, Dutch) were looking for another route to Asia across the North Atlantic (Northwest Passage), creating settlements (Joint-Stock companies, Jamestown, etc.) and conducting commercial fishing along the way.
I can recognize that, at this point in history, the already-established networks of Oceania and Polynesia were not dramatically affected because European reconnaissance in the Pacific did not frequently reach these areas (Focused instead on the trade of silver from the Americas, as well as new cash crops such as sugar, tobacco, and cotton to Asia and Africa. And wanted to establish quick routes to major commercial centers).
I can assess the ways in which silver, taken from Spanish colonies in the Americas, facilitated the purchase of Asian goods for Atlantic markets (Chinese were extremely focused on accumulating large amounts of silver and were more than willing to trade in order to get these goods. Asian goods were in high demand in Europe and so the Europeans were able to cut out the middle man by obtaining Asian goods in return for satisfying China’s desire for silver).
I can recognize that the silver in these transactions was extracted from the Americas by royal chartered European monopoly companies.
I can evaluate why regional markets in Afro-Eurasia (West/East African coast, Indian coast, SE Asia, Constantinople/Istanbul, Mediterranean) continued to flourish using established commercial practices (taxation of imports, production and distribution of luxury goods, slave trade) and utilizing transoceanic shipping services (Dutch East India Company, etc.) developed by European merchants.
I can explain how and why the role of Europeans in Asian trade was to transport goods from one Asian country to another market in Asia or the IOMS region (Technological advancements combined with the ability to protect and intimidate [strong navies], as well as the availability of wealth and favorable trade relationships).
I can assess how the creation of a global commercial-based economy was connected to the new global circulation of silver from the Americas. (Potosi, use of mit’a system)
I can define mercantilism (import more than you export, maintain a favorable balance of trade, get as much hard currency as possible, same-size pie) and describe its use by European rulers (Allowed rulers to consolidate power and build up their militaries).
I can define joint-stock company (Collection of entrepreneurs who pool resources and take a risk to start a company in hopes of sharing in the profits. Reduces the individual risk of starting a business).
I can describe how mercantilism and joint-stock companies were used by Europeans rulers to control their domestic and colonial economies (Controlling the trade of goods and the taxation of goods allowed European rulers to accumulate wealth and therefore power. By manipulating trading rights and partners, rulers were able to demand compliance both at home and abroad).
I can describe how joint-stock companies were used by European merchants to compete against one another in global trade (As these companies grew in size and wealth, merchants used their newfound power to forge alliances and dominate areas, eventually combining with rulers to expand their trade empire).
I can describe the Atlantic System (The establishment of colonies and the trading of goods and people across the Atlantic – important because it connected two hemispheres and opened up economic expansion in places like Europe and coastal West Africa that were only indirectly connected to world trade before).
I can explain how the movement of goods, wealth, free and unfree laborers, and the mixing of African, American, and European cultures and peoples created a unique system within the Atlantic region (New goods were introduced into various regions, wealth was accumulated largely by rulers and merchants on the backs of free and unfree laborers. New social structures emerged as native, slave, and foreign peoples mixed both culturally and ethnically to form new religious practices and races).
I can define Columbian Exchange (The transfer of new species of plants and animals, as well as people and diseases in both directions the Atlantic, linking up the Western and Eastern hemispheres that had been unconnected since the last Ice Age).
I can evaluate how the new connections between the Eastern and Western Hemisphere resulted in the Columbian Exchange (Self-explanatory).
I can evaluate why European colonization of the Americas led to the spread of smallpox, measles, and influenza among Amerindian populations (Amerindian populations had lived in isolation with very few domesticated animals. Most harsh diseases leap from animals to humans and, therefore, Amerindians had not developed immunity to these “European” diseases. As a result, these disease spread like wildfire in the New World and decimated the native population).
I can describe why these diseases were already endemic (widespread) in the Eastern Hemisphere (For centuries, the Afro-Eurasian peoples had been in contact with one another and, as such, these diseases had been spread as a result of cultural and economic interaction in the Eastern Hemisphere. Many died in the process, but the remaining population passed on the genetic resiliency that allowed them to survive).
I can recognize that vermin, including mosquitoes and rats, were also unintentionally spread (As goods/species moved between Hemispheres, vermin were unintentionally transferred. Eww.).
I can explain how and why American foods like potatoes became staple crops in parts of Europe, Asia, and Africa (Foods like potatoes became staple crops due to the ease with which they could be cultivated, the ability to be grown in various climate/geographic conditions, and the nutritional value they provided. Rulers in many areas, especially Europe, actively promoted the growing of potatoes as a way to feed expanding populations).
I can analyze and explain how and why cash crops like sugar were grown mostly on plantations, using coerced labor (Required large amounts of land and were extremely labor intensive. Sugar had to be harvested and processed on a very strict schedule to get the best results. Cash crops provided the largest profit when being cultivated by coerced (slave) labor. Africans were utilized in this system because they already had resistance to Afro-Eurasian diseases and could replace the Amerindians as they died off).
I can describe why cash crops like sugar were mostly exported to Europe and the Middle East in this period (As with any good, sugar was exported to the areas where it was most desired. In Europe largely due to the desire for a sweetener for coffee, and chocolate, and later tea and in the Middle East largely due to its role as a sweetener for coffee).
I can describe the movement of AfroEurasian fruit trees, grain, sugar, and domesticated animals like horses to the Americas (Europeans recognized that by bringing these goods to their colonies (where they would flourish due to similar climates/environments) that they could maximize their profit) Citrus fruits, especially, moved from the Mediterranean to the Americas.
I can describe how African slaves brought other foods to the Americas, like rice (self-explanatory).
I can evaluate why populations in AfroEurasia benefited nutritionally from the increased diversity in their diets brought about by these new American foods (These easily cultivated and high yield foods [potatoes, maize] provided ample sustenance for the growing populations and emerging cities).
I can identify the ways European colonization and the introduction of European agriculture and settlement practices affected the physical environment of the Americas through deforestation and soil depletion (Plantation farming, introduction of domesticated animals, need for shelter, exploitation of raw materials [lumber, metals, etc] all led to massive environmental degradation and manipulation.).
I can explain how religions continued to spread, reform, and become syncretic as interactions between and among hemispheres intensified.
I can describe how Islam adapted to new settings in AfroEurasia as believers adapted the religion to local cultures (People are easier to rule when their culture is respected and they are allowed to retain aspects of it. Combine this with practices such as millet systems that exemplify the Islamic Empires willingness to allow the retention of cultural practices while also making conversion both tempting and in some cases mandatory) Also, Sufism [mystic version of Islam that involves special practices like spinning] is an example of a new, adaptable branch of Islam. In Mughal India, Islam merged with aspects of Hinduism to form Sikhism.)
I can recognize that Sufi practices became more widespread, because it tended to be more open-minded about local cultural practices (Self explanatory. Think of it as a more energetic, less rigid form of Islam. Also, Sufis tend to be more of a missionary-minded order.)
I can analyze how Christianity became much more widespread through diffusion (Through exploration, conquest, and missionary work, Christianity spread across the globe. The Jesuits proved extremely useful in conversion as they brought with them technology and ideas from Europe to share with those they came into contact. Other groups, such as the Dominicans and Franciscans, were much more deliberate and unyielding in their desire to spread a uniform version of Christianity. A willingness to adapt Christianity to other cultures by some Christian groups proved to be the most successful tactic. Meso and South America are the most prominent examples of places that Christianity spread [and resulted in syncretism – as in processions of saints on platforms, instead of the mummy of the Inca ruler]).
I can explain how Christianity became much more diverse because of the Reformation (As the Catholic Church was split as a result of the Protestant Reformation, new sects of Christianity emerged. For example, Lutherans, Calvinists, Anglicans, and Anabaptists. These sects were characterized by various rituals, beliefs, and practices that often emphasized the relationship between God and the individual rather than the institution of the Roman Catholic Church. As Christianity continued to grow, new syncretic forms would emerge as a result of cultural interaction)
I can recognize that Buddhism continued to spread within Asia (Self explanatory).
I can identify the cult of saints in Latin America as a syncretic form of Christianity (Building on native rituals and practices, the cult of saints provided natives with an easier transition to Christianity that allowed them to retain aspects of their culture. Often, important native people/gods/rulers got incorporated into Catholic sainthood).
I can recognize and explain how merchants gained more and more profits and how governments collected even more taxes (Symbiotic relationship between the wealth of merchants and the increased tax revenue. By cutting out the middle man, merchants were able to reap even more profits even as governments manipulated trade through tariffs, royal monopolies like most joint-stock companies, and other mercantilist policies to increase revenue).
I can explain how the increase in the wealth and flow of money caused funding for visual and performing arts to increase, and allowed some forms of the arts for popular audiences to come into being (As a surplus of wealth grew, especially in Europe and Asia, patronage of the arts grew with it as the wealthy displayed their power and status by funding the arts. Poetry, satire, and a emergence of popular theater in places like Shakespeare’s England and Tokugawa Japan drew large crowds and increased levels of interest).
I can name several Renaissance artists who created visual and performing arts and explain the ways in which their works were innovative (Da Vinci, Michelangelo, Raphael, Donatello, Shakespeare, Botticelli, etc. Locate achievements through your notes and book. Based works on Classical Greco-Roman themes and added modern techniques like perspective, chiaroscuro).
I can describe how literacy expanded during this period (As the printing press was improved through the use of moveable type [Johann Gutenberg], books became more affordable and therefore found their way into the hands of the people. This, combined with the use of vernacular and an emphasis on humanism, sparked people’s interest in reading. Also, Protestant Christianity stressed the importance of individuals reading the Bible themselves, so literacy was encouraged).
I can analyze how this expansion caused the proliferation of popular authors, literary forms, and works of literature in AfroEurasia, specifically the theater of Shakespeare in England and Kabuki in Japan (As more people could read and theatre became more open to the public, the rising interest led to a growth in playwrights and authors across genres).
4.2 New Forms of Social Organization and Modes of Production
I can evaluate and explain how a growing demand for raw materials (sugar cane, silver, cotton) and finished products (sugar, rum, cloth, coinage) increased and changed traditional peasant agriculture (it started to become large scale agriculture to provide for increased urbanization, and new forms of labor were created like chattel slavery and serfdom), caused plantations to expand (Increased demand=increase supply=increase labor), and created a higher demand for labor.
I can identify and explain the intensification of labor in many regions including cotton textile production in India and Silk textile production in China (Again, as demand grows new ways are found to make products involving better organization and technology, and labor sources are needed to keep up).
I can describe how slavery in Africa continued both into African households and through the export of slaves to the Mediterranean and the Indian Ocean (While that Atlantic slave trade was dominant, the African slave trade that had existed for centuries continued to supply slaves to the Mediterranean Coast and the IOMS. These were usually domestic servants unlike chattel slavery to European colonies).
I can explain how the growth of plantation economies increased the demand for slaves in the Americas (As more workers were needed to fill supply and native populations died off, new sources of free labor were needed).
I can identify and explain forms of coerced labor, such as indentured servitude (Agreement to work for transport and/or protection), and how they were used in the American colonies (Indentured servants were mostly sent to North America in this period, to do agricultural work. Other forms, like mit’a and encomienda were utilized as a way to get native populations to work for colonizers).
I can analyze how new ethnic, racial, and gender hierarchies were restructured as a result of the emergence of new social and political elites.
I can explain how imperial conquests and a widening of global economic opportunities contributed to the formation of new political and economic elites such as the urban commercial entrepreneurs in all major port cities in the world (Replacing the aristocracy as wealthy/powerful individuals and in some cases forcing monarchies to adjust their methods of control and taxation) and the Manchu in China (Conquest of the Ming Dynasty and the strict control of trade and cultural interaction. Manchus were a different ethnic group and put laws into place regarding their ethnic superiority to the Han Chinese).
I can describe how the power of existing political and economic elites, like the nobility in Europe, rose and fell as they confronted new challenges to their ability to affect the decisions of increasingly powerful monarchs and leaders (Absolute monarchs would, at times, rely heavily on the influence of the nobility in attempting to control the population. However, as the power of the landed aristocracy fell in response to a growing merchant/entrepreneurial class, monarchs felt less inclined to consider or bow to the demands of the nobility).
I can explain how gender and family restructuring occurred, like the dependence of European men on Southeast Asian women for conducting trade in the region (Dutch and Portuguese traders to Indonesia, for example, relied on local women who were usually pretty elite to serve as translators and business partners who set up contacts and created a local network. European men usually married local women in this early period (before about 1750) as well as demographic changes in Africa as a result of the slave trade (Huge number of women left behind as males were forced into slavery, led to polygamy as women competed for marriage. In Christian areas, where polygamy was banned, single women were given some political power as they sought a role in society that was not based on motherhood/marriage).
I can identify new ethnic and racial classifications like the Mestizos (European and Native American) and Creoles (American born children of Europeans) in the Americas, and explain how it led to massive demographic changes (As the number of females who came to the Americas were few, males sought companionship in the native female population. After several generations and the loss of a majority of the pure native population, relationships between slaves and natives, as well as Europeans and natives, had caused a major demographic shift in the Americas).
4.3 State Consolidation and Imperial Expansion
I can analyze and explain the variety of methods used by rulers in order to legitimize and consolidate their power (Viceroys in Meso/South America, chartering joint-stock companies, conquest, conversion, monopolies, heredity, divine right, Confucian ritual, etc.).
I can describe and give specific examples of how rulers used the visual arts and monumental architecture to display power and legitimize their rule (Palace of Versailles, Taj Mahal, the Blue Mosque, Medici patronage in Renaissance, portraiture and sculpture, etc.).
I can explain how rulers continued to use religious ideas such as divine right by the European monarchs (power to rule given to them by God, defiance of their rule was equal to defiance of God) and the public performance of Confucian rituals by Chinese emperors (Chinese emperor’s important task was to correctly complete rituals regarding his family’s ancestors; kowtow- crawling and touching head to the floor as you approach the emperor) in order to legitimize their rule.
I can describe how states adjusted their treatment of ethnic and religious groups in order to utilize their economic contributions while limiting their ability to challenge state authority as seen in the treatment of non-Muslim subjects by the Ottomans (Ottomans were initially tolerant of other religions and allowed them to practice until the empire began to grow immensely. They then utilized the Janissary system to convert Christian boys into Islam and provide them a larger military force. Beyond just the Ottomans, allowing people to retain ethnic and religious practices makes it far easier to control an empire as intolerance often breeds discontent and revolt. This was exemplified in the Americas by Catholic missionaries, across the Islamic Gunpowder Empires, during periods in China and Japan, as well as in Africa to some extent).
I can recognize that the recruitment of bureaucratic elites through the Chinese examination system, and the development of military professionals like the salaried Samurai, became more common by rulers who wanted to maintain a centralized government (The formation and maintenance of a centralized government is crucial to the effective functioning of any empire. A well maintained and trained military and bureaucracy, especially one in which there are significant benefits to being in the military as in landgrants or bureaucrat’s salaries as in China and Japan, helps to foster loyalty).
I can explain how rulers used tribute collection and tax farming to increase revenue in order to expand their territory (Tribute collection and tax farming (selling the right to collect taxes) can both be used to provide for an increasing military, the development of infrastructure, and to demonstrate authority across the empire).
I can evaluate how imperial expansion relied on an increased use of gunpowder cannons and armed trade to establish large empires across the globe (Allowed European powers to increase empires through conquest in the Americas and intimidation in the Eastern Hemisphere, caused new empires to rise in Africa, allowed Islamic empires and land-based empires like the Qing and Russia to subdue nomadic pastoralists).
I can identify new trading-post empires established by the Europeans in Africa and Asia. (East African Portuguese colonies; Dutch in Indonesia)
I can explain how the power of the states in the interior West and Central Africa were affected by the European empires despite an increase in profit for the rulers and merchants involved (While states in the interior of W and C Africa openly traded with the Europeans, the Europeans soon began to ignore African rulers and elites especially when it came to the slave trade and trading rights).
I can identify and describe the expansion of the following land empires:
Manchu (Used Ming Dynasty’s invitation to assist against internal peasant revolt and Japanese and Mongol threats to take over the Empire and begin the Qing dynasty. During the rule of Kiangxi and Qianlong were able to rebuild the empire, expand, and resist foreign influence and trading pressure. Utilized Jesuits to take advantage of Western European technological and scientific advances. Resisted spread of Christianity in the region as well.)
Mughals (Islamic empire that began in India under the rule of Babur and defeated the Delhi Sultanate. Founded by Central Asian nomads converted to Islam. United almost the entire India subcontinent largely by ruling with religious toleration over their majority Hindu subjects (Akbar) and allowing Hinduism and Islam to be openly practiced. Sikhism was founded. Later, religious toleration would end and Hindus, led by Hindu princes called Rajputs would organize against their Muslim rulers)
Ottomans (Islamic Empire that rose in Turkey as the Mongol Il-Khanate Empire fell during the 14th century. Founded by Central Asian nomads converted to Islam. Came into prominence after they conquered Constantinople in 1453, making it their capital and renaming it Istanbul. Controlled most of the land from Greece to Persia as well as the Eastern coast of the Mediterranean and Northern Africa. Religiously tolerant, they were able to build their military through the use of the Janissary system, land-grants, the devshirme tax, and accomplished expansion through conquest of their neighbors.)
Russians (Beginning with Ivan III, Russia would grow in power and size as a result of leadership from the czars and reducing the power of the nobility (boyars) while centralizing a strong government. Expanded territory by offering land to peasants who agreed to move to the eastern frontiers, as long as they would conquer the territory themselves. The Cossacks (peasant army) would expand Russia into Siberia and to the Caspian Sea. Under the rule of Ivan IV (the Terrible), Russia grew but the people suffered immense oppression. After his death, a series of rulers would try to take charge but were overthrown in rapid succession. This civil war was called the Time of Troubles and Boyars [nobles] tried to reestablish power. When Michael Romanov took over, he was able to use his powerful rule to continue Russian expansion, which, under Peter the Great, reached to the Pacific Ocean and under Catherine the Great, to the Ukraine.)
I can identify and describe the new maritime empires established in the Americas by the following countries (It should be noted that the North American colonies were largely ruled indirectly, were highly segregated, and largely based on free labor, except in the southern part of North America, where plantation economies flourished. By contrast, Mesoamerican and South American colonies were ruled directly (viceroys), integrated, and based largely off of slave laborand the encomienda system:
Portugal (Brazil, largely based around the sugar trade, but limited in their ability to expand due to the Treaty of Tordesillas. Magellan also explored around the southern tip of South America and circumnavigated the globe. Trading posts in East Africa and India [as in Gao])
Spain (Large portions of Southwest US, Mesoamerica, and South America through the use of conquistadors and Catholic missionaries. Utilized the encomienda system for silver mining and established large sugar plantations. Retained and expanded Inca practice of mit’a in South Amrica. Also used both native and slave labor, creating new ethnicities and social classes such as the mestizos and mulattos. Traded large amounts of silver across the Pacific to China and Japan. Gained control of the Philippines)
The Netherlands (Dutch) (Established colonies in North America through exploration, mostly based in and around the Hudson River (named for the explorer Henry Hudson. While they did have established colonies in the Americas, the Dutch were far more influential in the Indian Ocean region, especially Indonesia, due to the Dutch East India Company).
France (Primarily explored the Northern Portions of North America, establishing colonies based around the fur trade. Also settled areas around the Mississippi Delta (think New Orleans) and established sugar plantations in the Caribbean Islands).
Britain (Chartered joint-stock companies to start colonies in North America along with sugar plantations in the Caribbean islands. A few, like Massachusetts, were based on religious freedom. While these colonies were mostly autonomous, taxes and raw materials were exported back to England, allowing the monarchy to accumulate wealth and build a powerful military).
I can analyze and describe how competition over trade routes like piracy in the Caribbean (Disruption of trade/black market smuggling), state rivalries like the Ottoman-Safavid conflict (Sunni/Shia competition led to a large military cost and eventual loss of religious toleration, causing locals to become upset and creating economic crises), and local resistance like peasant uprisings (Hindus in the Mughal Empire, native Chinese in the Qing Dynasty, slave revolts in the Americas), created significant challenges to state consolidation and expansion (Any time you have a disruption in trade or significant internal problems, the cost of controlling a vast empire increases dramatically. Reference these empires and align them with the steps of the Craine-Brinton [7 step rise and fall of empires] paradigm to see the problems that emerge).