Genetic Terminology Genetics- the study of heredity



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Genetic Terminology

Genetics- the study of heredity

Gregor Mendel- Augustinian monk and botanist whose experiments in breeding garden peas led to his eventual recognition as founder of the science of genetics

Chromosome- a threadlike structure of nucleic acids and protein found in the nucleus of most living cells, carrying genetic information in the form of genes

Genes- a unit of heredity which is transferred from a parent to offspring and is held to determine some characteristic of the offspring

Dominant- A dominant gene, or a dominant version of a gene, is a particular variant of a gene, which for a variety of reasons, expresses itself more strongly all by itself than any other version of the gene which the person is carrying

Recessive- a gene that can only be displayed in the phenotype when the individual is homozygous recessive

Allele- one of two or more alternative forms of a gene that arise by mutation and are found at the same place on a chromosome


Gene locus- a specific, fixed position on a chromosome where a particular gene or genetic marker is located

Homozygous- having two identical alleles of a particular gene or genes

Heterozygous- having two different alleles of a particular gene or genes

F1- the first filial generation seeds/plants or animal offspring resulting from a cross-mating of distinctly different parental types

Punnett square- a graphical representation of the possible genotypes of an offspring arising from a particular cross or breeding event

Genotype- the two alleles inherited for a particular gene

Phenotype- the set of observable characteristics of an individual resulting from the interaction of its genotype with the environment

Monohybrid cross- a genetic mix between two individuals who have homozygous genotypes

Genotype ratios- the number of times a characteristic of an organism will be seen in the offspring when genes for certain traits are crossed

Phenotype ratios- the relative number of offspring manifesting a particular trait or combination of traits



Incomplete dominance- a dominant allele does not completely mask the effects of a recessive allele, and the organism's resulting physical appearance shows a blending of both alleles
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