- Phonetics is the study of speech sounds which are utilized by all human languages to represent the meaning. It concerned with the describing the speech sounds which occur in the languages of the world.
- Phonology is the description of the systems and patterns of sounds that occur in a language.
Phonology deals with how these speech sounds are organised into systems for individual language.
2. What are the stages of speech chain during human communication in sounds?
Stages of speech chain are the steps in which the sounds are produced and used for communication. These stages of speaker differ from those of listener.
- Speaker: 3 stages
Psychological stage: idea is transmitted to the brain throught the 5 senses of human. It is the process of thinking and choosing what to say.
Physiological stage: idea is transmitted to the brain and then to the mouth through nervous system.
Physical stage: the process of producing and articulating the sounds. The mouth works to speak out the sounds.
- Listener: such stages are simplier. Nervous system carries the sounds from the ears up to the brain. The brain will analyse the sounds.
3. What is the difference between pulmonic egressive airstream mechanism and ingressive airstream mechanism? What airstream mechanism do English sounds belong to?
The difference between these two mechanism is the direction of the airstream. In pulmonic egressive mechanism, the airstream move outwards from the lung to the trachea (windpipe – khí quản) to pharynx (họng) and to the mouth, but the airstream in pulmonic ingressive mechanism move inwards from the outside.
English sound belong to the pulmonic egresive airstream mechanism and this mechasnism is also used in almost languages in the world.
4. What is voiced, voiceless sound? In what way(s) are voiced sounds different from voiceless ones?
- Voiced sounds are the sounds produced by the rapid opening and closing of vocal cords. In a voiced sound, the rapid opening and closing of vocal cords is a kind of vibration.
- Voiceless sound are the sounds made with vocal cords drawn apart so that the air can pass out freely between them and there is no vibration.
Voiced and voiceless sounds can be distinguished according to the following criteria:
Made by the rapid opening and closing of the vocal cords
There is no vibration
5. What is the difference between articulatory phonetics and acoustic phonetics?
Articulatory phonetics studies the physical processes involved in speech production while acoustic phonetics deals with the physical properties of speech sounds (linguistically relevant acoustic properties).
Articulatory phonetics examines:
The airstream mechanism: where the air used in speech starts from, and which direction it is travelling in
The state of the vocal cords: wherether or not the vocal cords are vibrating, which determines voicing
The state of the velum: whether it is raised or lowered, which determines whether the sound is oral or nasal
The place and manner of articulation: the horizontal and vertical positions of the tongue and lips
Acoustic phonetics studies the specific and measurable effects on the air involved in the production of the speech sound.
6. What is the difference between a vowel and a consonant in the English language? Give example to illustrate?
- Consonants are speech sounds produced by creating an obstruction to the airstream during the articulation.
- Vowels are speech sounds where the airstream escapes the oral tract (organs of speech) unobstructed.
Differences: vowel and consonant can be distinguished according to the following criteria:
There are three principal airstream mechanisms: the pulmonicairstream mechanism, the velaric airstream mechanism and the glottalic airstream mechanism. In normal utterances in all languages of the world, the airstream is always flowing outwards if the pulmonic egressive airstream mechanism is involved. Stops made with this mechanism are called plosives (tắc). The only mechanism that is used in some languages to produce some sounds with inward going air and some sounds with outward going air is the glottalic airstream mechanism. Stops made with this mechanism acting ingressively are called implosives (đóng). Stops made with this mechanism acting egressively are called ejectives (bật). The mechanism which is used in the language to produce sounds only with inward going air is the velaric airstream mechanism. Stops made with this mechanism are called clicks.
2. Fill in the names of the vocal organs in the spaces provided
2. List the bilabial consonants. For each bilabial, provide one word containing it.
There are 4 bilabial consonants in the English language: p, b, w, m
- Bilabial plosive: /p/, /b/ eg. pet, pay, big, boy
- Bilabial approximant: /w/ eg. wait, watch
- Bilabial nasal: /m/ eg. mother, meet
3. What is the distinctive feature that makes /p/ and /b/ different sounds?
/p/ and /b/ are bilabial plosive consonants, but the distinctive feature that makes them different sounds is the voicing. /p/ is a voiceless consonant while /b/ is a voiced one. We can realize such difference when these sounds are articulated by touching the Adam’s apple. When /b/ is articulated, there is a vibration, but there is no such vibration when /p/ is pronounced.
4. According to what are English consonants classified? Give examples
English consonants are classified according to 5 criteria:
According to place of articulation:
- Bilabial: p, b, w, m eg. pay, boy, wait, man
- Labiodental: f, v eg. figure, velar
- Dental: , eg. think, this
- Alveolar: t, d, s, z, l, n eg. toy, date, size, zoo, long, name
- Voiced sounds: b, d, , v, , z, , w, r, j, l, d, m, n,
- Voiceless sounds: p, t, k, f, , s, , h, t
According to Force of articulation:
- Fortis consonants: voiceless sounds
- Lenis consonants: voiced sounds
5. What are the differences between a plosive and an affricate in English?
The airstream is stoped in the oral or nasal cavity by the as the lips contact or the soft palate raises forming a velic closure
The tongue comes up to make a contact with the alveolar ridge to form a stop closure and this contact is then slacken (loosen) to make a fricative.
Number of manners involved
The combination between plosive and fricative
6. What is the distinction between an alveolar plosive and an alveolar fricative?
The distinction between an alveolar plosive and an alveolar fricative is the airstream: in alveolar plosive, the soft palate is raised so that the nasal tract is blocked off, then the airstream is completely obstructed while in an alveolar fricative, the close approximation of two articulators caused the airstream partially obstructed and turbulent airflow is produced.
7. Classify the English fricatives according to the criteria for classification of the sounds. Give the words containing these consonants.
English fricatives can be classified according to the following criteria:
- Accroding to the Place of articulation:
+ Labiodental fricative: f, v eg. fingure, fan, vapour, van
+ Dental fricative: , eg. think, this
+ Alveolar fricative: s, z eg. sun, single, zoo, zero
+ Voiceless sounds: f, , s, , h eg. fan, think, sun, shine, hot
- According to the Force of articulation:
+ Fortis: f, , s, , h eg. fan, think, sun, shine, hot
+ Lenis: v, , z, eg. van, this, zoo, measure
8. What are fortis consonants and what are lenis ones?
- Fortis are consonants which are tend to be articulated with relatively strong energy. They are voiceless sounds and usually shorten the preceeding vowel. Eg. bat
- Lenis are consonants which are tend to be articulated with relatively weak energy. They are voiced sounds and usually lengthen the preceeding vowel.
9. What is the main difference in articulation between a velar plosive and a bilabial plosive?
Bilabial plosive is formed by the contact between the two lips while velar plosive is formed by the back of the tongue articulates with the soft palate (the soft palate is raised to make velar closure).
10. State basic difference between fortis consonants and its lenis counterparts?
Force of articulation
Relatively strong energy
Relatively weak energy
1. Describe the consonant in the word “skinflint”: /‘skinflint/