American History II final Study Guide

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American History II Final Study Guide Name____________________________________

  1. One of the greatest impacts of the ________________________________ Railroad was that it encouraged settlement and stimulated tremendous economic growth in western regions.

  2. In an effort to escape racial violence and severe discrimination African-Americans called ___________________ moved west with the hope and promise of a better quality of life.

  3. Under the _____________ Land Grant Act the Federal government awarded states vast tracts of land to sell in order to build agricultural and _____________________colleges.

  4. One of the primary issues for the farmers in the West was that _________________ charged unreasonably high railroad rates making it nearly impossible for farmers to pay their debts.

  5. The Mormons under Joseph Smith and then Brigham Young migrated west in order to escape ________________ persecution.

  6. The Battle of ___________ Knee marked the end of the wars between the federal government and the Plains Indians.

  7. In her book, _______________________________________, Helen Hunt Jackson detailed decades of abusive treatment of Native Americans by the Federal government and led directly to the creation of a law called the ______________ Act.

  8. The _________________ Party was formed as a result of mounting grievances from the agricultural sectors(farmers) of both the West and South.

  9. The Populist Party Platform included the bimetallism, government ownership of ___________________, and a graduated income tax.

  10. Bimetallism is the addition of __________________ into the monetary system along with gold.

  11. In an effort to stop railroad abuses the federal government eventually enacted legislation known as the ____________­________ Commerce Act.

  12. Of the pleas of William Jennings Bryan in his famous “Cross of Gold” speech at the Democratic National Convention in 1896 the most strident or emphatic was his demand for ________________ or silver to be combined with gold to increase the money supply.

  13. With the invention of barbed wire, Joseph Glidden inadvertently brought about an end to the ______________ ranching business by effectively closing off the open range. .

  14. “Survival of the Fittest” and the idea that only the most capable will rise to the top of the ladder of success, socially, politically, and economically while all others will necessarily follow or become extinct is the philosophy of _______________ ____________________.

  15. In terms of a true free market the idea of _____________________ ___________________ argues hands off approach to business whereby supply and demand governs market wages and prices.

  16. The primary purpose of the Interstate Commerce Act (1887), the Sherman Antitrust Act (1890), and then eventually the Clayton Antitrust Act (1913) was to eliminate unfair ______________ practices.

  17. According to Andrew Carnegie the “ __________________________________” expressed the philosophy that one of the most important aspects of having wealth was to be altruistic, giving vast sums of money to benefit society as a whole.

  18. Along with higher wages and safer working conditions__________ unions picked up the fight and task of demanding eight hour workdays for all laborers.

  19. People who exposed the unsafe working conditions associated with industry came to be known as __________ _____________ those who also exposed corruption and filth in business and politics.

  20. Called the “Trust Buster,” Teddy Roosevelt was intent on stifling monopolies and trust while encouraging fair _________________________ in business.

  21. Progressives believed strongly in the idea that political power belonged in the hands of the _____________, and it would be in this way that the democratic process would flourish and draw more participation in politics.

  22. The ______________________ were the first immigrant group to face restrictive measures on their numbers in spite of the fact that they were an essential component to the building of the Transcontinental Railroad.

  23. The Gentlemen’s Agreement was a restrictive measure to limit the emigration of unskilled _________________ labor to the United States.

  24. With the invention of the __________________ process the production of steel became cheaper, stronger, and faster facilitating the design and construction of huge skyscrapers.

  25. Without question the primary purpose of the Sherman Anti-trust act was to stop the expansion or ________________ of monopolies.

  26. Hull House was founded and run by ___________ Addams for the purpose of assisting the urban poor with education services, medical services and other services to help them better acclimate to their new surroundings.

  27. Curiously immigrants tended to support political machines because they provided much needed _____­­­­­­­_________to them as they embarked with a new life in America.

  28. The ________________ Civil Service Act ended the Patronage system or “Spoils System” and installed a new system whereby new prospective government workers would have to take a test before being considered for employment.

  29. What election reform allowed voters of a state to reject a law passed by the state legislature? _________________________

  30. According to _____________________________ African Americans should bide their time and seek out vocational occupations and business ownership.

  31. According to __________________ African Americans should press for full access to higher education and go to court as necessary to obtain civil rights.

  32. The ___________ ____________________ is the term for masses of African Americans leaving the South heading to northern cities for better opportunities.

  33. Efforts to disenfranchise African Americans at the polling place included: poll taxes, ___________ tests, and the grandfather clause which stated that as long as your grandfather had voted in previous elections then you were eligible despite the fact that you could not read.

  34. President Theodore Roosevelt’s foreign policy regarding Latin America is exemplified with the addition of the ______________ Corollary to the ____________ Doctrine which permitted United States continued involvement in Latin American affairs whenever it was deemed necessary.

  35. One justification for American imperialism included: the need for _______________ stations around the world for ships to refuel.

  36. With regard to the Open Door Policy, acquisition of Hawaii, and even the Spanish American War the primary goal for the U.S. was to gain access to new ____________ and to seek out raw ________________ to further U.S. economic expansion.

  37. ___________ Journalism became a primary cause of the Spanish American War when articles were published regarding the explosion and sinking of the U.S.S. __________________ in 1898.

  38. Yelling “fire!” in a crowded movie theater when there is no fire is inciting unnecessary panic and danger where none exists and is therefore not protected speech the Bill of __________________.

  39. Following the Spanish American War, the U.S. insisted that the new Cuban Constitution include the __________ Amendment permitting U.S. intervention in Cuban Affairs when necessary.

  40. One of the unfortunate aspects of the ___________ __________ Policy of 1899 was that Chinese nationalists attacked foreign settlements killing hundreds during the ____________ Rebellion.

  41. The causes of WWI include: ______________, _________________, __________________, and Nationalism.

  42. Woodrow Wilson spoke before Congress asking for a declaration of war stating that, “The world must be made safe for ___________________________.”

  43. In Schenck v. United States the United States argued that Schenck was presenting a “clear and present __________” by passing out leaflets criticizing the government during wartime.

  44. Following the conclusion of WWI the U.S. returned to isolationism as it refused to join the ____________ of Nations fearing that it might be dragged into another European conflict.

  45. President Wilson would ask Congress for a declaration of war against Germany because Germany had resumed __________________ submarine warfare.

  46. In an effort to gain greater control over the economy during the war the U.S. employed the use of price controls and ______________.

  47. In terms of military strategies and technologies the most significant included: ______________ warfare, tanks, and airplanes.

  48. The primary purpose of President Wilson’s Fourteen Points and the Atlantic Charter was to ensure _______________________ and security in the world after the war.

  49. Part of the conditions of the Treaty of Versailles required Germany to pay reparations, accept the war guilt clause, and to_____________________ the military.

  50. The stock market crash of 1929 was largely caused by over production and the practice of buying on ____________________ which allowed people to buy stocks with only a small portion of the money and borrowed the rest with the expectation that stocks would rise leaving plenty of money to pay off the loan.

  51. The movement in the 1920s that showed African American culture through the arts was called the Harlem _______________________.

  52. Organized crime increased with the passing of _______________________ or the 18th amendment.

  53. The natural disaster that left many farmers on the Great Plains homeless was known as the ___________ Bowl.

  54. Beginning in the 1933 with the F.D.R. administration and his New Deal, the United States began to adopt policies that fostered the idea that it was the responsibility of the Federal Government to provide ________________assistance when necessary regarding the general welfare of the people.

  55. Social _____________________ provided financial aid to the elderly.

  56. One of the primary causes of WWII was that ___________ was treated too harshly with regard to the Treaty of Versailles, and that overall there were too many unsettled issues still left over from WWI .

  57. At the beginning of WWII the United States passed the ________________ Acts which prohibited the sale of weapons to warring nations thereby ensuring neutrality.

  58. The passage of the Lend _____________ Act in 1941 and “destroyers for military bases,” demonstrated that as the war in Europe progressed the U.S. policy of neutrality was at odds with its own self interest.

  59. The surprise attack against the naval station at __________ ______________ led to the immediate entrance of the United States into WWII.

  60. The speedy development of an atomic weapon in the U.S. following U.S. entry into the war become code named the __________________ Project.

  61. Operation Overlord or D-Day was a massive beach assault along the western shores of ____________.

  62. Employing the use of an __________ weapon against Japan was rationalized by President Truman because he and many others believed that a Japanese invasion would result in the loss of too many ____________________ lives.

  63. At the Potsdam conference in 1945 President __________________ was at serious odds with Soviet leader Stalin regarding the political and economic future of war torn Germany.

  64. Japanese American Internment during WWII had at its core more to do with racial prejudice than any real threat to ______________security.

  65. In the Supreme Court Case Korematsu v. United States the Supreme Court ruled that in wartime the limiting of civil _____________ is justified and warranted.

  66. As with WWI, WWII brought many women and minorities into contact with new ________ opportunities that otherwise may have never become available.

  67. The primary goal of the G.I. Bill for U.S. veterans following the war was to provide ________________ aid to all veterans in order that they might invest the money in business, higher education or housing.

  68. Senator Joseph McCarthy (McCarthyism) was the point man involved in a nationwide witch hunt for _______________________ who had allegedly infiltrated American industries.

  69. In order to maintain collective security among all nations the U.S. supported and became a member of the ______________ Nations.

  70. The Cuban Missile crisis occurred as a result of the Soviet Union’s decision to install nuclear __________ on the island of Cuba and President Kennedy responded by blockading the island.

  71. Following WWII, much of Europe lay in shambles from the war and in order to stabilize these affected countries politically and economically the ________________ Plan was put into place the goal for which revolved around the idea of arresting the spread of communism.

  72. Both the Truman and Eisenhower Doctrines attempted to provide the means to withstand the continuing spread of ______________________.

  73. Julius and Ethel Rosenberg were convicted of espionage for spying and providing secrets to the USSR; They were later ______________________ for their crimes

  74. The National Highway Act of 1956 was passed by the Federal Government largely because President Eisenhower believed direct links were needed to Air force bases in case of __________________ attack.

  75. In his farewell address President Eisenhower warned against a cut back in _____________ spending because it would put the U.S. at risk with the Soviet Union and communist expansion.

  76. The impact of the successful launching of the Soviet satellite Sputnik in 1957 created the need within the United States stepped up its spending on _________________ and _______________________ education.

  77. Official recognition of the People’s Republic of China became a hallmark foreign policy achievement for the _______________ Administration.

  78. During the Nixon Administration tensions between the Soviet Union and the United States were eased or relaxed by a policy referred to as _____________________.

  79. With the fall of Soviet Communism in the 1980’s came also the fall of the _____________________ Wall which symbolically represented an end to the ____________ War.

  80. Both the League of Nations and the United Nations were designed to ensure _____________ among all nations large and small.

  81. Nuclear energy would later become an important source of power to generate ______________________ for homes and medicines to treat various diseases.

  82. In 1948 President Truman decided to _______________________________ the armed forces in direct response to civil rights concerns.

  83. Affirmative Action programs were set into motion in order that women and minorities were afforded greater access to __________________ and employment opportunities.

  84. In order to achieve civil rights goals and fight unjust laws, Dr. Martin Luther King adopted the strategy of using ___________ disobedience and then employing non-violent resistance.

  85. President Dwight D. Eisenhower in 1957 sent troops to Little Rock, Arkansas to ensure that federal law was enforced regarding the ______________________ of public schools.

  86. Freedom riders, sit-ins, and boycotts are all excellent examples of how ____________________ resistance can be used to effect change over unjust laws.

  87. ____________v. Board of Education ruled that the “separate but equal” finding in Plessy v. Ferguson was in effect unconstitutional because it was ultimately proved separate is never equal.

  88. Finally in 1964 the ____________ Rights Act of 1964 prohibited segregation in public places and discrimination in education and employment.

  89. Domestically speaking, President _______________ officially waged war on poverty and launched a full variety of programs to help up the impoverished in America.

  90. In general, The Great Society was in many ways thought necessary for the U.S. because too many Americans were living below the _________________ line.

  91. It was John F. Kennedy that pushed for and encouraged young Americans to go out and help impoverished areas of the world by joining the _____________ Corps.

  92. Betty Friedan’s book The ________________ Mystique argued against traditionalist and gave great enthusiasm and energy to the Women Rights Movement.

  93. Because of the war in Vietnam the __________ Amendment to the Constitution was ratified lowering the voting age to 18.

  94. In 1954 at a meeting called the ______________Accords an agreement was finally reached whereby Vietnam would be divided between North and South along the 17th Parallel.

  95. During the Cold War, the Domino Theory encouraged the necessity of becoming involved in both the Korean War and ____________________ War to prevent the further spread of communism.

  96. While the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution of 1964 gave President Johnson sweeping powers to engage the military without the consent of Congress, the ________ Powers Act of 1973 reversed this precedent by requiring the president gain consent of Congress before deploying military troops.

  97. Both at Hue where North Vietnamese and Viet Cong slaughtered thousands of innocent noncombatants and at ______________ where hundreds more were slaughtered by the U.S. and its allies provided mounting evidence before the American public that war atrocities were being committed by both sides.

  98. Just when American forces believed that victory over the North was within sight the North launched a full scale surprise attack in 1968 called the ______ Offensive effectively turning the war to their advantage.

  99. When it was publicly revealed by the ___________ Papers that presidential administrations from Truman through Johnson had engaged secret agreements and unauthorized use of the military coupled with the devastating effectiveness of the Tet Offensive continuing ______________ for the war dwindled.

  100. Ho Chi Minh was was prepared to endure a disproportionate number of ____________ to achieve final victory.

  101. Perhaps more than anything else, public opinion of the Vietnam War was shaped in large part because the true brutality of the war was brought to American living rooms through the ___________________ .

  102. At the Camp David Accords President ________________ invited Egyptian president Anwar Sadat and Israeli president Menachem Begin to Camp David to agree to peace measures.

  103. Iranian militant Muslims took 52 Americans hostage in what became known as the __________________ Hostage Crisis.

  104. Under President _________________ the Iran Contra Affair took place where the U.S. Government wanted to overthrow the pro-Soviet Sandinistas in Nicaragua so they provided financial support to the Nicaraguan rebels by selling arms to Iran.

  105. The goal of the __________ ____________ War was to push Saddam Hussein out of Kuwait.

  106. Charged with lying under oath to a federal grand jury and obstructing justice, President ________________ was the second president of the U.S. to be impeached and found not guilty.

  107. NAFTA was created to strengthen the economies of Canada, Mexico, and ___________________, however some argue it did not work.

  108. The election of _______________, Al Gore won the popular vote but after a recount in Florida, Bush wins the most electoral votes, therefore winning the presidency.

  109. The ________________ Doctrine stated that the U. S. has the right to secure itself against countries that harbor or give aid to terrorist groups by using preemptive strikes.

  110. Three key provisions of the ______________ Act were; roving wiretaps, search business records, and surveillance on suspected terrorist.

  111. The _______________ of 2007-2009 was blamed on the housing bubble bursting and questionable financial practices.

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