An Analysis of Struggle for Peace: Examining the Gun Control Act of 1968 and the

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An Analysis of Struggle for Peace: Examining the Gun Control Act of 1968 and the

Brady Violence Prevention Act of 1993

Charles Ndikum

Dissertation Proposal Submitted in Partial Fulfillment

of the Requirement for the Degree of

Doctor of Philosophy

Criminal Justice

Walden University

Match 2016


Gun violence is a sensitive issue that has occurred in the American society for a long

period of time. The federal government has established measures and policies to control this

menace. However, despite the continued efforts from different agencies this issue has proven

difficult to fully control and ensure that the nation is finally peaceful giving adequate and

conducive environment for growth and development. Taking this into account, this research study

addresses the struggle for peace in the American communities analysing the Gun Control Act of

1998 and the Brady Violence Act of 1993. This study is a qualitative research study that utilizes

interviews methodology as a data collection tool. Research questions are formulated to help the

researcher have a critical analysis and a broad picture of the research arena. These questions are

formulated to help the researcher better understand the field of study under the context of gun

violence. This study examines the conditions that led to gun violence and the effects it has had on

the American soil. The research further creates a theoretical frame work on social contract model

that focuses on ways and methodologies that can be implemented to better understand the

condition. This model helps the researcher to be able to critically examine and comprehensively

analyse the gun violence present and previous state. Utilizing past events, the researcher is able to

account and fully understand the principal reasons behind these happenings. This document

provides appropriate measures and recommendations that can be implemented on the gun control

acts to make them more efficient and be in a position to acquire the competency and capability to

regulate gun movements in the United States. These recommendations are oriented at providing

social change at personal, community and national level.


I take this opportunity to extend my sincere gratitude and thank all those who contributed

in different ways to ensuring this study was successful. Specifically, I would like to thanks my

supervisor (Name) for his immense and consistent support in ensuring that I am doing the right

thing in the quest to finalizing this research study. I would also like to extend my gratitude to

Walden University management for creating an enabling environment where a learner is able to

acquire extensive knowledge that helped me to conduct this research study. In addition, I cannot

forget to thank my instructor through whom I was able to learn how efficiently I should do my

research. I may not be able to mention everybody who played a role in the success of my study

but I would like them to feel appreciated. Thanks to you.

Table of Contents


Chapter One

Introduction of the Study 8

Research Background 9

Problem Statement 11

Research Questions 14

Purpose of the Study 15

Theoretical Framework 16

Operational Definition of Terms 17

Significance of the Study 18

Significance at National Level 18

Significance of the Problem at Local Level 19

Significance of the Problem in Promoting Social Change 21

Assumptions, Limitations, Scope & Delimitations 21

Assumptions of the Study 21

Limitations of the Study 22

Scope of the Study 23

Chapter Summary 23

Chapter Two 25

Introduction 25

Definition of Peace 27

Impact of Gun Control on American Citizen’s Second Amendment Rights 28

Definition of Gun Control Act of 1968 (GCA68) 29

Definition of Brady Violation Act of 1993 30

Rights to carry Firearms 31

Factors Leading to Increased Gun Ownership 32

Poverty versus Gun Violence 33

Figures of Gun Related Deaths across States 33

Measures to Reduce Gun Violence 34

Gun Prevalence 35

Choice of Weapon 36

Gun Business 38

Carrying Guns in Public 39

Research Recommendations 40

Chapter Three 43

Research Design 43

Introduction 43

Theoretical Method of Inquiry 43

Justification of Case Study in Respect to other Models 44

Sampling 46

Sample Procedures 46

Selection of the Participants 48

Participants Selection Strategy 49

Sample Size 50

Data Collection 52

In-depth Interview 53

Quality and Ethics 54

Role of the Researcher 56

Handling Researcher’s Bias 57

Participants Protection 57

Chapter Summary 58

References 57

Appendix A 61

Appendix B 62

Appendix C 64

Appendix D 66



Gun violence has been a devastating issue that has been discussed over the years specially

in recent history in the quest to promote peace, growth, and development in the American

society. Gun violence has led to a lot of negative impacts on the American society such as violent

robberies, homicide and suicide activities. Peace, therefore, helps to settle down any negative

issues in the quest to encourage harmony and unity. Peace is a fundamental factor that contributes to all

aspects of social, political and economic problems and thereby having a considerable significance at

individual, societal and national level. Gun violence has been sensitive issues in the United States of

America and has forced and directed the federal government to implement measures that will reduce

the extreme effects of gun violence in the American community. The gun violence issue has had

significant drawbacks which have steered the federal government to find measures that will provide cure

or solutions to this menace that has consumed the society. The suicidal death of President J.F Kennedy is

among the key events that happened and steered the Senate and the parliament to find measures that

will regulate gun violence. The need to establish and implement policies that will control and manage

the issue of gun production, distribution, and ownership. In this process, the government came up with

the gun control act of 1968 and the Brady Violence Act of 1993. The federal government and other law

agencies have utilized these policies to regulate the movement of weapons by conducting background

checks and limiting the production and legal ownership of guns to the citizens by limiting the

number of offered licenses. Certainly, this area of research is fundamental in the

quest to provide a social change in our societies. As a result, this study will analyze the struggle for peace examining the Gun Control Act of 1968 (GCA68) and the Brady Violence Prevention Act of 1993.

Research Background

Miller (1997) enlightens that peace and stability are the number one factor that allows a

nation to grow and develop in all sectors of social, economic and policy areas. The significance

of maintaining harmony and amity in the society is very fundamental to ensure growth and

development of a nation. Perfectly, observing peace and harmony at personal, societal and

national level is the ultimate cure to guarantee the evolution of society. Gun violence is a huge

issue that has affected nations globally. Gun violence refers to the violence committed using a

gun or a firearm. The term criminology in gun violence only appears in homicide and death

attempts situations and where there have been an assault or rather attempted suicide using a

deadly weapon. Nonviolent crime elsewhere entails accidental or rather unintended deaths or

injury. It has caused criminal activities involving robbery with violence, rapes, and even deaths

(Utter, 2000). Global communities have gathered at globalization seminars trying to find the cure

for this act. This issue has affected the American community at a greater level, and the many

states have attempted to implement ways and search for strategies that will combat this menace

once and for all. Mexico, in particular, has been a victim of gun violence that has led to increased

drug deals in the region. Colombia has been a victim of gun violence and has overseen the

impacts and fatal consequences affecting even the economy. The United States has also been a

primary victim of gun violence, and the nation is under thorough policy establishment to find

ways and methodologies of solving this issues.

As discussed by Alter (2009), the United States of America has faced enormous menace

in the struggle to reduce gun violence in the nation. This calamity has resulted in many criminal

activities and homicide happenings across many states of the country. As a result of this, the

government has established plans to curb this menace and ensure peace prevails in the American

soil. Gun violence in the United States societies has led to deaths and economic retrogression in

many communities. On a similar basis, United States (1995) on Gun Violence Prevention Act of

1994 defines that the second amendment to the United States Constitution describes or rather

enlightens on who legally should own a gun. It has been misused by many persons in the state

and thereby contributing majorly to this war against gun violence. Straw man purchase has also

been a chief sales and purchase strategy that has led to an increase in the number of guns in the

American society. Its contribution is undoubtedly something to take into consideration. It has

increased the use normal weapon and even automatic and semiautomatic guns.

The federal laws are meant to regulate chiefly the trade of arms and mishandling of

weapons across states especially through barring the unlicensed movement and trade of firearms

in the United States of America (Alter, 2009). However, the adverse impacts and effects resulting

from the increased rate of gun violence in the American soil are still evident. In this way, these

laws hinder manufacturing and importation of ammunitions in and out of the states. Gun violence

presents a massive threat to the youth in the American communities. The exposure of the child to

gun violence can have significant and major adverse effects of losing close friends and relatives

to damaging their lives. The need to understand how to cope up and be able to function in ways

that reduce gun violence is very fundamental especially in neighborhoods that have high rates of

gun violence. Webster and Vernick (2013) educates that it is the role of the government and the

society to protect the rights of children and teens from facing depressions and guardian loss from

gun related crimes. It is an overall obligation of the corporation and the federal government to

implement laws and strategies that protect the general members and especially teens and promote

a peaceful society. However, this has not been the case, and many Americans have raised voices

crying of the dissatisfaction on the glorification that guns have in the American society. The need

for social change is a fundamental element that has to be implemented in the American society.

Gun violence, especially in high poverty regions, is an overwhelming feeling that has become

hard to handle nor control. The legislation provided by the federal laws and social activities such

as community-policing have failed or rather nosedived in their functionality. In these societies, it

has become difficult to solve issues in non-violent ways and youths feel insecure without guns to

protect themselves and their family members. Childhood mental challenges have been a

consistent identification especially in those regions where the gun violence rate is very high

(Alter, 2009). Also, in these regions, the growth and development rate is retrogressive addressing

one of the significant adverse impacts that gun violence has produced in the American soil.

Businesses cannot be run, and people are unable to establish entrepreneurial activities. It,

therefore, raised the researcher’s interest to investigate and examine the struggle for peace in the

American society by carefully scrutinizing the Gun Control Act of 1968 and the Brady

Violation Act of 1993.

Problem statement

The United States of America has the largest number of gun violence incidences of all the

developed countries in the world. Based on the recent statistics, it is estimated that an

average of 31 Americans are murdered with a firearm and another 151 are offered treatment in

the hospitals as a result of gun assaults. As if that is not enough around 55 persons commit

suicide with a weapon and another 46 are killed accidently by the use of a firearm. All these

figures do represent an average of a day’s data. In a country considered as one of the last

superpowers, with massive resources with the largest economy on the planet and practicing the

best democracy which is even used as a model by the rest of the nations, is facing one of its

monster challenges. It has resulted in the passage of various Acts, which include the Gun

Control Act of 1968 which was meant to regulate the guns industry and the firearms owners. Its

primary focuses being to control and regulate the transfer of firearms to the states especially with

the manufacturers, traders, and the importers. Brady Violation Act of 1993 which was meant to

enforce a checking of the background for anyone who wants to acquire a gun. Irrespective of all

these laws gun violence is still prevalent. Some years back the world was grappling with the

traditional terrorism which was easier to recognize and fight back to elimination such as the Al-

Qaida and the Taliban. But with time the terrorism has mutated into something else that is well

financed, organized, established and hard to fight and which is causing havoc and destruction in

some areas. A good example is the Islamic State better known as the ISIL/ISIS. My

greatest fear is the impact of the highly improbable better known as the black swan. If this

problem of gun violence is not addressed in full or kept in check in a better way it may escalate to

a different magnitude that no one anticipated or expected, in another word it may mutate into

something else. With even stricter gun laws, we do still hear and see of deaths related to gun

violence this raises questions about their effectiveness, implementation and their ability to serve

the purpose they were meant.

Criminal acts have increased in the United States of America in recent history. The

majority of these behaviors have been steered by the extreme gun violence that has been evident

in the American societies. Abuse of guns especially in highly populated regions has resulted in

the emergence of other catastrophic and disastrous calamities that have affected the United States

as a nation. The movement and trading of weapons have promoted drug abuse in the regions

among other activities such as the formation of illegal guns, robbery with violence and increased

rape cases.

This menace has further led to the most recent events of the mass shooting in churches,

schools, and other public places. Ownership of guns in the United States is limited to certain

specifications and requirements under the law. Those include licensed circumstances such self-

protection, hunting and other licensed and legalized means. Children growing in highly gun

troubled locations have been observed to be depressed and growing to be violent in their young

age (Utter, 2000).

The gaps in this study are that there are no local studies that have been done in this

context. This study is critical because it has affected nations at global, intercontinental, national

and societal levels. However, the limited recommendations are as a result of limited information

and research for the few studies that have been conducted in other nations. Nevertheless, none

has provided a complete investigation and examination of this problem with the objective of

providing social change, making the American society a better place. Research has been done on

the effects of gun violence, but there are also limited. In addition to this, the previous research

took into account questionnaires as the methodologies of data collection tools and, therefore,

utilizing a different method would be appropriate for helping acquire reliable and detailed

information. In my research study, I will use the interviewing technique of qualitative method to

obtain data from the study elements and therefore my study is different from what has already

been done in previous contexts. There are no researchers that have examined the complete

analyses and examination of gun violence and citing the appropriate recommendations that can

help reduce this menace and provide a better United States of America.

The need to manage this situation and find appropriate measures that will ensure peace

and stability are therefore necessary. It is fundamental to certify and promote social change that

will administer and encourage social, political and economic development at society and national

level. Indeed, this problem is being affected by a large number of citizens in the United Sates that

is, the society members and the entrepreneur or business people because they are unconvinced of

their security. This problem also hinders movement of people as they search for ways and

strategies of securing their families and properties. Solving this problem will bring a lot of

positive impact on the American society. Among those include; reduced criminal happenings

such as violent robberies, mass shootings and raping events. The effects of none enforced

regulations have impacted the country hugely lowering the nation’s economic and social

supremacy. Being one of the most recognized governments for democratic practice, America has

much to do to restore the much-needed power and glory of peace and stability. Certainly there is

a huge significance in solving this problem. Therefore, the central issue of this study is to

investigate and examine the struggle for independence in reducing gun violence via the Gun

Control Act of 1968 and the Brady Violation Act of 1993.

Research Questions

In every research study, there are important goals and objectives undertaken by a

the researcher that he seeks to achieve at the end of the study. These ambitions or goals can be

short term or long term. For instance, the researcher needs to assemble tools and equipment that

will be used in the field of study to collect data, analyze and write complete reports on the study.

As a result of this, every researcher needs to write hypothesis and research questions that will

guide him or her in the exploration. As discussed by (Miles and Huberman, 1994), the hypothesis

is unproven statements or rather assumptions that are taken to be true for the purpose of

conducting a research study. The theory provides the researcher with a sense of directions that he

can follow to do studies in a specific or rather particular field. Taking this into consideration, the

following are the hypothesis for this research study:

1) The American Society bans and discourages ownership and trade of illegal firearms in

their societies to promote peace and stability.

2) The United States government through the federal laws prohibits ownership and movements

of unlicensed ammunition.

3) There is increased rate of criminal activities in the American societies in recent years.

4) The circulation and trade of guns have risen in the United States of America in the 20th and

21st century.

Research questions are very fundamental for every particular study. According to Ketchen

and Bergh (2004), research questions are significant and highly important because they influence

the strategies and methodologies that will be implemented in conducting the research. These

questions must have an adequate degree of contribution to the research study. This project study

examined the federal government policies that influence and control guns and other weapons

handling. The study attempted to determine whether gun control acts and Brady violation law are

effective in performing the needed tasks. Taking this into account, the following are the research


1) What are the legal purposes of establishing federal laws to control and regulate gun violence

in the United States?

2) What are the impacts and resultant effects after the enforcement of gun regulatory laws on

the American societies and the nation at large?

3) What are the most appropriate measures that can be undertaken to reduce or diminish gun

related criminal activities in the American soil?

4) What is the effect of increased gun violence in the social, economic and political sector of

the United States?

5) Which are the most suitable strategies other than the laws in place that can be established to

provide a social change in the American societies?

Purpose of the Study

The aim of this research is to study the effects of the Gun Control Act of 1968 and the

Brady Violence Act of 1993 in reducing gun violence in the United States of America. The

primary objective is to examine the impacts that this legislation has had and can produce to the

weapon violence menace in the American soil. The rationale for this study is that despite the

increased mechanisms and policies to control the production, movement and ownership of guns

in the United States, few have focused majorly on these two extreme gun violence combating

laws. Most studies have focused on economic retrogression in the United States and majorly on

overall violence in the states. Statistics indicate that there has been a rise in criminal acts and

homicides in the American soil despite the increased policies and measures to combat these

illegal activities.

Indeed, there is a great need to examine the resultant effects that lead to increased

violence. In the quest to determine the role of gun laws in reducing violence in the society, there

is a need to identify the reasons explain why previous laws don’t work as expected. The

fundamental cause of this research is that despite the implemented laws to battle gun violence,

there has been a consistent increase in the number of fatalities who are victims or consequences

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