An Argument in support of Family Tradition New evidence indicating that John Payne (ca. 1615-1689/90) of Westmoreland County, Virginia, (founder of “The Paynes of Virginia”) descended from the Huntingdonshire Payne Family



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An Argument in support of Family Tradition
New evidence indicating that John Payne (ca. 1615-1689/90)
of Westmoreland County, Virginia, (founder of “The Paynes of Virginia”)
descended from the Huntingdonshire Payne Family.

Patrick A. Payne

January 2004



Mr. Simon Healy, M.A., Senior Research Fellow on the Staff of “The History of Parliament,” for the 1604-1629 section1 of that publication (currently under development), in his biographical sketch for Sir Robert Payne (1573-1631) of St. Neots, Huntingdonshire, states:- “[Sir Robert] Payne should not be confused with two cousins, one of Winteringham near St. Neots, the other a London Grocer, or with Alderman Robert Payne of London, a Salter who may have been an uncle.”2
Recent research that I have completed supports Mr. Healy’s suggestion that “Alderman Robert Payne, of London, a Salter” was an uncle of Sir Robert Payne. In addition to this find, the research further supports both family tradition and my assertion that John Payne (ca. 1615-1689/90), the immigrant ancestor of “the Paynes of Virginia,” had also been a member of this Huntingdonshire family; most likely a son of Sir Robert Payne. What follows are pertinent elements of my research on this subject, complete with primary and secondary source citations added to footnotes.
The will of the Salter Robert Payne3, is quite revealing and forms the foundation of this paper.
“In the name of God Amen. The three and twentith day of September Anno Dm One thousand Six hundred twenty two and in the twentith yeare of the rayne of our Soveraigne Lord James by the grace of God king of England ffrance and Ireland defender of the faith and of Scotland the __ and fiftieth I ROBERT PAYN Citizen and Salter of London beinge sick in body but of good and perfect minde and memorie for which I give god most hartie thanks callinge to mynd the message of the Lord __ by the Prophet unto kinge Hezekiah4 Sett thou house in order for thou shalt die and not live and not know in __ the __ of death though nothinge more __ and beinge desirous to sett in order these worldly blessinges which with it hath pleased god to bless me Doe make this my last will and testament in manner and forme followinge that is to saye ffirst and principally I commend my soule into the handes of Almightie God my maker and creator

__ through his mercyes and the merritts of my Savior Jesus Christ to __ forgivenes of my synns and thereby to inherit the kingdom of heaven in body immortal to the earth from whence it came to be buryed at the discretion of myne Executor in the parish church of St. Mildred in Breadstreat as neare unto my first wife as conveniently may be And my will is that I be buryed in the night tyme Item I give and bequeath unto the corporation of the Towne of Basingstoke one hundred pounds to be lent from tyme to tyme to three younge men of the said Towne beinge Clothiers for fower yeares vizt one hundred nobles to each of them they and every of them putting in good securitie(?) for the same and payinge each of them five shillinges eight pence to be yearely paid to and amongst twentie of the poorest people of the said parish at the discretion of the Baylife Churchwarden and Constable of the said parish for the tyme beinge or anye __ of them vizt twelve pence to every poore bodie(?) And I will the said one hundred pounds be payd by myne Executors within one yeare next after my decease Item I give and bequeath unto the master and wardens and assistains of the company of Salters in London one hundred pounds in money to be lente to two younge men of the said company vizt fiftye pounds a peece for fower yeares upon good service payinge ten(?) shillings a peece yearely to the Mr and Wardens of the said company And I will the said twenty shillings shalbe devided as followeth vizt to the clerke of the said company for the tyme beinge for ever yearely five shillings To the Beadle of the __ of the company for the tyme beinge yearely for ever three shillings and to the Beadle of the yeomanry of the sayd company for the tyme beinge for ever two shillings and the other(?) Ten shillings to be devided yearely at the discretion of the master and wardens of the company to and amongst the Almoners of the said company Item I give and bequeath unto FLORENTINE PAYNE my brother ffortie shillings Item I give unto JOHN WITHERS my sisters sone forty shillings Item I give unto WILLIAM PANE my brothers sone forty shillings Item I give to my brother THOMAS forty shillings and to his sone JOHN fortie shillings Item I give unto my cosen AGNES THOROGOOD my brother THOMAS his daughter fortie shillings Item I give to GEORGE PANE ffortie shillings to JOHN __ twentie shillings Item I give to JOHN GREYGOOSE(?) my gownd __ with ­­Damaske without a __ Item I give unto ROBERT DYER(?) my gound lyned with lambe and fortie shillings in money Item I give to EDWARD TAYLOR my __ gound which I __ __ and fortie shillings in money Item I give to _rinall(?) __ __ __ffortie shillings To the Clarke and Rector(?) of St. Mildreds Church in Bread Street for the tyme beinge ten shillings a peece Item I give unto the poore pensioners of the said parish of St. Mildreds five shillings a peece except the number that came last in as a pensioner And I give unto JOHN SWAN __ ten shillings. The residue of all and every any(?) goods and chattels my debts and legacyes beinge paid and my funeral charges discharged I wholie give and bequeath to my welbeloved wife MARY and my daughter ELIZABETH and I make my said wife and daughter whole Executors of this my will and I make my welbeloved friends STEPHEN WOODFORD and (ELLIS GRIFEN?) overseers thereof, and I give to either of them three pounds a peece to buy them rings I give unto my brother POOLE my ringe which Msr(?), (SKIP?) gave me I give unto Msr. (?) ANDRTN(?) my ringe havinge a toadstone(?) __ I give to my neighbor (PLOTH?) fower markes to buy him a ringe I give to ED. DALBY and SUSAN DALBY ten pounds a peece the survivor(?) to have the benefit To my mother in lawe ANNE PAYNE three pounds And I will that my Executor shall paye her fortie shillings a yeare duringe her life quarterly ROBERT PAYNE Signed Sealed and published to be the last will of the sayd ROBERT PAYNE in the presence of THOMAS MATHERS(?)5.
Three names in this will are of great importance. The first name I would like to address is AGNES, daughter of THOMAS PAYNE and the wife of an unnamed THOROGOOD. While it is not possible to clearly identify the Thorogood (or Thoroughgood) family into which Agnes married, it should be noted that in 1634/5, John Payne, commander of the ship JOHN & DOROTHY, conveyed Adam Thoroughgood to Virginia.6 In addition, in connection with the Payne family of Huntingdonshire, a Thorowgood connection is found within the will of Johan Payne, widow of St. Neots, made between June 1554 and June 1558 [the year was not legible], in which she mentions what appears to be “Alin” Thorowgood7. In a protracted Admiralty Court case brought against John Payne of the John & Dorothy by his partner, Joseph Hawes, Adam Thoroughgood was called to give a deposition regarding the voyage to Virginia8. John Withers named in the will is also found in connection with the Admiralty case where we find that he had been a servant of John Payne9.
Paul C. Nagal, in “The Lees of Virginia10,” states that Anne Constable, the wife of the immigrant Richard Lee I, had been a ward of Adam Thoroughgoods brother, Sir John Thoroughgood. Quoting Nagal, “Of incalculable importance to his progress was Richard’s fortunate marriage. When the young man accompanied Governor Wyatt to Jamestown, the official household also included a young woman, Anne Constable, whose identity later became lost to the family record. Even her name was unknown for two hundred years. Now, thanks particularly to the work of David Halle, genealogist for the Society of the Lees of Virginia, we know that Anne was baptized in London during 1622 and that she was one of the many daughters born to Francis Constable.
Perhaps because of her father’s connections, Anne became a ward of Sir John Thorowgood, a personal attendant upon King Charles I. This affiliation would have made it easy for her to know the family of Sir Francis Wyatt and to accompany them to North America. Anne’s background and early associations meant that Richard Lee moved socially upward when she took him as husband.”
That Anne Constable married Richard Lee I is significant to the Paynes because it leads us to the third name of interest- that of Robert Payne, the Salter’s, brother, Florentine Payne. From Clifford Dowdey, "After he [Richard Lee] was assured of his position in Virginia by Berkeley's favor, he patented a comparatively large holding of one thousand acres north of the York River in the present county of Gloucester. Most of this land was acquired through the head rights on seventeen indentured workers (fifty acres per head right), but Lee did not import those indentures. A ship's captain [and also Burgess] named Florentine PAINE traded in head rights on indentures (a complicated speculation skirting the border of legality) and Richard LEE, who was continually associated with PAINE during his early years in Virginia, acquired the head rights' land in a deal with him.11"
Virginia land patents from the mid 17th-century were undoubtedly a contributing source for Dowdey’s comments.
On 10 August 1642, Richard Lee, Gent., patented 1,000 acres of the North side of the Charles River by assignment from Mr. Thomas Hill, Florentine Paine and William Freeman. Florentine Paine’s name appears two additional times within the patent12, assuring us that the single entry under the name “Clorentine” was misprinted.
On 4 March 1656, Capt. Hugh Wilson [whom Richard Lee had brought with him from England] patented 500 acres in Northumberland County [later Lancaster County] along Dividing Creek, where Lee had set up his plantation and lived until his death in 1664. Anne [Constable] Lee, and her sons John (d. 1673) [the principal heir] and Richard II (d. 1715), continued to live on the Northumberland plantation until John elected to move to the Westmoreland County property he had inherited after his mothers death [date unknown]. In the Wilson patent, the names of Richard Lee, Anne [Constable] Lee and “Clorentine Paine” are mentioned13. This was obviously a corruption of the name Florentine as other records will clearly show.
On 20 February 1662, two years before the death of Richard Lee I, John Paine, patented 88 acres along Dividing Creek14, and two years later, on 1 June 1664, he patented 406 acres of land in Northumberland County, bordering the plantation of Col. Richard Lee I, which was now in the hands of his sons, John and Richard II Lee. There can be no doubt that this John Paine was the identical man of Westmoreland County, founder of “The Paynes of Virginia,” born ca. 1615 and died in 1689/90 at “Red House.15
John Payne above was the father of William Payne (d. 1697/8) who married (2ndly) Elizabeth Pope, and in his will, dated 31 January 1697/8, he states:- “I appoint my loving friend Richard Lee of Lower Machotique guardian to my children”16. This “loving friend” was most certainly Richard Lee II (d. 1715), who had inherited his father’s lands on the Lower Machodoc [current spelling] upon the death of his brother John Lee in 167317.
Richard Lee II married Lettice, daughter of Henry Corbin and Alice Eltonhead18. Apart from the current significance of this as it relates to the family of John Payne and their likely descent from the Paynes of Huntingdonshire, this marriage is also significant for two other very important reasons. The first is that the Corbins of Virginia were direct descendants of George Corbin of Hallend, Warwickshire, he being Henry Corbins grandfather19. George Corbin leased land in Polesworth, Warwickshire, from Sir John Pulteney, Lord of the Manor of Fresley in that county20. Sir John Pulteney (d. ca. 1611) was a son of Gabriel Pulteney (d. 31 Aug 1599) of Misterton, Leicestershire, and of Knowle Hall, Warwickshire21. Gabriel and his son, Sir John Pulteney, were cousins of the Suffolk Payne family to which William Payne (d. 1660) of Boston and Ipswich, Massachusetts, belonged. They were close kinsmen of Margaret Pulteney of Misterton, wife of Sir Thomas Payne of Market Bosworth, Leicestershire22.
Gabriel Pulteney’s wife was Dorothy Spencer, a granddaughter of Sir John Spencer (1517-1586) of Althrop and Wormleighton, Warwickshire, by his wife, Catherine (ca. 1521-bef. 8 Nov 1586), daughter of Sir Thomas Kytson (1485-1540) of Hengrave, Suffolk23, whom Henry Payne (d. 1586) of the Suffolk branch had served as Bailiff of that Manor and had taken the will of Sir Thomas Kytson on his death bed in 154024. Genealogical research on the Washington family reveals that Margaret Kytson, a sister of Sir Thomas, was the wife of John Washington, whose descendants immigrated to Virginia25 where they can be closely associated with the family of the immigrant John Payne (ca. 1615-1689/90) through the family of his daughter-in-law, Elizabeth Pope [whose children became wards of Richard Lee II and Lettice Corbin], as well as various other ways26. Col. John Washington (1632-1676/7) of Wakefield and a member of this family, married 1stly, about 1658, Ann (d. 1668/9), a daughter of Col. Nathaniel Pope (1603-1659) of St. Mary’s County, Maryland, and of Virginia27. William Payne’s wife, Elizabeth Pope, is thought to possibly have been a niece of Ann (Pope) Washington. This piece of speculation is strengthened by the knowledge that Col. Washington married 2ndly, Ann (d. 1675), a daughter of Dr. Thomas Gerard (1608-1673), and sister-in-law of William Eltonhead (d. 1655), whose sister, Alice, was the wife of Henry Corbin as previously cited28. It is also important to note that Ann Gerard had been the widow of Walter Broadhurst and Henry Brett. These associations to the Suffolk/Massachusetts Payne family are an important point which I will make clearer in a moment.
Gabriel Pulteney’s brother [Sir John’s uncle] was Michael Pulteney (d. 1567), who had been an MP for Lichfield, Staffordshire in 1563. Michael Pulteney’s wife had been Catherine (d. 1577), daughter of Sir John Fermor (d. 1571) of Easton Neston, Northamptonshire [and MP for that county in 1553 and 1555] and Maud Vaux, whose sister, Margaret Vaux, was the wife of Sir Francis Pulteney, and they were the parents of Gabriel and Michael Pulteney29. After Michael Pulteney’s death in 1567, his widow Catherine (Fermor) Pulteney married Sir Henry Darcy (d. 1592/3) of London, Brimham, Yorkshire and Leighton Bromsfield, Huntingdonshire, MP for Knareborough 1558 and Huntingdonshire 1571, 157230. In 1590, Sir Henry and Catherine (Fermor Pulteney) Darcy sold the manor of Midloe, in St. Neots, Huntingdonshire, to Robert Payne (d. 1603)31, likely brother [or at least close kinsmen] of Robert Payne, Salter of London, who died in 1622 and of Florentine Payne [the said Salters brother as found in his will], as well as the father of Sir Robert Payne (1573-1631), who inherited the Manor of Midloe on his fathers death and was likely the father of the immigrant John Payne (d. 1689/90). Records in the biographical sketch of Sir Robert Payne of St. Neots by Mr. Healy previously cited and the inscription on the tomb of Sir Robert Payne, makes it clear that he had two sons who were born after 161332. One of these may very well have been our immigrant John Payne of Virginia. The amount of evidence that we now have in support of this conclusion seems overwhelming- and I am just beginning with it.
Returning now to the Admiralty Court case surrounding John Payne, Joseph Hawes, Adam Thoroughgood, John Withers, and others of interest involved with the ship John and Dorothy, Appendix A shows that the brother-in-law of John Payne’s partner, Joseph Hawes, was a Capt. George Payne, who stepped in to purchase the ship to return her to London33. The Visitation of Huntingdonshire 1613, “The Paynes of Virginia,” and other sources assure us that of the known children of Sir Robert Payne of St. Neots, one of his sons was named George who was alive as late as 1645 when his mother, Dame Elizabeth (Rotheram) Payne, made her will34. The will of a George Payne35, Gent. of London, dated 1662, names his “loving kinsmen” Robert and John Pain, Gents., of St. Neots, Huntingdonshire, as his executors. As this is clearly George, son of Sir Robert Payne, it is believed that these kinsmen were his cousins, Robert and John, grandsons of Edward Payne of St. Neots, and Dorothy Clampe [Edward being Sir Robert Payne’s uncle]36. This 1662 will of George Payne, with obvious attachments to St. Neots [where only one man of the name in the period has been identified- and he a son of Sir Robert], would seem to establish his presence in London- where we also know that the earlier “Capt.” George Payne of the 1630s had been active with his brother-in-law, Joseph Hawes, and with John Payne and Adam Thoroughgood in regard to the John and Dorothy. Of ancillary support for this identification [if any is needed], is the fact that all of the children named in his will are identical to the names of the known children of Sir Robert. The only exception to this are Susan and John Payne. However, we need to keep in mind that Sir Robert had two sons and two daughters that had been born after 1613 whose names remain unknown. Also, there is a possible family association with the surname Hawes as found in the will, dated 2 July 1556, of Lawrence Hawes of St. Edward's parish, Cambridge, near to St. Neots, in which he names his “brother” Robert Payne37. The name of his wife is only given as Emma and it is possible that she was Emma Payne, and an aunt [or great-aunt] of Sir Robert. Be this as it may, I feel that even without this consideration, all other records are sound in their support that John Payne (d. 1689/90) of Virginia was a member of the Huntingdonshire family of Sir Robert Payne and kinsman of Florentine Payne, brother of Robert, the Salter of London.
Now I would like to turn attention to the other association that I mentioned with the Suffolk branch of the Payne family. Although it has been briefly covered here [and in much more detail in earlier papers I have written on the subject found on the Payne rootsweb mailing lists], I would like to recall that Lettice (Corbin) Lee, who along with her husband Richard Lee II, was the guardian of Payne children, was a daughter of Alice Eltonhead, sister of William Eltonhead who had married Jane Gerard.
I have already shown how we are led to the Suffolk Paynes through the Corbin/Pulteney connection and how, in turn, the Pulteneys also connect us to the Paynes of Huntingdonshire. Taking a different approach, however, we are led to the same destination by following the family of Henry Corbins wife, Alice Eltonhead.
Her brother, William Eltonhead (d. 1655) and his wife, Jane Gerard [a kinswoman of Col. John Washington and his wife], offer us some paths to the Suffolk Payne family too. This couple owned at least two slaves bearing the surname Payne. They appear to have come into the family through the Gerards, or through one of Jane’s prior marriages, by 1650 when we find reference to slave Francis Payne38. But they also owned a slave by the name of Tom Payne and possibly one other39. Prior to her marriage with Eltonhead, Jane had been the wife of Capt. Thomas Smith and of Capt. Philip Tayor. All three of her husbands were among Capt. William Claibornes closest adherents at Kent Island. Smith was executed by the Maryland proprietary for his support of Claiborne. By Taylor, Jane was the mother of Thomas Taylor (d. bef. 1702) of St. Mary’s and Dorchester Counties, Maryland. He is known to have had a wife by the name of Frances, who is thought to have been a Yeardley. In support of this is the fact that Adam Thoroughgoods 1st wife had also been a Frances Yeardley, and Capt. Claiborne had made over part of his plantation at Kicoughtan to Thoroughgood. In 1643, Thomas Taylor and his wife, Frances, sold 1,000 acres of land to William Andrews40 and in 1664, they sold 500 acres to William Kendall.41 In 1685, Kendall gave 700 acres of land to his son-in-law, Hancock Lee, brother of Richard Lee II [wife Lettice Corbin]42. The name of William Andrews is key here, for on October 28, 1640, Argoll Yeardley, father-in-law of Adam Thoroughgood, issued the following:
“To All Christian people to whom these presents shall Come Greetings in our Lord God everlasting, Know ye, that whereas by the certain relacon of Mr. WILLIAM ANDREWS and through the undoubted truth appearinge by the antiquity of his knowledge I am right[ly] informed that he the said Mr. Andrews was present amongest others with my deceased father Sir George Yardley when first hee tooke up a Certain parcell of land at Mattawames with his intente to seate upon the same, whose relacon hath been expressed in the presence of Mr. Littleton, Mr. Nathanial Eaton, Mr. Thomas Stampe, and others that the Indyans at that tyme did Alltogether for the most and greatest parte live and inhabite upon the ground or shoare which is now inhabited by Captain William Stone, and that the Creek or river which runneth up betweene the towne which is nowe called Mattawomes, on the one side thereof, and the land which Captain Stone nowe inhabiteth on the other side, was then and [has] bene called Hungers Creeke, and taken & accompted the Mayne Creek.”
In addition, these families shared a relationship with a man by the name of Col. Edmund Scarburgh of Northampton County, which brings me to my last point.
Before moving to St. Mary’s County, the Eltonheads had lived on Virginia’s Eastern Shore in Northampton County, where Col. Edmund Scarburgh had stood as security for the personal appearance of William Eltonhead at court to answer a suit brought against him by Major Obedience Robins43. Eltonhead failed to appear and it cost Col. Scarburgh 909 lbs. of tobacco.
And on 22 July 1653, William Eltonhead witnessed an indenture between Argoll Yeardley [Adam Thoroughgoods father-in-law] and Thomas Butteris44.
It is through Col. Scarburgh that we are led to the Suffolk Payne family through a lawsuit brought against him by William Payne (d. 1660) of Boston and Ipswich, Massachusetts, who was a descendant of that branch of the family. The records of this lawsuit tell us that William Payne of Boston had, at some time prior to the suit [ca. 1651], been present at Capt. Claibornes plantation at Kicoughtan where he had entered into some form of business transaction with Col. Scarburgh that went unsatisfied45. At the time of this suit, Payne was not yet proprietor of the Iron Works at Saugus46, so whatever the business was, it appears that it could not have been associated with that enterprise. Nor can we glean from the records exactly when he had been in Virginia- or even why. But what we can determine is that it had been conducted at the place where Capt. William Claiborne made his home and it is curious to note that, in 1632, a William Payne, Carpenter, is recorded as leading Claiborne’s Kent Island shipbuilding program47. William Payne of Boston is known to have been, among many things, a carpenter, and his inventory shows that he had pieces of several ships among his belongings48. Although the evidence may not be quite strong enough to make the leap that William Payne of Boston was the earlier man at Kicoughtan building Claiborne’s ships, and perhaps that his later suit against Scarburgh derived from this, what is sure is that his attorney and “loving friend” representing his case against Scarburgh was William Kendall, Hancock Lee’s father-in-law and, as we have seen, associate of the Eltonhead and Gerard family. The proximity of William Payne of Boston to Richard Lee II [Hancock Lee’s older brother], the guardian of Payne children, combined with all other evidence presented here, makes it extremely difficult to deny the relationship that the records are suggesting.
But let’s add to this a little bit.
Col. Scarburgh’s wife is suggested as having been Mary Pott [vice Littleton as usually claimed], a sister of Francis Pott, whose widow, Susanna Baker, went on to marry William Kendall and became Hancock Lee’s mother-in-law49.
Dr. Thomas Gerard (d. bef. Oct. 1673), had married, as his 2nd wife, Rosamund (Rose), widow of John Tucker. John Lee (d. 1673) and Issac Allerton III were witnesses to his will50. After the death of Dr. Gerard, Rose married John Newton, Sr., and became the mother-in-law [step mother] of John Newton, Jr., who married Mary Allerton, sister-in-law of Simon Ayres [who had married her sister Elizabeth Allerton]. Simon was a son of Dr. Simon Ayres and Dorothy Payne (1598-1650), sister of William Payne (d. 1660) of Boston, Massachusetts, who had brought suit against Col. Scarburgh in Virginia51. Mary and Elizabeth Allerton also had a sister [perhaps a half-sister to Elizabeth], Sarah Allerton, who was the 1st wife of Hancock Lee, Richard Lee II’s brother. Finally, their brother, Willoughby Allerton (1664-1724), had married (among two other marriages), Sarah Taverner, widow of Capt. Ralegh Travers, whose tobacco warehouse John Payne (d. 1689/90) had been ordered to appraise in 165452. John Payne also collected tithes from Travers in Lancaster County53.
The records of William Paynes law suit against Col. Scarburgh also contain mention of a “cousin” to whom William wished his attorney to deliver anything he was able to recover from Scarburgh. That only makes sense if the “cousin” he referred to was living in Virginia where the suit was heard. Otherwise, it would seem necessary for him to clarify the instructions in his letter to his attorney as to who and where this “cousin” resided. Since his attorney was a Virginian, the logical conclusion, failing instructions to the contrary, is that his cousin was also a Virginian. If so, who could that cousin have been if not for John Payne of Westmoreland County? The research presented here seems to be begging the answer to the question as it all suggests that John Payne of Westmoreland was a cousin of William Payne of Boston.
I wish to emphasize that I am really only scratching the surface here. There are far too many details that could be added that would greatly expand it. However, I feel that I have adequately addressed some of the key elements that should drive the point home.
In conclusion, this material (loudly) suggests that John Payne of Westmoreland County and the Paynes of Virginia (as we have come to know them) were members of the Huntingdonshire Payne family. I still hope to find records in England (most likely Huntingdonshire/Cambridge) that will give the names of the two sons of Sir Robert Payne born after 1613. Although this research can do nothing more than let the records speak for themselves, if it is ultimately accepted, than it would become necessary for “The Paynes of Virginia” to abandon their claim to the “two lions passant” Arms as borne by Ralph Payne, Lord Lavington, of St. Kitts- who descended from the Wiltshire/Jersey Channel Islands Payn family. Instead, they would have to replace those arms (although there is no right for them to do so as governed by the College of Arms) with those of Sir Robert Payne. I have designed a representation of those arms as follows on the proceeding page.

Appendix A


The following are extracted from “A Calendar of Material relating to Ireland from The High Court of the Admiralty Examinations 1536-1641,” edited by John C. Appleby, Irish Manuscripts Commission, 1992.
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