Aqa a -gcse geography Unit 2 – Human Geography Revision Booklet



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AQA A -GCSE Geography

Unit 2 – Human Geography

Revision Booklet

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Question 1 – Population Change

Question 2 – Urban environment


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Question 6 – Tourism


Date of Unit 2 exam (2014) – Thursday 22nd May

Name: ______________________________________________________

Unit 2 – Human Geography Revision Guide


    • Read the command words of the question correct. Highlight it and look back at while answering the question

    • Don’t write about the geography of nowhere – use case studies where you can do add detail to your work.

    • Revise in a way that works for you, this might not be the same way as your friend – see 365 for more tips on how to revise effectively and what is the best way for you.

    • Practice exam questions and hand them to your teacher, they will mark it for you.
    Top Tips for success:

Command Words



Unit 2 – Human Geography https://encrypted-tbn3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:and9gcqih11y-mtqulmpsizvokny8vnvimszuri_ivpl-szhsb1pbld1jq

Population Change’

Question 1 on the human paper

Revision checklist –




Section

Content

Revised

1

Population Structure

Definitions

Birth Rate = number of live births per 1000

Death Rate – number of deaths per 1000

Natural Increase = Natural Change: the difference between birth rate and death rate. If BR is higher than DR, population will increase, vice versa if DR is higher than BR.http://www.bombayharbor.com/productimage/0188983001213348477/bathtub.jpg


DR

BR
Other important definitions: Zero growth/ J-curve/ S- curve/ exponential growth/ life expectancy/

Population distribution

Sparse = not a lot of people live there

Dense = lots of people live there (compact) map of the world showing population density


Natural Increase
Where is it more densely populated and where is it sparsely populated. What might be the reasons for this?




2

Demographic Transition Model

Example of countries in different stages



Stage 1 = Indigenous tribes

Stage 2 = Afghanistan

Stage 3 = Kenya

Stage 4 = UK

Stage 5 = Japan

This is an important model to show how the population is changing over time. It is not just a model for one country, but lots of different countries can be applied to the model.

There are several reasons for the changes through the DTM, and changes to the BR and DR are important.






Stage 1-2

Stage 3-4

Stage 4-5

Reasons for changes in birth rate

Many children needed for farming. Many children die at a young age. Religious/social encouragement. No family planning – birth control/education. (In Africa women receive little education and marry young and some governments do not approve of family planning).

Improved medical care and diet. Fewer children needed.

Family planning. Good health. Improving status of women – education and career orientated. Later marriages. (In Europe one/two children accepted family size and average cost of raising child is £60 000).

Reasons for changes in death rate

Disease. Famine. Poor medical knowledge so many children die.

Improvements in medical care, water supply and sanitation. Fewer children die.

Good health care. Reliable food supply.





3

Factors affecting population growth

Agricultural change

Changes in agriculture occur early in a country’s development. Even at intermediate levels, technology improves yields and saves labour. This frees some works for industry and more rapid economic growth. In the industrial revolution in the UK, factories needed a large work force, so for a while larger families were a benefit. Soon, however, technological advantages reduced the need for labour, making smaller families much more desirable.



Urbanisation

Rural to urban migration (moving home from a rural area to settle in a city) is common in poorer countries as cities are believed to have greater opportunities, and generally do. One major reason for such migration is to seek better educational opportunities for children. Children’s labour is therefore of less value in cities than in rural areas.



Education

As levels of educational achievement increase, bringing improved standards of living, children become an economic disadvantage. Fewer children means parents have more money to be spent on each one, giving them better future chances. Many parents in poorer countries see education as their children’s best chance in life.



Emancipation and status of women

As economies develop and education improves, opportunities for girls increase alongside those of boys. With development a larger workforce is required, so women must participate more in paid work outside the home. Reaching a good standard of living in a household requires two incomes.

Over time, prejudge against women holding more senior positions at work reduces. Equality increases and is perceived as not only acceptable but desirable. However, achieving highly in any career requires a large amount of commitment, leaving less opportunities to take maternity leave or care for children.

Some women make a decision to have children in later life, as they will have more money after they have climbed up the ladder.





4

Population Structure

Why do we take a census? What does it tell us about the population structure? How often is it taken?

FAT BOTTOM (HIGH BR) and THIN TOP (HIGH DR)

FAT BOTTOM (high BR)

and top is getting BIGGER (falling DR)

BELL JAR shaped. SIDES are getting WIDER, because BR is decreasing

BELL JAR shaped. SIDES are getting WIDER, because BR is decreasing

Low BR and DR. Stable population.

High amount of old people.

Population pyramids

Population structure means the 'make up' or composition of a population. Looking at the population structure of a place shows how the population is divided up between males and females of different age groups. Population structure is usually shown using a population pyramid. A population pyramid can be drawn up for any area, from a whole continent or country to an individual town, city or village



Key things to know about population pyramids

  • The shape of a population pyramid can tell us a lot about an area's population.

  • It gives us information about birth and death rates as well as life expectancy.

  • A population pyramid tells us how many dependants there are. There are two groups of dependants; young dependants (aged below 15) and elderly dependants (aged over 65).

  • Dependants rely upon the economically active for economic support.

  • Many LEDCs have a high number of young dependants, whilst many MEDCs have a growing number of elderly dependants.



5

Sustainable Population growth

Sustainable population growth = is one where its growth and development will not threaten the lives of future generations.

What changes birth rates?

Different factors can affect the sustainable population growth of a population



Desertification



6

YOUTHFUL

POPULATION GROWTH: Case Study 1: Any African country-Case study 2. How it was controlled-China



ANTI NATAL POLICY

China introduced this policy in 1979 when the population growth was massive. This was China method of reducing the population growth. The government limited each family to have only ONE child. This has some differing effects.

Rules of the One Child Policy:

  1. Must not marry until late 20s

  2. Must only have one successful pregnancy

  3. Must be sterilised or abort any children after first child

  4. Would increase their salary by 5-10% if stuck to one child.

Penalties (if couples did not follow the rules)

  1. 10% pay cut was enforced

  2. The fine that was imposed was so large it would bankrupt most households

  3. The family would have to pay for education and health for both children.

Evaluation – problems

  1. Women were forced to have abortion as late as 9 months

  2. Women were placed under massive pressure by their family, and the ‘granny police’

  3. Local government and central government had control over people private lives.

  4. Chinese society prefers boys; as a result many girls were disregarded or allow die (female infanticide)

  5. Chinese children have the reputation of been over indulged and this results in ‘little emperors’

  6. The population is

Evaluation – benefits

  1. The previously thought famine was avoided

  2. The population has been slowed down sufficiently to provide enough food and jobs for the population

  3. Many new industries have lifted millions out of poverty.

Changes to the policy from 1990s to the 2000s

  1. Young couples who are only children are allow to have two children

  2. Less time is needed for child care, and this means it frees up time for women to have a career. The attitude to having a daughter has improved.

  3. With an increase in wealth many people are breaking the rule because they can afford the fines.

  4. The policy is unlikely to relax because of there are still 1 millions more births than deaths, and a large percentage of the population still live on less than $2 a day.

  5. One of the major problems is the gender imbalance. There are more than 60 million more men than women.





7

YOUTHFUL POPULATION: Case Study 2:

Kerala, India

Anti-natal policy

Kerala in India is an example of trying to reduce the population of the country by offering different incentives to people who only have one child.

In Kerala there have been a number of initiatives to reduce population growth since 1980:



1. Women are being educated
Around half of all Indian women cannot read or write (illiterate). However, in Kerala 85% of women are literate. Better educated women are more likely to keep their children healthy.

2. Contraception is more widely available
3. The status of women has improved significantly
Women are no longer seen as a burden - they are regarded as an asset. Traditionally in India when a woman gets married the family have to pay money to the bridegroom's family. This is called a dowry. However, in Kerala it is the bridegroom's family who pay a dowry to the bride’s family.

How is it different to China-which is better and why?





8

YOUTHFUL POPULATION: Case study 3: Indonesian transmigration

Movement of people in Indonesia

Transmigration = the movement of people to different parts of one country.

Goals of the policy:



  • To move millions of Indonesians from the densely populated inner islands such as Java, Bali and Madura to the less densely populated outer islands, to achieve a more even population distribution.

  • To reduce poverty by providing land and new opportunities for poor landless settlers to generate (create) income.

  • To be able to exploit the resources of the outer islands more effectively.

Objections

The programme has raised objections from human rights and environmental campaigners.



The objections are

  1. Indonesia's outer islands contain some 10% of the world's remaining rainforest; the transmigration programme has increased pressure on the natural forests and has led to the loss of the forests;

  2. Resettlement was used by the Government to control the indigenous population on the outer islands (i.e. the tribes that have always lived there)

  3. Transmigration has broken the agreements over land rights of the indigenous people and is aimed at the forced integration of indigenous people and the new settlers from Java;

The current Indonesian government dropped the migration policy.



9

Ageing Population-Case study the UK

Key words

Pension: Money that people save for during their working years to use when they retire.

Dependency ratio: The balance between people who are independent (working and paying taxes) and those who depend on them.

Social Services: A government help scheme to help people who are vulnerable. People who require more help.

Opportunities and issues of an ageing population

Opportunities

Issues

Older people have great knowledge to pass onto the younger generations.

The demand for healthcare increases because more illness occurs when people are older.

Many elderly people so voluntary work and some have paid jobs, which contributes to taxes.

There are more elderly people and less people working, therefore taxes have to increase to pay for pensions.

People who retire earlier contribute to the economy

In MEDCs people are expected to retire and have a pension.

Many elderly people travel providing jobs in the service sector

Life expectancy is higher in MEDCs compared to LEDCs




Elderly people need services such as nursing homes, day- care centres and people to help them at home.





10

Reducing an ageing population: EU Case study

GERMANY AND FRANCE

Pro natal policies

France’s Policy

France is worried that there are too many old people who are DEPENDENT and not enough young people. There are not enough people who are paying taxes. This will reduce its dependency ration. France like other EU countries is experiencing very low birth rates. It is currently experiencing 12.7 births per 1,000 people and is well below replacement rate. Smaller families and later motherhood could soon result in a noticeable decline in population. In each generation there are fewer parents so fewer children are born. This is due to many reasons such as later marriages, the career and education of the woman and the financial undertaking of having a child.



  • It has decided to encourage people to have more children (natal policy). This will make sure that people are working.

  • Germany has a low Birth rate of 8.5 birth per 1000 people.

The incentives…

  • Three years of paid parental leave which can be used by mothers or fathers or a combination.

  • Full time school starts at the age of 3 – fully paid by the government

  • Day care for children younger than 3 is paid for by the government

  • The more children a woman has in France the earlier she will be allowed to retire.

Germany’s policy

In 2006 Germany decided to give incentives to couples to have more children, including tax breaks and up to $1800 a month for parents to take time off work.

The government hopes that this "elterngeld," or parents' money, will give professional women an incentive to stay home from work for a year and look after their children. If a new mother does so, she will receive 67 percent of her net salary up to a maximum of €1,800, or about $2,370, a month.

Merkel's drive to boost the birthrate follows years of decline. Indeed, in 2005, Germany recorded its lowest birthrate since 1946, when the federal statistics office started compiling data. According to the office, 685,795 babies were born last year, down from 705,622 in 2004.

There was a jump soon after the fall of the Berlin Wall, with 905,675 babies born in 1990 in East and West Germany combined. But that was far from the boom of the early 1960s: More than 1.3 million infants were born across Germany in 1964.

The new measures mark a major break with the traditional family policy of the Merkel's Christian Democratic Union and its sister party, the Christian Social Union, based in Bavaria. For years, the parties sought to have educated mothers stay at home and depend on the man as the breadwinner





11

UK’s Ageing Population

Case study: South Devon, UK





12

Migration

Key words for migration

Migration = movement of people from one home to another with the intention of staying at least a year

Push factor = the negative aspects of a place that encourages people to move away

Pull factor = Attractions and opportunities of a place that encourages people to move there.

Immigrant = someone entering a new country with the intention of living there

Emigrant = Some leaving their country of residence to move to another country

Destination country = the country where the migrant settles

Country of origin = the country from where migration starts

Refugee = Compulsory migration. People have little choice about moving.



13

Migration case study:

FROM THE EU TO THE UK

Poland



PUSH FACTORS

Environmental

Political

Social

12% of the population have access to clean water

The government is fragile, was run by the Taliban

1 in 5 children will die before their 5th birthday

Drought is a big problem impacting agriculture

There is little medical help because of the government not allowing supplies through the country

Many people are extremely poor and live on less than $2 a day

Agriculture is declining and this is having an impact on peoples income

The government is still having to try and combat the Taliban

Many people are scared of exile.



PULL FACTORS TO THE UK

  1. The UK has a low deportation rate, meaning that people are often allowed to stay.

  1. The UK treats refugees generously by giving them food, education and healthcare.



Benefits to source country

Disadvantages to source country



























Benefits to the host country

Disadvantages to the host country



































14

Migration case study:

FROM OUTSIDE THE EU TO UK

Afghanistan

Afghanistan

Has been at a war since 2002 after September 11th. It is a dangerous country and people don’t feel safe their and there are several other reasons for migration. However, people who move from Afghanistan are called…



REFUGEES = People who are at risk if they stay in their own country. They become refugees if they settle in another country.

PUSH FACTORS

Environmental

Political

Social

12% of the population have access to clean water

The government is fragile, was run by the Taliban

1 in 5 children will die before their 5th birthday

Drought is a big problem impacting agriculture

There is little medical help because of the government not allowing supplies through the country

Many people are extremely poor and live on less than $2 a day

Agriculture is declining and this is having an impact on peoples income

The government is still having to try and combat the Taliban

Many people are scared of exile.



PULL FACTORS TO THE UK

  1. The UK has a low deportation rate, meaning that people are often allowed to stay.

  1. The UK treats refugees generously by giving them food, education and healthcare.





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