Assignment with Basic Measurements in Epidemiology



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Assignment with Basic Measurements in Epidemiology.

Question 1 & 2 are based on the information given below:

The first table shows the total number of persons who ate each of two specified food items that were possibly infective with group A streptococci. The second table shows the number of sick persons (with acute sore throat) who ate each of the various specified combinations of the food items.

Total # of persons who ate each specified combination of food items






Ate Tuna

Did not eat Tuna

Ate egg salad

75

100

Did not eat egg salad

200

50

Total # of persons who ate each specified combination of food items & who later became sick (with Acute sore throats)




Ate Tuna

Did not eat Tuna

Ate egg salad

60

75

Did not eat egg salad

70

15

Q-1) What is the sore throat attack rate in persons who ate both Egg salad & Tuna?

  1. 60/75

  2. 70/200

  3. 60/135

  4. 60/275

  5. None of the above

Q-2) According to the results shown in the preceding tables, which of the following food items (or combination of food items) is most likely to be infective?

  1. Tuna only

  2. Egg salad only

  3. Neither tuna nor egg salad

  4. Both tuna and egg salad

  5. Cannot be calculated from the data given

Questions (3-a) & (3-b) use the information below:

Population of the city of Atlantis on March 30, 2012 = 183,000

No. of new active cases of TB occurring between January 1 & June 30, 2012= 26

No. of active TB cases according to the city register on June 30, 2012 = 264

Q 3-a) The incidence rate of active cases of TB for the 6-month period was:


  1. 7/100,000 population

  2. 14/100,000 population

  3. 26/100,000 population

  4. 28/100,000 population

  5. 130/100,000 population

Q 3-b) The prevalence rate of active TB as of June 30, 2012, was:

  1. 14/100,000 population

  2. 130/100,000 population

  3. 144/100,000 population

  4. 264/100,000 population

  5. None of the above

Q-4 - 7) Choose the rate that best describes the statements from (Q 4 -7)

  1. Secondary attack rate

  2. Case fatality rate

  3. Morbidity rate

  4. Age-adjusted mortality

  5. Crude mortality

Q-4) Death occurs in 10% of cases of meningococcal meningitis ( )

Q-5) Approximately 9 people die each year in the united states for every 1000 estimated to be alive ( )

Q-6) Eighty percent of susceptible household contacts of a child with chickenpox develop this disease ( )

Q-7) Children between the ages of 1 and 5 have an average of eight colds per year ( )

Q-8 & 9) Questions 8 & 9 are based on the information given below:

In an Asian country with population of 6 million people, 60,000 deaths occurred during the year ending December 31, 2014. These included 30,000 deaths from cholera in 100,000 people who were sick with cholera.

Q-8) What was the cause-specific mortality rate from cholera in 2014?

Q-9) What was the case-fatality from cholera in 2014?


Q-10) The incidence rate of a disease is five times greater in women than in men, but the prevalence rates show no sex difference. The best explanation is that:

  1. The crude all-cause mortality rate is greater in women

  2. The case-fatality from this disease is greater in women

  3. The case-fatality from this disease is lower in women

  4. The duration of this disease is shorter in men

  5. Risk factors for the disease are more common in women


Scenario Q-11)

The tables below give you information about the population of two communities and the proportion of persons who are smokers in each community.

Table 1: Age and sex distribution of smokers

in each community

Age band

Community A

Community B

Men

Women

Men

Women

15-34

20%

30%

40%

10%

35-54

15%

15%

30%

7%

55-74

15%

10%

20%

4%

75+

10%

5%

10%

0%


Table 2: Population composition of each community

Age band

Community A

Community B

Men

Women

Men

Women

15-34

30,000

30,000

24,000

24,000

35-54

30,000

30,000

20,000

20,000

55-74

20,000

24,000

4,000

5,000

75+

16,000

20,000

1,000

2,000

Total

96,000

104,000

49,000

51,000

Calculate the proportion of the male population of Community A who are smokers. (4+3)

Q-12) The table below refers to a province of a developed country. The province has three administrative regions, a city and two rural regions (rural A and rural B). The table shows numbers of cases of TB in each of the five years from 2000 to 2004. The population of each administrative region does not change over the five years.



Area

Average population
2000 to 2004

Number of cases of TB in this year

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

City

1,450,000

221

214

201

186

175

Rural A

250,000

9

12

16

19

23

Rural B

350,000

8

11

13

16

19

Whole province

2,050,000

238

237

230

221

217

Q-1: Calculate, the average incidence of TB per 100,000 population in year 2001 across the whole province: (5)

Q-2: Why are prevalence rates more useful than incidence rates for measuring chronic diseases? (2)

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