Astronomy 101, Final A

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Astronomy 101, Final A

No notes, No books; You can use calculators. Pick the best answer for each question.
Constants that you may need to know:

c = 3 x 108 m/s

1 AU = 1.49 ×10^11 meters

1 light year = 9.46 × 1015 meters

h = 6.626 x 10-34 J●s

mass of Earth = 5.97 × 1024 kg

mass of Sun = 1.99 x 1030 kg

G = 6.67 × 10-11 m3 kg-1 s-2

mass of Moon = 7.35 x 1022 kg

mass of Jupiter = 1.90 x 1027 kg

g = 9.8 m/s2

radius of Earth = 6.38 × 106 m

radius of Jupiter = 7.15 × 107 m

σ = 5.67 x 10-8 W m-2 K-4

1 nm = 1 x 10-9 meters

radius of Moon = 1.74 × 106 m

  1. Which of these objects is considered a dwarf planet?

A) Hydra

B) Makemake

C) Mercury

D) Phobos

E) Nix

  1. Pluto’s three moons are …

A) Chiron, Phobos, and Deimos

B) Charon, Nix, and Hydra

C) Haumea, Makemake, and Ceres

D) Hades, Persephone, and Loki

E) Hercules, Hela, and Tycho

  1. Tidal forces arise because …

A) when a body accelerates it loses energy

B) the gravitational force exerted on one body by a second body is constant

across its diameter.

C) one kilogram of water is more massive than one kilogram of rock on the Earth

D) the gravitational force exerted on one body by a second body is not constant

across its diameter.

E) the gravitational force of the Moon on the Earth is twice as strong in the

Summer in the Northern Hemisphere than in the Winter

  1. Which of these statements is one of Kepler’s laws of planetary motion?

A) The orbit of every planet is a circle with the sun at the center.

B) The orbit of every planet is an ellipse with the Earth at the center.

C) The cube of the orbital period of a planet is directly proportional to the square root of the semi-major axis of its orbit.

D) A line joining a planet and the sun sweeps out equal areas during equal

intervals of time.

E) All planets have cleared the neighborhood of their orbit.

  1. A solar eclipse occurs during a …

A) New Moon

B) Full Moon

C) First Quarter Moon

D) Third Quarter Moon

E) Waning Crescent

  1. A light-year is a unit of …

  1. time.

  2. distance.

  3. energy.

  4. force.

  5. power.

  1. Seasons on the Earth are a consequence of …

A) the varying distance between the Earth and the Sun during the year.

B) the varying speed of the Earth in its orbit about the Sun.

C) the precession of the Earth's rotation axis.

D) the tilt of the Earth's rotation axis relative to the ecliptic.

E) the tilt of the Moon's orbital plane relative to the ecliptic.

  1. A body is 8 Astronomical Units from the Sun. What is the body’s orbital period around the Sun?

A) 18.7 years

B) 22.6 years

C) 20.4 years

D) 24.8 years

E) 28.3 years

  1. Which of these parts of the electromagnetic spectrum has the longest wavelength?

    1. Gamma-ray

    2. infrared

    3. X-ray

    4. visible

    5. ultraviolet

  1. The hottest part of the Sun is its …

  1. photosphere

  2. Core

  3. Radiative zone

  4. Convective zone

  5. Corona

  1. A photon has a frequency of 1 x 10-13 Hz. What is the wavelength of this photon?

    1. 3 x 10-5 meters

    2. 6.626 x 10-21 meters

C) 3 x 108 meters

D) 6.626 x 10-6 meters

E) 3 x 1021 meters

  1. As the frequencies of photons of light increase, their …

    1. Wavelengths increase and their energies increase

    2. Wavelengths decrease and their energies increase

    3. Wavelengths decrease and their energies decrease

    4. Wavelengths increase and their energies stay the same

    5. Wavelengths stay the same and their energies stay the same

  1. Which spectral type of star has the hottest surface temperature?

  1. G2

  2. B7

  3. A4

  4. F9

  5. K6

  1. What color is an M2 star?

  1. blue

  2. red

  3. yellow

  4. white

  5. green

  1. Put these parts of the electromagnetic spectrum in order from lowest frequency to highest frequency:

Lowest  Highest frequency

  1. Radio, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, X-ray, gamma-ray

  2. Gamma-ray, X-ray, ultraviolet, visible, infrared, radio

  3. Radio, visible, ultraviolet, X-ray, gamma-ray, infrared

  4. Gamma-ray, X-ray, ultraviolet, visible, radio, infrared

  5. Radio, X-ray, infrared, ultraviolet, visible, gamma-ray

  1. A prism can be used to break light up into its constituent spectral colors since different wavelengths of light are refracted differently by glass and leave the prism at different angles. What is the order of the colors of light from smallest to largest energy of the photons?

Smallest  Largest energy

  1. Violet, Indigo, Red, Blue, Green, Yellow, Orange

  2. Red, Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue, Indigo, Violet

  3. Red, Yellow, Orange, Blue, Green, Indigo, Violet

  4. Violet, Indigo, Green, Blue, Orange, Yellow, Red

  5. Violet, Indigo, Blue, Green, Yellow, Orange, Red

  1. Assume that 40K has a half-life of 1.25 x 109 years and decays into either 40Ar or 40Ca. You initially start with 500 grams of pure 40K. How many grams of 40K will you have in 3.75 x 109 years?

A) 62.5 grams

B) 100 grams

C) 125 grams

D) 250 grams

E) 500 grams

  1. Why is part of the core of the Earth thought to be liquid?

  1. S-waves cannot pass through the core

  2. The density of the Earth is larger than the Moon

  3. P-waves cannot pass through the core

  4. The Earth must have incorporated a large abundance of liquid helium when it formed

  5. Volcanoes in the Earth allow water to sink to the core

  1. The solar nebula was primarily …

  1. hydrogen

  2. nitrogen

  3. helium

  4. oxygen

  5. iron

  1. Shoemaker-Levy 9 …

    1. was a spacecraft that studied Jupiter.

    2. was a spacecraft that studied impact craters on Mars.

    3. is a Dwarf Planet.

    4. was a comet.

    5. is a satellite of Saturn.

  1. Which gas is considered a greenhouse gas?

A) N2

B) H2

C) He

D) CO2

E) Kr

  1. Why was the South Pole-Aitken Basin though to be the best place to look for water ice on the Moon?

    1. The solar wind only strikes the South Pole-Aitken Basin

    2. The South Pole-Aitken Basin is predominately Lunar Maria

    3. The South Pole-Aitken Basin is predominately Lunar Highlands

    4. Comets only impact the Moon at the South Pole-Aitken Basin

    5. Some craters are extremely cold at the South Pole-Aitken Basin since they are permanently shaded from the Sun

  1. Put these bodies in order from lowest to highest density.

Lowest density  highest density

    1. Moon, Earth, Jupiter, Saturn

    2. Moon, Jupiter, Saturn, Earth

    3. Saturn, Jupiter, Moon, Earth

    4. Jupiter, Saturn, Earth, Moon

    5. Earth, Moon, Saturn, Jupiter

  1. Which of these planets is not considered a Jovian planet?

    1. Neptune

    2. Mars

    3. Uranus

    4. Saturn

    5. Jupiter

  1. Mars atmosphere is predominately …

    1. O3

    2. N2

    3. CO2

    4. H2

    5. He

  1. Channels on Mars are usually assumed to be due to either due to flowing water in the past or …

  1. organisms

  2. lava

  3. glaciers

  4. tidal forces due to Martian moons

  5. lightning

  1. Many astronomers believe that Mars was once covered with oceans much like the Earth, even though it possesses little or no liquid water on its surface now. What does this imply about Martian history?

    1. The atmosphere of Mars is thicker today than in its distant past

    2. The atmosphere of Mars was thicker in the past than today

    3. The thickness of the Martian atmosphere hasn’t changed over its history

    4. The size of the Martian core must have been much smaller

    5. Mars must have had more moons




elevation (km)

  1. In the above figure, A is on what feature?

    1. Caloris Basin

    2. Gusev Crater

    3. Bonneville Crater

    4. Hellas Basin

    5. Olympus Mons

  1. In the above figure, the white arrow next to B points to what feature?

A) Maxwell Montes

B) Olympus Mons

C) Hellas Basin

D) Phoenix Heights

E) Mount St. Helens

  1. In the above figure, the black arrow next to C points to what feature?

A) Maxwell Montes

B) Valles Marineris

C) Hellas Basin

D) Grand Canyon

E) Mount St. Helens

  1. The geology of Venus appears to be dominated by ……

    1. volcanism

    2. plate tectonics

    3. erosion by flowing water

    4. impact cratering

    5. erosion by glaciers

  1. Why is the Mercury covered with impact craters and the Earth isn’t?

  1. Mercury has a lower gravitation acceleration than the Earth

  2. Wind, water, volcanism, and ice on Earth have destroyed most of its impact craters

  3. Mercury is smaller than the Earth

  4. Huge impacts on the Earth have covered up most of the impact craters

  5. The Earth’s magnetic field stops most objects from hitting the Earth’s surface

  1. The Great Red Spot is located on …

    1. Earth

    2. Jupiter

    3. Neptune

    4. Uranus

    5. Pluto

  1. The Drake equation estimates the potential number of extraterrestrial civilizations in …

    1. Our universe

    2. Our galaxy

    3. Our solar system

    4. The Andromeda galaxy

    5. The local cluster of galaxies

  1. The atmosphere of Titan is most similar to ..

    1. Earth

    2. Mars

    3. Jupiter

    4. Mercury

    5. Io

  1. Which of these bodies has the most active volcanoes?

    1. Mercury

    2. Io

    3. Ganymede

    4. Phobos

    5. Deimos

  1. The rings of Saturn are predominately composed of …

    1. Hematite

    2. Sulfates

    3. Water ice

    4. Olivine

    5. Pyroxene

  1. Which is not a Galilean moon?

    1. Triton

    2. Io

    3. Ganymede

    4. Callisto

    5. Europa

  1. Besides asteroids, what bodies in our solar system do most scientists think that we have samples of in our meteorite collections?

    1. Just the Moon

    2. Just Mars

    3. Just Venus

    4. Just the Moon and Mars

    5. Just Mars and Venus

  1. The Kuiper Belt extends from …

    1. The orbit of Mars to the orbit of Jupiter

    2. The orbit of Neptune to approximately 55 AU from the Sun

    3. Approximately 0.6 AU from the Sun to the orbit of Earth

    4. The orbit of Earth to the orbit of Mars

    5. Approximately 50,000 AU from the Sun to approximately 80,000 AU from the Sun

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