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1490

A camera obscura is a dark box with a small hole in the front. Light passes through this hole and lands on the back of the box, casting an upside-down version of the scene.


Although this idea had been understood by scholars for hundreds of years, Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) was the first to write a detailed description of the camera obscura in his Atlantic Codex in 1490.
An astronomer named Gemma Frisius (1508-1555) was the first to draw a camera obscura around 1545.
Image location (for your reference only)

http://www.ssplprints.com/image.php?imgref=10328116


Image credit

Frisius, Gemma. Gemma Frisius’ illustration of a camera obscura – 1545. 'De Radio Astronomica et Geometrico'. Accessed: 22 July 2010.

http://www.ssplprints.com/image.php?imgref=10328116


Reference

"BBC - History - British History in depth: Vermeer and the Camera Obscura". bbc.co.uk. 23 Jun 2010

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/empire_seapower/vermeer_camera_01.shtml
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1609

A camera obscura’s pinhole is unable to zoom in on any particular object in a scene. This level of control requires a lens to be placed at the pinhole of the camera obscura.


Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) tested the use of a lens in a camera obscura. The lens collects and focuses light much better than a pinhole. The resulting image projected onto the back of a lens-based camera obscura is much brighter. Kepler’s interest in lenses and optics led to great contributions to our understanding of how the human eye works.
Image location (for your reference only)

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d4/Johannes_Kepler_1610.jpg


Image credit

Johannes Kepler – 1610. Wikimedia Commons. Accessed: 22 July 2010. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Johannes_Kepler_1610.jpg
Reference

"BBC - h2g2 - The Camera Obscura". bbc.co.uk. 23 Jun 2010

http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A2875430
"Johannes Keples (German astronomer -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia)". britannica.com. 23 Jun 2010

http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/315225/Johannes-Kepler


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1664-1666

New discoveries about the behavior of light were essential to the later development of camera lenses and photographic recording processes. One of the most important such discoveries was made by Isaac Newton (1643-1727) in around 1664 when he placed a prism in a beam of sunlight and discovered that white light is composed of different colors. His experiments went on to prove that those colors can be recombines to create white light again.


Image location (for your reference only)

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/06/Prism_rainbow_schema.png


Image credit

Prism Rainbow Schema. Wikimedia Commons. Accessed: 22 July 2010. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Prism_rainbow_schema.png
Reference

"Inventor of the Week: Archive". web.mit.edu/invent. 23 Jun 2010

http://web.mit.edu/invent/iow/newton.html
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1825

While the principles of photography had been understood for centuries, scientists struggled to develop a way to permanently record a photographic image. The first person to accomplish this was Joseph Nicephore Niépce (1765-1833), who in 1825 used a technique called heliogravure to capture a photograph of an engraving of a man walking a horse.


Image location (for your reference only)

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/eb/Nic%C3%A9phore_Ni%C3%A9pce_Oldest_Photograph_1825.jpg


Image credit

Niépce, Joseph Nicephore. First permanent photographic image – 1825. Wikimedia Commons. Accessed: 22 July 2010. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Nic%C3%A9phore_Ni%C3%A9pce_Oldest_Photograph_1825.jpg
Reference

"BBC News | Eurpoe | World’s oldest photo sold to library". news.bbc.co.uk. 23 Jun 2010

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/1885093.stm
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1835

In the early 1800’s, many techniques were developed to record an image onto light-sensitive material. One of the earliest and most important inventions of this kind was made in 1835 by Henry Fox Talbot, who created the first photographic negative from which multiple positive prints were made. In 1841 he patented the process and named it “calotype,” Greek for “beautiful picture.”


Image location (for your reference only)

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/39/William_Henry_Fox_Talbot%2C_by_John_Moffat%2C_1864.jpg


Image credit

Moffat, John. Portrait of Henry Fox Talbot – 1864. Wikimedia Commons. Accessed: 22 July 2010. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:William_Henry_Fox_Talbot,_by_John_Moffat,_1864.jpg
Reference

"William Henry Fox Talbot (1800-1877) and the Invention of Photography | Thematic Essay | Hielbrun Timeline of Art History | The Metropolitan Museum of Art". metmuseum.org. 23 Jun 2010

http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/tlbt/hd_tlbt.htm
"William Henry Fox Talbot (Getty Museum)". getty.edu. 23 Jun 2010

http://www.getty.edu/art/gettyguide/artMakerDetails?maker=2005


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1839


Loius Daguerre (1787-1851) collaborated with Nicephore Niépce to develop a way to record photographic images that did not fade over time. In 1839, years after Niépce’s death, Daguerre announced that he had achieved this goal. His daguerreotype needed only three to fifteen minutes of exposure (much less than other available methods), and the image did not fade when later exposed to light.
Image location (for your reference only)

http://i.i.com.com/cnwk.1d/i/bto/20100127/croppedDaguerreotype-Giroux_Camera_610x413.jpg


Image credit

The Daguerreotype Giroux Camera, the World’s Oldest Commercially Produced Camera – 1878. WestLicht Photographica Auction. Accessed: 22 July 2010. http://news.cnet.com/8301-17938_105-10443041-1.html
Reference

"Daguerreotpye Photographs: The Daguerreotype". memory.loc.gov. 23 Jun 2010

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/daghtml/dagdag.html
"BBC NEWS | World | Europe | World’s ‘Oldest Camera’ Auctioned". news.bbc.co.uk. 23 Jun 2010

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/6695739.stm


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1861


While 3D stereo images were understood and enjoyed long before the invention of photography, they became wildly popular in the late 1800’s when photography became more widespread.
One of the most popular ways to view stereo images was with a handheld viewer, such as this “Holmes-type” stereoscope, developed by Oliver Wendell Holmes (1809-1894) in 1861.
Image location (for your reference only)

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f6/Holmes_stereoscope.jpg


Image credit

A Reproduction Holmes-Type Stereoscope. Wikimedia Commons. Accessed: 22 July 2010. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Holmes_stereoscope.jpg
Reference

"AmericanHeritage.com / A VANISHED AMERICA IN STEREO". AmericanHeritage.com. 23 Jun 2010

http://www.americanheritage.com/articles/magazine/ah/1960/1/1960_1_113.shtml
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1861


Scientists had theorized that a color photograph could be created by combining red, green and blue light, but the first person to prove the idea was James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879). Maxwell created the first color photograph by combining three black and white versions of the same image. Each image passed through a different color filter (red, green and blue) before exposing a single screen.
Image location (for your reference only)

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/7f/Tartan_Ribbon.jpg


Image credit

Maxwell, James Clerk, & Sutton, Thomas. Tartan Ribbon – 1861. Wikimedia Commons. Accessed: 22 July 2010. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Tartan_Ribbon.jpg
Reference

"The Impact of James Clerk Maxwell’s Work". clerkmaxwellfoundation.org. 23 Jun 2010

http://www.clerkmaxwellfoundation.org/html/maxwell_s_impact_.html
"Milestones in Photography -- National Geographic". photography.nationalgeographic.com. 23 Jun 2010

http://photography.nationalgeographic.com/photography/photos/milestones-photography/#color-tartan-ribbon_1376_600x450.jpg


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1878


The first photographs required very long exposure times. This meant that subjects had to remain very still while photos were being taken to avoid appearing blurry in the photo.
New developments in the late 1800’s made it possible to take photos with much shorter exposure times. Eadweard Muybridge (1830-1904) was one of the first photographers to take advantage of this, capturing sequences of photos of actions such as horses running, women dancing, and children jumping.
In 1879, Muybridge invented the zoopraxiscope to project his image sequences. In Greek, “zoopraxiscope” means “animal action viewer.”
Image location (for your reference only)

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/73/The_Horse_in_Motion.jpg

http://www.kingston.gov.uk/zoo.pdf
Image credit

Muybridge, Eadweard. The Horse in Motion – 1878. Wikimedia Commons. Accessed: 22 July 2010. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:The_Horse_in_Motion.jpg
Muybridge’s Zoopraxiscope, © Kingston Museum and Heritage Service. Accessed: 22 July 2010. http://www.kingston.gov.uk/
Reference

"About Muybridge". Kingston.gov.uk. 23 Jun 2010

http://www.kingston.gov.uk/browse/leisure/museum/museum_exhibitions/muybridge/about_muybridge.htm
"The Zoopraxiscope". Kingston.gov.uk. 23 Jun 2010

http://www.kingston.gov.uk/browse/leisure/museum/museum_exhibitions/muybridge/machinery_and_equipment/zoopraxiscope.htm


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1896


As photography became more widely available, scientists discovered new ways to use photos to advance their work. One example is the X-Ray, which was first discovered in 1896 by Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen (1845-1923).
In recognition of his discovery, Röntgen received the first Nobel Prize in Physics in 1901.
Image location (for your reference only)

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/6e/Anna_Berthe_Roentgen.gif


Image credit

Röntgen, Wilhelm C. X-Ray of the Hand of Anna Berthe Röntgen – 1895. Wikimedia Commons. Accessed: 22 July 2010. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Anna_Berthe_Roentgen.gif
Reference

"Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen: Biography". Nobelprize.org. 22 Jun 2010 http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/1901/rontgen-bio.html


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1900


The Brownie, released in 1900 by the Eastman Kodak Company, introduced low-cost photography to thousands of Americans and popularized the idea of the snapshot.
Image location (for your reference only)

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f0/Brownie2_overview.jpg


Image credit

Kodak Brownie Camera. Wikimedia Commons. Accessed: 22 July 2010. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Brownie2_overview.jpg
Reference

"The Brownie Camera @ 100: A Celebration". Kodak.com. 23 Jun 2010

http://www.kodak.com/US/en/corp/features/brownieCam/

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1931

A major advancement for photography came in 1931 when Harold Edgerton (1903-1990) invented ultra-high-speed and stop-action photography. Edgerton used his invention to capture events too fast to see with the human eye, such as droplets of liquid splashing and bullets flying through mid-air.


Image location (for your reference only)

http://webmuseum.mit.edu/images/DIAmed/HEE-NC-57001.L.JPG


Image credit

Edgerton, Harold E. Milkdrop Coronet – 1957. MIT Museum, Cambridge MA. HEE-NC-57001. MIT Museum, Edgerton Digital Collections. Accessed: 22 July 2010. http://edgerton-digital-collections.org
Reference

"Inventor of the Week: Archive". web.mit.edu/invent. 23 Jun 2010

http://web.mit.edu/invent/iow/edgerton.html
"Harold “Doc” Edgerton". edgerton-digital-collections.org. 23 Jun 2010

http://edgerton-digital-collections.org/docs-life/strobe-in-industry

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1938


While many scientists attempted to find a way to create print reproductions, it was Chester Carlson (1906-1968) who first developed a machine for instant copying using electrostatics. In 1968, the Xerox corporation introduced the first office copier based on Carlson’s invention. Carlson named his invention “electron photography,” but we know it today as xerography or photocopying.
Image location (for your reference only)

http://www.wired.com/images/article/full/2008/10/carlson_300px.jpg


Image credit

Chester Carlson with an early model of his invention. Bettmann/Corbis. Accessed: 23 July 2010.

http://www.wired.com/science/discoveries/news/2008/10/dayintech_1022


Reference

"Inventor of the Week: Archive". web.mit.edu/invent. 23 Jun 2010

http://web.mit.edu/invent/iow/carlson.html
"Chester Carlson Xerography History". Xeroc.com. 23 Jun 2010

http://www.xerox.com/innovation/chester-carlson-xerography/enus.html


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1948


Until the mid-1900’s, photographs required multiple steps in a special laboratory to be developed and printed. Edwin Land (1909-1991) changed this when he introduced the first Polaroid camera in 1948. The Polaroid developed and printed photos in a single step.
Image location (for your reference only)

http://smithsonianlibraries.si.edu/.a/6a00e54f95d5fc883301310f3eecbd970c-popup


Image credit

The first Polaroid Land Camera Model 95 – 1948. Smithsonian Libraries. Accessed: 23 July 2010.

http://smithsonianlibraries.si.edu/smithsonianlibraries/2010/02/polaroid-land-camera-introduced-in-february-1947.html


Reference

"Inventor of the Week: Archive". web.mit.edu/invent. 23 Jun 2010

http://web.mit.edu/invent/iow/land.html
"Smithsonian Libraries: Polaroid Land Camera Introduced in February 1947". smithsonianlibraries.si.edu. 23 Jun 2010

http://smithsonianlibraries.si.edu/smithsonianlibraries/2010/02/polaroid-land-camera-introduced-in-february-1947.html


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1957


In 1957, computer scientist Russell Kirsch asked the question “What would happen if computers could look at pictures?” The result was the first digital photograph, a 127x127 pixel (5x5 cm) image of his son, Walden.
Image location (for your reference only)

http://patapsco.nist.gov/ImageGallery/retrieve.cfm?imageid=342&dpi=300&fileformat=jpg


Image credit

Kircsh, Russell, The first digital image made on a computer – 1957. 57HIS001. NIST. Accessed: 23 July 2010.

http://patapsco.nist.gov/ImageGallery/details.cfm?imageid=342


Reference

"NIST Tech Beat - May 24, 2007". nist.gov. 23 Jun 2010 http://www.nist.gov/public_affairs/techbeat/tb2007_0524.htm


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1969


In 1969, George Smith and Willard Boyle set out to create a new type of computer memory. They were also interested in developing a new type of camera for video phones. The result of their work was the charged coupled device (CCD). All digital cameras sold today use CCDs to record images.
Smith and Boyle were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2009 for their work on CCD technology.
Image location (for your reference only)

http://www.bell-labs.com/news/1999/september/20/86-300253.jpeg


Image credit

Kircsh, Russell, Willard Boyle (Left) and George Smith (Right). Lucent Technologies. Accessed: 23 July 2010.

http://www.bell-labs.com/news/1999/september/20/1.html


Reference

“Bell Labs: George Smith and Willard Boyle Win C&C Prize for Charge-Coupled Device”. bell-labs.com 23 June 2010

http://www.bell-labs.com/news/1999/september/20/1.html
"The Nobel Prize in Physics 2009". Nobelprize.org. 23 Jun 2010 http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/2009/
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1975


In 1975, Steve Sasson built the prototype for the world’s first digital camera while working at Eastman Kodak. Sasson’s camera used CCD sensor technology.
Image location (for your reference only)

http://www.kodak.com/US/images/en/corp/1000nerds/steveSasson/1_Camera.jpg


Image credit

Vintage 1975 portable all electronic still camera. Kodak. Accessed: 23 July 2010.

http://pluggedin.kodak.com/post/?id=687843


Reference

“Kodak: Plugged In - We Had No Idea”. pluggedin.kodak.com 23 June 2010

http://pluggedin.kodak.com/post/?id=687843
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1991


Digital camera technology had existed for decades, but it was very expensive and limited to specialized research environments. Kodak released the first commercially available digital camera in 1991, introducing digital imaging to the public and beginning a trend of more affordable and user-friendly models.
Image location (for your reference only)

http://www.digicamhistory.com/Kodak%20DCS100-M.jpg


Image credit

Kodak DCS-100 SLR Digital Camera. Accessed: 23 July 2010.

http://www.digicamhistory.com/1990.html


Reference

“1990-1999”. Kodak.com 23 June 2010

http://www.kodak.com/global/en/corp/historyOfKodak/1990.jhtml?pq-path=2217/2687/2695/2703
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2000


Sharp introduced the world’s first phone with a camera and a color display in 2000. The J-SH04 was only available in Japan.
Image location (for your reference only)

http://gadgetcrave.frsucrave.netdna-cdn.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/06/j-sh04.jpg


Image credit

Sharp J-SH04 Mobile Phone. Accessed: 23 July 2010.

http://gadgetcrave.com/history-of-mobile-phones-10-phones-that-defined-a-technology/377/


Reference

“Sharp History bA Sharp Journey | Corporate Info: SHARP”. Sharp.com 23 June 2010



http://sharp-world.com/corporate/info/his/h_company/2000/

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