Packet by UCLA (Mary Huang, Kha Lai, Ray Luo, Charles Meigs, Jay Turetzky, Dwight Wynne)
1. In a lesser-known contemporaneous work with an almost identical title and plot, Aurelius and Polidor have no competition for the hands of Phylena and Emelia, respectively. However, in this work, one of those two daughters is absent entirely, meaning Gremio, Hortensio and Lucentio have to fight over Bianca. In both plays, the problem is finding someone willing to marry the eldest daughter Kate. FTP, what is this Shakespearean play whose plot also inspired the movie Ten Things I Hate About You and themusical Kiss Me, Kate?
Answer: The Taming of the Shrew; as opposed to the anonymous “The Taming of a Shrew”
2. They are produced when ps1 and ps2 in Notch signaling are mutated, causing gamma secretase to be malformed. The type I aspartyl proteases known as beta-secretase BACE1 and BACE2 can also produce them by cleaving their precursor protein at the +1 and +11 sites. They exhibit apple-green birefringence upon binding of congo red, as well as a cross-beta sheet quaternary structure. Curlin and tissue plasminogen form this type of structure naturally in living cells, without causing disease, but they are also symptomatic of the diseases kuru and type II diabetes. FTP, name this protein structure of prions, found in the beta type seen in Alzheimer’s patients.
Answer: amyloid fibers or plaques or aggregates
3. One city of this name, known as the Silent City, is located very close to the town of Rabat and is one of the most historically important cities on the Maltese island of Ghawdex [AW-DESH], or Gozo. A less common plural of this name gives part of the name of the most famous Nabataean ruins in Saudi Arabia, as well as the Arabic name for the Sassanian capital of Ctesiphon [TESS-IH-FAWN]. With Habu, it is the name of the funerary temple to the Egyptian pharaoh Ramesses III. The most famous place with this name is commonly referred to with the epithet “al-Munawwara,” meaning “the radiant”, or “an-Nebi.” Originally a city home to two pagan tribes, and interestingly, three Jewish tribes, it is famous for the Masjid Quba [MESS-JID KOO-BA] and was known as Yathrib in pre-Islamic times. Also home to Masjid an-Nabawi [MESS-JID EN-NEH-BUH-WEE], or the Prophet’s Mosque, and the destination of a famous emigration, this is, FTP, which holy city of Islam, located in Saudi Arabia, whose simple name is Arabic for city.
Answer: M(e)dina(t)(un) PROMPT ON Mada’in(un) (apparently the Maltese city is pronounced UM-DEE-NAH)
[Basically, the answer we want here is Medina, and that answer has all sorts of alternate spellings]
4. To the southwest of this city are the burial chambers known as the towers of Yemliko, and the Hypogea of Yarhai and the Three Brothers, as well as the Japanese tomb are the best-preserved underground tombs at this site. A member of its royal family, Vaballathus, died on his way to Rome as a captive, and this city’s Tariff Court was the site of an important stele. Among the local gods to whom temples are dedicated here is Nabo, and this city was loyal to Rome up until the slaying by Maconius of Septimius Odaenathus. Then, a woman ruling on behalf of her son claimed descent from Antony and Cleopatra started taking over large amounts of Asia Minor and Syria, supposedly to protect Rome from the Sassanids. FTP, name this ancient city whose centerpiece is the Temple of Bel, a town in the desert of Syria once ruled by Zenobia.
Answer: Palmyra or Tadmor
5. Author of A Critical Exposition of the Philosophy of Leibniz and Marriage and Morals, he was influenced by McTaggart and married the Quaker Alys Pearsall Smith. He wrote a dissertation on the foundations of geometry and published his first book on German Social Democracy. His last works were An Inquiry into Meaning and Truth and Human Knowledge, Its Scope and Limits, and his trip to Russia resulted in the critical The Practice and Theory of Bolshevism. Imprisoned for his pacifism during World War I, FTP name this English philosopher who collaborated with Whitehead on Principia Mathematica.
Answer: Bertrand Russell
6. Its expulsion from its original city occurred after a series of pranks, including painting a town statue red, leading to right-wing protests and budget cuts. Its second leader, Hannes [HAH-nuss] Meyer, was removed after only one year and replaced by the director of Deutscher Werkbund. Oskar Schlemmer painted a staircase about it, and Kandinsky and Klee were also associated with it. Officially dissolved in 1933 after Dessau came under Nazi control, it was led at one time by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe. Coming from the German for “building” and “house,” FTP, name this school of modern industrial design founded in Weimar by Walter Gropius.
7. Her aunt married her husband’s uncle in a union that produced a child with a grotesque deformation that she would fear all one hundred thirty plus years of her life. She kept her husband from impregnating her by wearing a chastity belt, until he was forced to kill Prudencio Aguilar, in a duel to defend his manliness. She went on to have four children, none of whom possessed the pig’s tail that she had so feared. FTP, name this wife of Jose Arcadio Buendia, the matriarch of Gabriel Garcia Marquez’s One Hundred Years of Solitude.
Answer: Ursula Iguaran Buendia
8. Dasen and Price-Williams found that the horizontal decalage proposed for this stage varies based on cultural differences. Children can define intension and extension of a class, but generally cannot understand concepts like congruence and mass. The ability to decenter and think reversibly emerge, and they recognize the conservation of area, number, and matter. Children start telling jokes with double meanings and take another person's perspective. FTP name this stage between preoperational and formal operational in Piaget's theory, in which children manipulate logical concepts.
Answer: concrete operational stage
9. The Kolmogorov criterion can be used to determine whether one version of this law applies, while the other version of this law can be proved quite easily using Chebyshev’s Inequality. The two versions use definitions first enunciated by Ernst Fischer and Friedrich Riesz, showing a limit either in measure and pointwise. Probably first proven in its weak form by Jakob Bernoulli, it is of important use to economists, as well as in setting significance levels in hypothesis testing. Stating that for a collection of independent and identically distributed random variables, the mean of n of them converges to the expectation of any of them as n goes to infinity, FTP, identify this law often grouped with the Central Limit Theorem, a more correct version of the Law of Averages.
Answer: (Weak or Strong) Law of Large Numbers (prompt on “(Empirical) Law of Averages”)
10. In a deleted scene we learn that his ideal woman is a survivor of monster rape; in that episode we also learn that he looks for “large breasts” in a woman because babies in his family are “very thirsty”. He lost his fifth-grade spelling bee on the word “failure.” In a commercial for the Winter Olympics, he claims that he could win the biathlon by hanging back and shooting all the other competitors. Recently, he used landmark quotes of Communism in a rabble-rousing speech at the Northeast Sales Association. FTP, identify this bespectacled character on the American version of The Office.
Answer: Dwight K. Schrute (accept either)
11. The French sent Desprey, Saint-Vallier, and Waddington to the first meeting of this name, which gave Dobruja to Romania and Cyprus to Great Britain and created the autonomous area of Eastern Rumelia. The second meeting of this name was called after Britain and Portugal signed a treaty preventing the French from taking advantage of treaties signed by Savorgnan [SAH-VORE-NYAHN] de Brazza. FTP, give the shared name of these 1878 and 1884 meetings, one of which was called to modify the Treaty of San Stefano, and one which gave most of the rules in the “scramble for Africa.”
Answer: Berlin Congress or Congress of Berlin
12. “Father, father, where are you going” begins “The Little Boy Lost,” which, unlike “A Little Boy Lost,” appears (*) in this collection. The lighthearted tone of “Infant Joy” contrasts with the author’s later “Infant Sorrow.” Unlike in a later poem of the same name, Tom Dacre cries when his head is shaved so the “soot cannot spoil [his] white hair.” The most famous poem in the collection asks the title animal “Dost thou know who made thee,” but this animal has “Softest clothing wooly bright” instead of, as in a poem written five years later, “fearful symmetry.” FTP, identify this 1789 collection of poems including “The Chimney Sweeper” and “The Lamb,” which author William Blake later merged with his poems on experience.
Answer: Songs of Innocence (accept “William Blake” until the end of the first sentence; accept “Songs of Innocence and Experience” until *)
13. He resisted the temptation of another man’s wife for a year, after which he defeated Havgan. He climbed the hill Gorsedd [GORE-seð] Arberth after being told he would either be wounded or see a wonder once he sat on it, and he indeed saw his future wife. He defeated Gwawl through his wife’s trickery, but lost his son Pryderi when six women watching over him fell asleep at the same time. The Lord of Dyfed, FTP, identify this hero of the first branch of the Mabinogion and husband of Rhiannon.
Answer: Pwyll [POO-ill]
14. In Full Metal Alchemist, it is the specialty of Shou Tucker, the Sewing Life Alchemist. The novel by this name tells three stories from different perspectives, including one told by Dunyazade, sister of Scheherazade, while Derek Mahon wrote some poems collected by the plural of this name. In art and design, it identifies a pale purple or lavender color. In biology, it identifies an organism with genetically distinct cells from two different zygotes. In Mission: Impossible II, it is the name of the virus that only the appropriately-named drug Bellerophon can cure. FTP, identify this word, which, in Greek mythology, names a fire-breathing monster that was part lion, part goat, and part snake.
15. This work was left incomplete and unperformable until Deryck Cooke revised it. The first movement, a 25-minute Adagio, follows directly from his previous symphony and features a background quotation of prelude to Act 3 of Parsifal. The second movement, an incomplete neo-classical Scherzo, features a Landler trio. The third movement, written after the composer has discovered her wife's affair with an architect, contained references to Wagner's fate motif and was titled "Purgatorio oder Inferno." The fourth movement, an 11-minute fast waltz, is related to the "Trinklied" from Das Lied von der Erde [EHR-duh]. The fifth movement, a tender Finale, ends with a redeclaration of love for Alma. FTP identify this final Gustave Mahler symphony, who wrote one more than the usual symphonist.
Answer: Symphony No. 10 by Mahler
16. This region was nearly purchased by an American named Washington Vanderlip Jr., who had been confused with a president of what is now CitiBank. Among its native residents are the Evens [EH-VENS] and Korayaks, and the one road in this region connects the regional capital with the town of Esso. Bordered on the north by the Shelikov Gulf, its capital is one of a plethora of Petropavlovsks and is the largest city on any of the five continental mainlands not connected to the rest of its continent by road. FTP, name this region, bordered by Sea of Okhotsk and the Bering Sea, a Far Eastern Russian peninsula.
17. He first gained notoriety after a neighbor mistook him and his brother Buck for bootleggers in Missouri. He served less than two years at the Easton Prison Yard, coming back after his release to break out fellow inmates. Henry Methvin’s cold-blooded murder of two officers outside Grapevine, Texas led to a plea bargain that set up the ambush that killed him and his most famous partner outside Gibsland, Louisiana, on May 23, 1934. FTP, identify this outlaw gunned down alongside his girlfriend Bonnie Parker.
Answer: ClydeBarrow; accept either
18. This short story takes place in rooms with stained glass windows that gives each room the appearance of being blue, purple, green, orange, white, and violet, but the seventh, scarlet room does not match its black velvet carpets. The author takes care to note that sixty minutes is equivalent to three thousand and six hundred seconds, and uses the phrase “out-Heroded Herod” to describe an unwanted party guest. Prince Prospero, the party’s host, succumbs in the blue room, despite having lived in five or six months of seclusion. FTP, what is this Poe story about a colorfully named disease inviting itself to a ball?
Answer: The Masque of the Red Death
19. Its experimental revelation is described in a book by Frederic Holmes. E. coli growing in a medium containing ammonium chloride labeled with nitrogen-15 and then nitrogen-14 was used to show that indeed the process occurs in this way. A cesium chloride gradient was used to differentiate between DNA labeled on both strands with 15-N, both with 14-N, or one with 15-N and one with 14-N. FTP, name this method by which DNA is replicated in vivo, experimentally confirmed by Meselson and Stahl.
Answer: semiconservative DNA replication; accept “Meselson-Stahl” before it is mentioned
20. In 1882 he officially became a bigamist, but the leader of his country, noting his popularity, reportedly said he “has two wives, yes, but I have only one” of him. He once traveled solo in a balloon to observe a solar eclipse, and did not bother attempting to control the balloon until he had finished his observations. His master’s thesis was the blandly titled “Research and Theories on Expansion of Substances due to Heat”, while his doctoral thesis, “On the Combinations of Water with Alcohol”, is said to have determined the ideal percent alcohol of vodka. His most important work included predicting the physical properties of germanium, gallium, and scandium using what is now his most famous invention. For 10 points, name this Russian chemist, inventor of the periodic table of the elements.
Answer: Dymitriy (Ivanovich) Mendele(y)ev
21. The first reference to it is in the title of two homilies by St. Maximus, while the concept was definitely mentioned in homilies by St. Caesarius. St. Theodore the Studite does not mention it, indicating it appeared fairly late in the Greek Orthodox Church. The eighth homily of Pope Leo I is still used widely, and a collection of homilies by Pope Gregory I begins during this church season. Although Pope Innocent III recommended black for the color of the priest’s robes, violet is the primary color in use. Beginning with the Sunday nearest the Feast of St. Andrew and starting the liturgical year, this is, FTP, what season that immediately precedes Christmas?
1. It’s the long-awaited return of Choose Your Own Lead-in! Please select A or B now, and the moderator will read you the lead-in you have unknowingly selected.
A. Yaarrgh, matey! Answer me some questions about pirates and harems FTPE.
B. As you have just chosen the blandest choice, you will now listen to three questions about opera. Identify the person or work depicted FTPE.
 Costanze becomes the favorite girl in Pasha Selim’s harem after her capture by pirates in this Mozart work.
Answer: The Abduction from the SeraglioorDieEntführung aus dem Serail
 In his opera The Italian Girl in Algiers, Mustafa enlists the help of Haly and his pirates to capture an Italian girl for his harem. He may be better known for The Barber of Seville, which unfortunately has nothing to do with pirates or harems.
Answer: Gioachino Rossini
 In this Carl Maria von Weber work featuring some fairies from A Midsummer Night’s Dream, Rezia is captured by pirates and sold into the harem of the Emir of Tunis.
Answer: Oberon 2. Identify the novel based on a description or quote from the work, which come from the question writer’s LiveJournal entries concerning books he has been reading, FTPE.
 The title diamond is this relic from a Hindu shrine in India that is stolen by a British soldier, and eventually given as a gift to a girl in England, but is stolen immediately afterwards.
Answer: The Moonstone
 "Only a few of the beans did Wang Lung hide in his own hand and these he put into his own mouth and he chewed them into a soft pulp and then putting his lips to the lips of his daughter he pushed into her mouth the food, and watching her small lips move, he felt himself fed."
Answer: The Good Earth
 Mrs. Glass said, "In the old radio days, when you were all little and all, you all used to be so--smart and happy and--just lovely. Morning, noon, and night….I don't know what good it is to know so much and be smart as whips and all if it doesn't make you happy."
Answer: Franny and Zooey 3. FTPE—given a pair of animals, identify the mythological creature that results from their fusion:
 Eagle and horse
Answer: hippogryph (do not accept “pegasus”)
 Human and horse
 Rooster and serpent
Answer: cockatrice or basilisk 4. Name these pop culturally relevant minor-league baseball teams, FTPE.
 Perhaps the most famous alumni of this Tampa Bay Devil Rays Triple-A affiliate are two fictional players, Crash Davis and Nuke Laloosh.
Answer: DurhamBulls (accept either)
 The real-life incarnation of this Pacific Coast League team moved from Calgary to a city abandoned by the Dukes three years earlier.
Answer: AlbuquerqueIsotopes (accept either)
 The mascot for this team located in Augusta, Georgia is a wasp wearing the garment that gives its name to the team, bringing only further shame to the house of Greg Norman.
Answer: AugustaGreenJackets (accept either)
5. FTPE—given the reagent used in organic chemistry, identify its metal component:
 Grignard reagent
 Gilman reagent
Answer: copper or lithium
 Tollens’ reagent
Answer: silver 6. FTPE, name these cities on the coast of East Africa.
 From the Arabic for “Land or House of Peace,” the unbelievably slow process of moving the government to Dodoma means that a lot of government offices are still in this city.
Answer: Dar Es-Salaam
 This city, also known as E-Thakwini, is a major city in KwaZulu-Natal province originally called Port Natal, and passed Cape Town to be South Africa’s second-largest city.
 This city, known locally as Hamar, was controlled by Mohammed Aidid in 1993 before U.S. intervention.
Answer: Mogadishu or Muqdisho 7. Works by Jeremy Bentham. FTPE.
 Subtitled "an examination of what is delivered, on the subject of government in general, in the introduction to Sir William Blackstone's Commentaries," this first success of Bentham claims that Blackstone's fundamental fault is antipathy to reform.
Answer: A Fragment on Government
 Written during a visit of his brother in Russia, it follows the logic of Adam Smith to its conclusion in suggesting that there should be no hindurance to lending money at interest, since it was in the best interest of those involved.
Answer: Defense of Usury
 Bentham's most famous work concerned the principles of these two topics. In it he defined utility as producing pleasure or happiness and avoiding pain or evil, and that society should strive for the greatest good for the greatest number.
Answer: An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation 8. “It is a capital mistake to theorize before one has data. Insensibly one begins to twist facts to suit theories, instead of theories to suit facts.” FTPE:
 The speaker of that quote is what character, the best-known creation of Sir Arthur Conan Doyle?
Answer: Sherlock Holmes
 That quote comes from this short story, in which Irene Adler threatens to reveal compromising letters tainting the reputation of King Wilhelm Gottsreich Sigismond von Ormstein of the title location.
Answer: “A Scandal in Bohemia”
 In A Scandal in Bohemia, Holmes compares Watson to this man. Much as Watson is best known for narrating Holmes’s life, this man is best known for his Biography of Samuel Johnson.
Answer: James Boswell 9. Answer these questions about happier times for the Ku Klux Klan, FTPE.
Back in the Klan’s heyday, he apparently paid a $10 membership fee but backed out before being initiated. He is more famous for actions such as repealing the Taft-Hartley Act, and his participation in the Potsdam Conference.
Answer: Harry S. Truman
 In his youth, this man held the positions of Kleagle (recruiter) and Exalted Cyclops. In his Senate career, he has voted against the appointments of Thurgood Marshall and Clarence Thomas, but this West Virginia Democrat is nonetheless considered an ally of the NAACP.
Answer: Robert Carlyle Byrd
 A notable incident in this now large Southern California city’s history was an at first successful attempt to pack its Board of Trustees with Klansmen and thus create a model Klan city. A notable resident of this city, Carl Karcher, also had accusations leveled against him of ties to white supremacist groups.
Answer: Anaheim 10. Answer the following about a cycle also known as the TCA. FTPE.
 The tricarboxylic acid cycle is named for this winner of the 1953 Nobel prize.
Answer: (Hans) Krebs cycle
 The first step in the cycle occurs when acetyl coA reacts with a four carbon acid, oxaloacetate, to form this 6-carbon acid.
Answer: citrate; or citric acid
 CO2 is given off during the TCA cycle, which is why we breathe out carbon dioxide. This is the only way carbon leaves the cycle when it is run in a forward direction. How many molecules of CO2 are given off in a single turn of the cycle?
Answer: 2; to go from a 6 carbon molecule back to a 4 carbon molecule, 2 carbons must be lost
11. Answer the following about phrase structures. FTPE:
 What is the name given to the word around which the phrase is built? It is the only obligatory component of the phrase, e.g. "books" in "the lovely books."
 What is name of the equivalent representation of phrase structure rules applied to a sentence as a tree with the S node as root and syntatic categories as leaves?
Answer: constituency diagram
 The sentence exhibits what property, if two possible constituency structures are possible for one ordered set of words?
ANSWER: structural ambiguity 12. Name these terms from Islam that derive from the same three letter Arabic root, FTPE.
 This term literally means a legal pronouncement or opinion, and they can be on topics as mundane as naming practices, despite the modern connotation.
 This is a person who delivers opinions and fatwas. A famous example was Amin al-Husayni of Jerusalem, who collaborated with the Nazis during World War II.
 This is a term for medieval religious groups of youths, ranging from ragged criminal gangs to chivalrous orders. The Abbasid caliph an-Nasir organized one of these groups into a military organization.
Answer: futuwwa or fityan 13. Name these humorists FTPE:
 Although much of his early work, such as Sredni Vashtar, was inspired by his childhood, he is best known for his satirical short stories and political sketches as well as a pen name possibly taken from the Rubaiyat.
Answer: H(ector) H(ugh) Munro or Saki
 His satirical work You Know Me, Al evolved from a series of Tribune articles; he finally gained critical success with How To Write Short Stories, and he repaid Fitzgerald’s assistance on that work by helping edit The Great Gatsby.
Answer: Ring Lardner
 This satirical essayist and newspaper columnist compiled extensive examples of American expressions and idioms in the annually updated The American Language, but his work as the sole editor of the American Mercury is better known.
Answer: H(enry) L(ouis) Mencken 14. It’s not rocket science…well, maybe it is. FTPE:
 These parameters are the ratio of viscosity or compressibility of a gas to other forces present. If they match for two different experiments, then the relative importance of the forces has been modeled correctly.
Answer: similarity parameters
 The most important similarity parameter for viscosity, it expresses the ratio of inertial forces to viscous forces. If I tell you it’s a dimensionless number, you should be able to fraud this.
Answer: Reynolds number
 The most important similarity parameter for compressibility, this is the ratio of an object’s velocity to the speed of sound in the medium.
Answer: Mach number
15. He invented the zoopraxiscope, a primitive movie projector, and once showed that all four of a racehorse’s legs can be in the air at the same time by arranging cameras along a track to be triggered by a series of threads. FTPE.
 Name this British-American photographer who first captured motion on film.
Answer: Eadweard Muybridge; or Edward James Muggeridge; or E. J. Muygridge; or Helios
 Muybridge’s pictures won a $25,000 bet for this governor of California, president of the Southern Pacific railroad, and namesake of a private university.
Answer: Leland Stanford
 Muybridge is the subject of this composer’s opera The Photographer. He wrote operas based on literary works like Cocteau’s Les enfants terribles and Coetzee’s Waiting for the Barbarians, as well as a triptych on German, Indian, and Egyptian figures.
Answer: Philip Glass 16. Name these French uprisings, FTPE:
 This civil war occurred during the reign of the young Louis XIV, lasting from 1648-1653 and attempting to oust Mazarin, a protégé of Cardinal Richelieu. It eventually devolved into war between France and Spain.
Answer: The Fronde or La Fronde
 This revolt saw the establishment of a Royal and Catholic Army, which led a revolt against the French Republic in the namesake province from 1793-1796.
Answer: Revolt in the Vendée or Vendéan Revolt [take various equivalents of the term “revolt”]
 This revolt was a peasant rebellion led by the fourteenth century figure Guillaume Caillet [KYE-YAY] in the north of Paris. The name of the revolt is taken from Caillet’s nickname.
Answer: The Jacquerie 17. In “The Adventure of the Dancing Men,” Sir Arthur Conan Doyle notes that the eleven most frequently seen letters in the English language are, in order, E, T, A, O, I, N, S, H, R, D, and L. For 10 points per answer:
 Which author noted that the eleven most frequent letters are, in order, E, A, O, I, D, H, N, R, S, T, and U in his short story “The Gold-Bug”?
Answer: Edgar Allan Poe
 What inventor of the linotype machine identified the twelve most frequently seen letters in the English language as, in order, E, T, A, O, I, N, S, H, R, D, L, and U?
Answer: Ottmar Mergenthaler
 What other inventor counted the frequencies of letters on the front page of the New York Times, New York Herald Tribune, Saturday Evening Post, and other newspapers to come up with the ideal distribution of letter tiles for his new game Lexiko, which evolved into another game where 30 percent of the pieces are E, A, or I?
Answer: Alfred Mosher Butts 18. Answer the following about parasitic protozoa in the phylum Apicomplexa and the disease it causes. FTPE.
 Give the genus of the parasite that causes malaria.
Answer: Plasmodium falciparum
 Give the genus of the most common vector of Plasmodium; that is, the mosquito.
Answer: Anopheles gambiae
 This Scottish physician discovered that Plasmodium lives in Anopheles, a feat for which he won the Nobel prize in Medicine in 1902. He was also a pioneer of mathematical epidemiology.
Answer: Sir Ronald Ross 19. His magnum opus was a huge collection of prose works depicting just about everything you ever wanted to know about nineteenth-century bourgeois France. FTPE:
 In this story in The Human Comedy, the title retired vermicelli merchant attempts to provide for his daughters Anastasie and Delphine, but neither daughter attends him willingly while he is dying.
Answer: Le Père Goriot
 This ubiquitous character in The Human Comedy falls in love with both Anastasie and Delphine, loses most of Père Goriot’s money, and goes to see Anastasie and Delphine after they both refuse their father’s summonses.
Answer: Eugene de Rastignac (accept either)
20. Answer the following questions about a famous union, FTSNOP:
 For 10 points, this union, signed in 1569, was ensured after one party occupied Podlasia [PODE-LAH-SEE-YAH], Volynia, Podolia, and Kiev, forcing the hand of the other party, at that time engaged in an ill-going war against Russia.
Answer: Union of Lublin or Unia Lubelska or Liublino Unija or Lyubinskaya Vuniya
[5,5] For 5 points each, the Union of Lublin united what two polities, then among the largest states in all of Europe.
Answer: Poland or Polska and Lithuania or Lietuva
 For a final 10 points, until the partitions of Poland-Lithuania, the Union of Lublin was only broken for a five-year stretch by the Union of Kedainiai, in which Lithuania was made independent and Poland was vassalized to what powerful Scandinavian state then ruled by the House of Pfalz-Zweibrucken [FALLTS-TSVYE-bryoo-ken]?
Answer: Sweden 21. Answer these questions about a distinctive type of headwear, FTPE.
 These rebels, led by Zhang Jiao, a leader of a Taoist sect, caused much trouble for the Han Dynasty from about AD 184 to 192.
Answer: Yellow Turbans or Yellow Scarves or Huang Jin Zhi Lian
 Following in the fine tradition of Chinese dissident groups being named for colored turbans, this first emperor of the Ming Dynasty got his start as a member of the Red Turbans society.
Answer: Hongwu Emperor or Zhu Yuanzhang
 This religion requires males to a wear a dastaar, often blue or yellow. It was made a mandatory article of faith by the khalsa, created by Guru Gobind Singh.