Cape Lookout National Seashore Historic Resource Study By

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Cape Lookout National Seashore

Historic Resource Study
David E. Whisnant


Anne Mitchell Whisnant

Primary Source History Services

July 1, 2010
Prepared for the Organization of American Historians


Cooperative Agreement with the
National Park Service

Table of Contents

Table of Contents 2


List of Figures 3

List of Tables 9

Acknowledgments 10

Executive Summary 12

Chapter 1: An Overview of Previous Cultural Resource Studies at Cape Lookout National Seashore and Some New Analytical Possibilities 30

Chapter 2: To and from the Most Remarkable Places: The Communities of Ocracoke Inlet as North Carolina’s Gateway to an Atlantic World 85

Chapter 3: Restless (and Storm-Battered) Ribbons of Sand: Hurricanes and Inlets 153

Chapter 4: An Eye for the Possible: Maritime (and Other) Economic Activities on the Southern Banks 181

Chapter 5: At the Sea’s Edge: Slavery, Race And Class in a Maritime World 241

Chapter 6: The Government Presence: Revenue Cutters, Lighthouses, Life-Savers, Coast Guardsmen, New Dealers and Others 307

Chapter 7: From Regulators to Aviators: Wars and the Southern Banks 352

Chapter 8: Down East, Far West, and Hoi Toide: Thinking About Culture and the Outer Banks 391

Chapter 9: Outer Banks Tourism and the Coming of Cape Lookout National Seashore 426

Chapter 10: Management, Interpretive, and Research Recommendations 482

Bibliography 503

Repositories and Collections Consulted 526

Appendices 529

List of Figures

Fig. Introduction-1: Junk cars abandoned on Cape Lookout National Seashore lands

Fig. Introduction-2: Core Banks Gun Club

Fig. 1-1: Probable location of shore whaling camps

Fig. 1-2: Archeological work at shore whaling camps on Shackleford Banks

Fig. 1-3: Steamer Neuse taking on naval stores in Wilmington, 1870s

Fig. 2-1: Washington Roberts House, Portsmouth

Fig. 2-2: North Carolina’s colonial ports of entry

Fig. 2-3: Map of Ocracoke, 1795, by Jonathan Price

Fig. 2-4: North Carolina Import and Export Tonnage, 1768-1793

Fig. 2-5: John Gray Blount’s Lands North Carolina and Territory South of Ohio River 1783-1796

Fig. 2-6: Two early nineteenth century maps showing the geography of Ocracoke Inlet

Fig. 2-7: An 1897 map of Ocracoke Inlet done by the Army Corps of Engineers

Fig. 2-8: Liverpool-ware pitcher, featuring image of Shell Castle Island

Fig. 2-9: Map showing Caribbean destinations for Blount ships in the late eighteenth century

Fig. 2-10: Map of railroads and plank roads in North Carolina, 1860

Fig. 3-1: Historic Inlets of North Carolina coast

Fig. 3-2: Portsmouth Methodist Church

Fig. 3-3: Shackleford Banks after 1899 hurricane

Fig. 3-4: Selected Hurricane Tracks of the 1950s

Fig. 4-1: Location of nineteenth century windmills on North Carolina coast

Fig. 4-2: Windmill on Harkers Island ca 1904

Fig. 4-3: Thomas Chadwick whaling license, 1726

Fig. 4-4: Whale boat tools

Fig. 4-5: Whale on beach at Beaufort, before 1894

Fig. 4-6: Cutting Blubber on Shackleford Banks, 1894

Fig. 4-7: Trying Out Oil from Whale, 1894

Fig. 4-8: Shackleford Banks whaling communities, 1850-1890

Fig. 4-9: John White, “Indians Fishing” (1585-86)

Fig. 4-10: Menhaden Fishing Steamer, before 1917

Fig. 4-11: Industrial Menhaden Press, before 1917

Fig. 4-12: Menhaden Production, 1887-1970

Fig. 4-13: Striped or “jumping” mullet

Fig. 4-14: Camp of mullet fishermen on Shackleford Banks, before 1907

Fig. 4-15: Mullet Production, 1887-1970

Fig. 4-16: Shad

Fig. 4-17: Shad Production, 1887-1970

Fig. 4-18: Oyster Production, 1887-1970

Fig. 4-19: North Carolina Clam Production, 1887-1970

Fig. 4-20: Shrimp Production, 1887-1970

Fig. 4-21: Total pounds of fish harvested in North Carolina coastal waters, 1880-1970

Fig. 4-22: Core Sounder work boat

Fig. 4-23: De Bry Engraving of John White Drawing: The Manner of Makinge Their Boates (1585-86)

Fig. 4-24: John White, Indians Dancing Around a Circle of Posts (1585-86)

Fig. 4-25: Carteret County waterfowl hunters in sink box

Fig. 4-26: Gunners in blind, Carteret County

Fig. 4-27: “Stripping the Wreck” [before 1902]

Fig. 4-28: Attack upon Smugglers by United States Revenue Officers at Masonborough, North Carolina, 1867

Fig. 4-29: Blackbeard fights Royal Navy Lt Robert Maynard at Ocracoke Inlet, 22 November 1718

Fig. 5-1: Preserved and partly rebuilt slave cabins at Ventosa (Walter Clark home) in Halifax County, ca. 1943ovember 1718

Fig. 5-2: Great Dismal Swamp

Fig. 5-3: Negro Baptism at New Bern, ca. 1910

Fig. 5-4: Dismal Swamp Canal

Fig. 5-5: Map of Dismal Swamp Canal in 1839

Fig. 5-6: Clubfoot and Harlowe’s Creek Canal, 1839

Fig. 5-7: Wilmington turpentine distillery, ca. 1850s

Fig. 5-8: Carteret County turpentine distillery, 1876

Fig. 5-9: Freed Negroes Streaming Toward Union Lines, New Bern

Fig. 5-10: Distribution of Captured Rebels’ Clothing to Contrabands, New Bern, 1862

Fig. 5-11: Racist cartoon from Raleigh News and Observer, 30 August 1898

Fig. 5-12: North Carolina’s Womanhood Appeals to the Ballot for Protection, 13 October 1898

Fig. 5-13: A 'White Man's Party' Democrat Normal Institute in Duplin County

Fig. 5-14: Distribution of textile mills in North Carolina, 1896

Fig. 5-15: Distribution of tobacco factories in North Carolina, 1896

Fig. 5-16: Blue Eagle logo of the National Recovery Administration (NRA)

Fig. 5-17: Renovated Portsmouth school building (1927)

Fig. 5-18: Three-teacher Rosenwald School

Fig. 5-19: Logo for the Free the Wilmington Ten campaign

Fig. 5-20 Black and white mullet fishermen

Fig. 5-21: All-Black Pea Island Life-Saving Crew

Fig. 5-22: Henry Pigott at about the age of fourteen (ca. 1910)

Fig. 5-23: Henry Pigott and Walker Styron, 1955

Fig. 5-24: Gravestone of Leah Pigott (1867-1922)

Fig. 5-25: Henry Pigott house, Portsmouth

Fig. 6-1: Brick cistern, Marine Hospital, Portsmouth, 2008

Fig. 6-2: Shell Castle Lighthouse

Fig. 6-3: Orders of Fresnel lenses

Fig. 6-4: Treasury Department notification to Cape Lookout lighthouse keeper

Fig. 6-5: Life-Saving Station on the North Carolina Beach, ca. 1882

Fig. 6-6: Self-righting life-boat

Fig. 6-7: Kinnakeet Life-Saving Station

Fig. 6-8: Thomas Nast [presumably Harper’s Weekly] cartoon in wake of Huron disaster

Fig. 6-9: Outer Banks Life-Saving Stations Built 1878

Fig. 6-10: United States Life-Saving Station on the Eastern Coast.

Fig. 6-11: Outer Banks Life-Saving Stations Built 1880-1888

Fig. 6-12: Life-saving station on the North Carolina beach

Fig. 6-13: Distribution of life-saving stations on the North Carolina coast, 1905

Fig. 6-14: Lyle gun for propelling rescue lines

Fig. 6-15: Motor lifeboat, 1908

Fig. 6-16: Portsmouth Life-Saving Crew in the 1920s

Fig. 6-17: Drawing of Cape Lookout Life-Saving Station

Fig. 6-18: Cape Lookout Life-Saving Station, 1893

Fig. 6-19: Portsmouth Life-Saving Station, ca. 1903-1915

Fig. 6-20: Portsmouth Life-Saving Station in the 1920s

Fig. 6-21: Portsmouth Life-Saving Station after renovation, 2006

Fig. 6-22: Cape Lookout Coast Guard Station, 1917

Fig. 6-23: Drawing of Jesse Babb House

Fig. 6-24: Coast Guard Stations map

Fig. 6-25: North Carolina Highways, ca. 1924

Fig. 7-1: Revolutionary War Campaigns and Battles in North Carolina

Fig. 7-2: Colored troops freeing slaves in Camden County, early 1864

Fig. 7-3: Citizens of Wilmington Taking the Oath of Allegiance

Fig. 7-4: World War II Military Installations in North Carolina

Fig. 8-1: An Eminent Banker

Fig. 9-1: Mountain Sanatarium for Pulmonary Diseases

Fig. 9-2: Advertisement for Brunswick’s Atlantic Hotel, July 1877

Fig. 9-3: Train bringing beach goers from Wilmington to Wrightsville Beach, ca. 1912

Fig. 9-4: Ad for Ocean Retreat Hotel, 1841

Fig. 9-5: Nag’s Head Hotel

Fig. 9-6: The Beach at Nags Head, 1860

Fig. 9-7: Advertisement for Nags Head featuring steamers to Elizabeth City

Fig. 9-8: Principal railroad lines in North Carolina, 1890

Fig. 9-9: Map of Southern Railway system, 1895

Fig. 9-10: Cover of brochure published by Southern Railway to entice hunters to the South, 1895

Fig. 9-11: Advertisement for breech loading shotgun

Fig. 9-12: Carteret County waterfowl hunters in boat

Fig. 9-13: Pilentary Gun Club on Core Banks, December 1913

Fig. 9-14: Interpretive sign for Styron and Bragg House, Portsmouth

Fig. 9-15: Through Train to Wrightsville Beach, 1912

Fig. 9-16: Lumina, Best Dancing Pavilion on the South Atlantic Coast, ca. 1917

Fig. 9-17: Interior of Lumina dancing pavilion at night, ca. 1912

Fig. 9-18: Movies “Over the Waves” at Lumina

Fig. 9-19: Map of Wrightsville Beach showing former site of Lumina Pavilion and railroad/trolley lines that served it

Fig. 9-20: Gaskill-Guthrie House 1939

Fig. 9-21: Cape Lookout Development Company plat, 1915

Fig. 9-22: O’Boyle-Bryant house as it looked in 1939

Fig. 9-23: Cape Lookout Village as it looked in 1942

Fig. 9-24: North Carolina highways as of 1924

Fig. 9-25: Aycock Brown photograph of a bathing beauty and Cape Hatteras lighthouse

Fig. 9-26: National Park Service group embarking at Oregon Inlet for tour of the Outer Banks

Fig. 9-27: 1963 General Development Plan Map, Cape Lookout and Shackleford Banks

Fig. 9-28: Landing strip next to Portsmouth Life-Saving Station, March 2008

Fig. 9-29: Charles M. Reeves, Jr., Master Plan, Proposed Cape Lookout Development, 1964

Fig. 9-30: Antique Model A Ford modified for fishermen’s use, ca.1975

Fig. 9-31: Removing junk cars from Cape Lookout National Seashore

Fig. 10-1: Survey of Roanoke Inlet and Sound, 1829

Fig. 10-2: Historic Period Plan, Portsmouth Village, ca. 1760-1866

Fig. 10-3: Gravestone of Capt. Thomas W. Greene

Fig. 10-4: Portsmouth postmistress Annie Salter ca. 1935

Fig. 10-5: Children of Portsmouth School, 1916

Fig. 10-6: Sadie [?] and Nora Dixon, ca. 1917

Fig. 10-7: Rose Pickett gravestone

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