# Center of Gravity is a point where the mass of the vehicle is concentrated and balanced. The higher

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Module 3: Topic 1

Laws of Nature

1. Gravity:

1. Gravity is the natural force that constantly pulls all things to the earth and affects an object’s weight.

2. Center of Gravity is a point where the mass of the vehicle is concentrated and balanced.

3. The higher the center of gravity, the more unstable the vehicle becomes.

4. When a driver brakes, accelerates, or corners, the G forces are amplified.

2. Kinetic Energy:

1. Kinetic energy is the energy an object possesses due to its speed, or velocity (v) and its mass (m) : KE = 0.5 ∙ m ∙ v2

2. The faster the object moves, the more energy it collects.

3. A heavier moving object will have more kinetic energy than a lighter object moving at the same speed.

4. A vehicle’s kinetic energy can be overcome by brakes, friction, air resistance and gravity.

3. Momentum:

1. Momentum refers to the quantity of motion an object has, measured in kg ∙ m/s

2. Formula: p = m ∙ v. The more mass and more velocity an object has, the more momentum

3. Change in momentum is called impulse; the magnitude of impulse is based on the amount of opposing force and the time span over which that force is applied.

4. Inertia: an object’s tendency to resist any change in its state of motion.

5. When driving through a curve, inertia creates the sensation that you are being pulled toward the outside of the curve. Why does this happen?
Because you are traveling in a straight line, and inertia wants to keep you going in a straight line

 Type of Movement Definition Real Life Example PITCH Vehicle weight shifts Forward and Back Braking too hard and quickly Weight shifts forward Accelerating too quickly Weight shifts backward ROLL Vehicle weight shifts side to side Taking a curve too quickly. Sudden jerky steering will throw the vehicle’s weight to the inside tires of the direction you steer YAW Vehicle’s rear tires lose traction and weight shifts to one side (rear tires slide) “Fishtail” Skid on a patch of ice

Module 3: Topic 2

Vision and Driving
2. Visual Perception:

1. The eyeball’s ability to distinguish the number, shape, and color of an object.

2. Perception

3. Some key points on drivers and decision-making: