Center of Gravity is a point where the mass of the vehicle is concentrated and balanced. The higher



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Module 3: Topic 1

Laws of Nature


1. Gravity:

  1. Gravity is the natural force that constantly pulls all things to the earth and affects an object’s weight.

  2. Center of Gravity is a point where the mass of the vehicle is concentrated and balanced.

  3. The higher the center of gravity, the more unstable the vehicle becomes.

  4. When a driver brakes, accelerates, or corners, the G forces are amplified.

2. Kinetic Energy:



  1. Kinetic energy is the energy an object possesses due to its speed, or velocity (v) and its mass (m) : KE = 0.5 ∙ m ∙ v2

  2. The faster the object moves, the more energy it collects.

  3. A heavier moving object will have more kinetic energy than a lighter object moving at the same speed.

  4. A vehicle’s kinetic energy can be overcome by brakes, friction, air resistance and gravity.

3. Momentum:



  1. Momentum refers to the quantity of motion an object has, measured in kg ∙ m/s

  2. Formula: p = m ∙ v. The more mass and more velocity an object has, the more momentum

  3. Change in momentum is called impulse; the magnitude of impulse is based on the amount of opposing force and the time span over which that force is applied.

4. Inertia: an object’s tendency to resist any change in its state of motion.




5. When driving through a curve, inertia creates the sensation that you are being pulled toward the outside of the curve. Why does this happen?
Because you are traveling in a straight line, and inertia wants to keep you going in a straight line








Type of Movement

Definition

Real Life Example


PITCH

Vehicle weight shifts



Forward and Back

Braking too hard and quickly

Weight shifts forward


Accelerating too quickly

Weight shifts backward



ROLL

Vehicle weight shifts side to side




Taking a curve too quickly.
Sudden jerky steering will throw the vehicle’s weight to the inside tires of the direction you steer


YAW




Vehicle’s rear tires

lose traction and weight shifts to one side

(rear tires slide)

“Fishtail”



Skid on a patch of ice




Module 3: Topic 2

Vision and Driving
1. How do you think your vision impacts your driving?
2. Visual Perception:

    1. The eyeball’s ability to distinguish the number, shape, and color of an object.

    2. Perception


3. Some key points on drivers and decision-making:

  1. Drivers make decisions based on about 90% on what they see

  2. Drivers make decisions based on about 10% of all on what they hear or feel


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