Children and adolescents, trauma and disasters

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Children and adolescents, trauma and disasters.

Reference list compiled by Atle Dyregrov PhD, Center for Crisis Psychology, Bergen, Norway, e-mail address:


Articles are listed by the name of the first author.

Aber, L., Brown, J. L., Jones, S. M., Berg, J. & Torrente, C. (2011). School-based strategies to prevent violence, trauma, and psychopathology: The challenges of going to scale. Development and Psychopathology, 23, 411–421.

Abrahams, S., & Udwin, O. (2000). Treatment of post–traumatic stress disorder in an eleven–year–old boy using imaginal and in vivo exposure. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 5, 387–401.

Abramson, D. M., Park, Y. S., Stehling-Ariza, T., & Redlener, I. (2010). Children as bellwethers of recovery: Dysfunctional systems of the effects of parents, households, and neighborhoods on serious emotional disturbance in children after hurricane Katrina. Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness, 4, doi:10.1001/dmp.2010.7, 1–11.

Abramson, D. M., Redlener, I., Stehling-Ariza, T., Sury, J., Banister, A., Park, Y. S. (2010). Impact on Children and Families of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill: Preliminary Findings of the Coastal Population Impact Study. (National Center for Disaster Preparedness, Research Brief 2010:8). New York: Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health.

Adam, B. S., Everett, B. L., & O’Neal, E. (1992). PTSD in physically and sexually abused psychiatrically hospitalized children. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 23, 3–8.

Adams, R. E., & Passman, R. H. (1983). Explaining to young children about an upcoming separation from their mother: when do I tell them? Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 4, 35–42.

Aderka, I. M., Appelbaum-Namdar, E., Shafran, N. & Gilboa-Schechtman, E. (2011). Sudden gains in prolonged exposure for children and adolescents with posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 79, (4), 442–446.

Aduriz, M. E., Bluthgen, C., & Knopfler, C. (2009). Helping child flood victims using group EMDR intervention in Argentina: treatment outcome and gender differences. International Journal of Stress Management, 16, 138–153.

Ager, A., (2013). Annual research review: Resilience and child well-being – public policy implications. The Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 54, (4), 488–500.

Agustini, E. N., Asniar, I., Matsuo, H. (2011). The prevalence of long-term post-traumatic stress symptoms among adolescents after the tsunami in Aceh. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 1 – 7. Doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2850.2011.01702.x

Ahmad, A. (2008). Posttraumatic stress among children in Kurdistan. Acta Pædiatrica, 97, 884–888.

Ahmad, A., Larsson, B., & Sundelin-Wahlsten, V. (2007). EMDR treatment for children with PTSD: Results of a randomized controlled trial. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, 61, 349–354.

Ahmad, A., Mohamed, H. T., & Ameen N. M. (1998). A 26–month follow–up of posttraumatic stress symptoms in children after the mass–escape tragedy in Iraqi Kurdistan. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, 52, 357–366.

Ahmad, A., Qahar, J., Siddiq, A., Majeed, A., Rasheed, J., Jabar, F., & von Knorring, A.-L. (2005). A 2-year follow-up of orphans´ competence, socioemotional problems and post-traumatic stress symptoms in traditional foster care and orphanages in Iraqi Kurdistan. Child: Care, Health & Development, 31, 203–215.

Ahmad, A., & Sundelin-Wahlsten, V. (2007). Applying EMDR on children with PTSD. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, In Press, Corrected Proof, Available online 10 September 2007.

Akselsdotter, K. (1994). Små barns signaler om sexuella övergrepp. Rädda Barnen. Falun: Scandbook.

Alderfer, M. A., Labay, L. E., & Kazak, A. E. (2003). Brief report: does posttraumatic stress apply to siblings of childhood cancer survivors? Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 28, 281–286.

Aldridge, J., & Becker, S. (1999). Children as carers: the impact of parental illness and disability on children’s caring roles. Journal of Family Therapy, 21, 303 – 320.

Alisic, E., (2011). Children and trauma: A broad perspective on exposure and recovery. Utrecht: Labor Grafimedia BV,

Alisic, E., Bus, M., Dulack, W., Pennings, L., & Splinter, J. (2012). Teachers’ experiences supporting children after traumatic exposure. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 25, 98 – 101.

Allen, B., Oseni, A., & Allen, K. E. (2011). The evidence-based treatment of chronic posttraumatic stress disorder and traumatic grief in an adolescent: A case study. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, doi:10.1037/a0024930

Allen, J. R., & Pfefferbaum B. (1998). What if astyanax had survived? Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 7, 137–151.

Allen, S. F., Pfefferbaum, B., Cuccio, A., & Salinas, J. (2009). Early identification of children at risk for developing posttraumatic stress symptoms following traumatic injuries. Journal of Psychological Trauma, 7, 235–252.

Allenou, C., Olliac, B., Bourdet-Loubère, S., Brunet, A., David, A.-C., Claudet, I., et al. (2010). Symptoms of traumatic stress in mothers of children victims of a motor vehicle accident. Depression and Anxiety, 27, 652–657.

Almqvist, K., & Broberg, A. G. (1997). Silence and survival: working with strategies of denial in families of traumatized pre–school children. Association of Child Psychotherapists, 23, 417–435.

Almqvist, K., & Broberg, A. (in manuscript). Young children traumatized by organized violence together with their mothers – The critical effects of damaged internal representations. Karlstad University & Centre for Clinical Research, 3–28.

American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (1998). Practice parameters for the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents with posttraumatic stress disorders. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 37, (Supplement) 4–26

Amir, G., & Lev-Wiesel, R. (2007). Dissociation as depicted in the traumatic event drawings of child sexual abuse survivors: A preliminary study. The Arts in Psychotherapy,13,1–10.

Amirkhan, J. H., Risinger, R. T., & Swickert, R. J. (1995). Extraversion: a “hidden” personality factor in coping? Journal of Personality, 63, 189–212.

Andersen, S. L., Tomada, A., Vincow, E. S., Valente, E., Polcari, A., & Teicher, M. H. (2008). Preliminary evidence for sensitive periods in the effect of childhood sexual abuse on regional brain development. The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 20, 292–301.

Aptekar, L., & Boore, J. (1990). The emotional effects of disaster on children. The International Journal of Mental Health, 19, 77–90.

Anthony, E. J. (1986). Terrorizing attacks on children by psychotic parents. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 25, 326–335.

Anthony, J. L., Lonigan, C. J., & Hecht, S. A. (1999). Dimensionality of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in children exposed to disaster: Results from confirmatory factor analyses. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 108, 326–336.

Anthony, J. L., Lonigan, C. J., Vernberg, E. M., La Greca, A. M., Silverman, W. K., & Prinstein, M. J. (2005). Multisample cross-validation of a model of childhood posttraumatic stress disorder symptomatology. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 18, 667–676.

Archer, R. (1997. Tornadoes, boys, and superheroes: externalizing  conversations in the wake of a natural disaster. Journal of Systemic Therapies. 16, 73–82.

Arcus, D. (2002). School shooting fatalities and school corporal punishment: A look at the States. Aggressive Behavior, 28, 173–183.

Arman, J. (2000). In the wake of tragedy at Columbine high school. Professional School Counseling, 3, 218–220.

Asarnow, J., Glynn, S., Pynoos, R. S., Nahum, J., Guthrie, D., Cantwell, D. P., & Franklin, B. (1999). When the earth stops shaking: earthquake sequelae among children diagnosed for pre–earthquake psychopathology. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 38, 1016–1023.

Aubrey, C., & Dahl, S. (2006). Children’s voices: The views of vulnerable children on their service providers and the relevance of services they receive. British Journal of Social Work, 36, 21–39.

Augustyn, M., Frank, D., Posner, M., & Zuckerman, B. (2002). Children who witness violence, and parent report of children’s behavior. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, 156, 800–803.

Ayalon, O. (1982). Children as hostages. The Practitioner, 226, 1773–1781.

Ayalon, O. (1983). Coping with terrorism, The Israeli Case. In Meichenbaum D. & Jarenko, M. E. (Eds.), Stress Reduction and Prevention, (293–339). New York & London: Plenum Press.

Azarian, A., Miller, T. W., & Skriptchenko–Gregorian, V. (1996). Baseline assessment of children traumatized by the Armenian earthquake. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 27, 29–41.

Azarian, A., Skriptchenko-Gregorian, V., Miller, T. W., & Kraus, R. F. (1994). Childhood trauma in victims of the Armenian earthquake. Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy, 24, 77–85.

Aaron, J., Zaglul, H., & Emery, R. E. (1999). Posttraumatic stress in children following acute psychical injury. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 24, 335 – 343.

Babugura, A. A. (2008). Vulnerability of children and youth in drought disasters: A case study of Botswana. Children, Youth and Environments, 18, 126–157.

Baddam, P., Russel, S., & Swamidhas, P. (2007). The prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder among children and adolescents affected by tsunami disaster in Tamil Nadu. Disaster Management & Response, 5, 3–7.

Baggerly, J., & Exum, H. A. (2008). Counseling children after natural disasters: Guidance for family therapists. The American Journal of Family Therapy, 36, 79–93.

Bahrick, L. E., Parker, J. F., Fivush, R., & Levitt, M. (1998). The effects of stress on young children’s memory for a natural disaster. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 4, 308–331.

Bal, A., & Jensen, B. (2007). Post-traumatic stress disorder symptom clusters in Turkish child and adolescent trauma survivors. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, In Press, Corrected Proof, Available Online 17 September 2007.

Bal, S., van Oost, P., de Bourdeaudhuij, I., & Crombez, G. (2003). Avoidant coping as a mediator between self-reported sexual abuse and stress relate symptoms in adolescents. Child Abuse & Neglect, 27, 883–897.

Baldry, A. C. (2003). Bullying in schools and exposure to domestic violence. Child Abuse & Neglect, 27, 713–732.

Basu, B., Dutta, N. (2011). Psychological changes of children surviving terrorist shock in Indian Kashmir. Journal of Child Neurology, 25, 1331–1334.

Belfer, M. L. (2006). Caring for children and adolescents in the aftermath of natural disasters. International Review of Psychiatry, 18, 523–528.

Bal, A. (2007). Post-traumatic stress disorder in Turkish child and adolescent survivors three years after the Marmara earthquake. Child and Adolescent Mental Health ,12, 1–5.

Bal, A., & Jensen, B. (2007). Post-traumatic stress disorder symptom cluster in Turkish child and adolescent trauma survivors. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 10, 1–9.

Bannon, W., DeVoe, E. R., Klein, T. P., & Miranda, C. (2009). Gender as a moderator of the relationship between child exposure to the World Trade Centre Disaster and behavioural outcomes. Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 14, 121–126.

Banyard, V., L., Williams, L., M.. & Siegel, J., A. (2001). The long term mental health consequences of child sexual abuse: An exploratory study of the impact of multiple traumas in a sample of women. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 14, 697–715.

Baranger, M., Baranger, W.. & Mom, J. M. (1988). The infantile psychic trauma from us to Freud: pure trauma, retroactivity and reconstruction. International Journal of Psycho–Analysis, 69, 113–128.

Barrett, E. J., Ausbrooks, C. Y. B., & Martinez-Cosio, M. (2008). The school as a source of support for Katrina-evacuated youth. Children, Youth and Environments, 18, 202–236.

Baschnagel, J. S., O’Connor, R. M., Colder, C. R., & Hawk jr., L. W. (2005). Factor structure of posttraumatic stress among western New York undergraduates following the September 11th terrorist attack on the World Trade Center. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 18, 677–684.

Baum, N. L., Rotter, B., Reidler, E., & Brom, D. (2009). Building resilience in schools in the wake of hurricane Katrina. Journal of Child & Adolescent Trauma, 2, 62–70.

Becker-Blease, K. A., Turner, H. A., & Finkelhor, D. (2010). Disasters, victimization, and children’s mental health. Child Development, 81 (4), 1040–1052.

Becker, S. M. (2007). Psychosocial care for adult and child survivors of the Tsunami disaster in India. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing, 20, 148–155.

Beebe, B. (2011). Introduction to mothers, infants, and young children of September 11, 2001: A primary prevention project. Journal of Infant, Child and Adolescent Psychotherapy, 10, 145–155.

Beebe, B. (2011). The mothers’ experiences of the project. Journal of Infant, Child, and Adolescent Psychotherapy, 10, 202–204.

Beebe, B. & Jaffe, J. (2011). Description of the Project: A longitudinal primary prevention project for mothers pregnant and widowed in the World Trade Center tragedy of September 11, 2001 and their young children. Journal of Infant, Child, and Adolescent Psychotherapy, 10, 156–169.

Beebe, B. & Markese, S. (2011). Theory and research that informed the clinical approach of the project for mothers, infants, and young children of September 11, 2001. Journal of Infant, Child, and Adolescent Psychotherapy, 10, 170–186.

Beers, S. R., & de Bellis, M. D. (2002). Neuropsychological function in children with maltreatment –related posttraumatic stress disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 159, 483–486.

Bell, C. C.. & Jenkins, E. J. (1991). Traumatic stress in children. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, 2, 175–188.

Bell, C. C.. & Jenkins, E. J. (1993). Community violence and children on Chicago's Southside. Psychiatry, 56, 46–55.

Bendall, S., Jackson, H. J., Hulbert, C. A., & McGorry, P. D. (2007). Childhood trauma and psychotic disorders: a systematic, critical review of the evidence. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 34, 568–579.

Bergen, H. A., Martin, G., Richardson, A. S., Allison, S., & Roeger, L. (2003). Sexual abuse and suicidal behavior: A model constructed from a large community sample of adolescents. Journal American Academic Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 42, 1301–1309.

Berger, R., Horsenczyk, R. P., & Gelkopf, M. (2007). School-based interventions for prevention and treatment of elementary-students’ terror related distress in Israel: A quasi-randomized controlled trial. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 20, 541–551.

Berger, R., & Lahad, M. (2010). A safe place: Ways in which nature, play and creativity can help children cope with stress and crisis – establishing the kindergarten as a safe haven where children can develop resiliency. Early Child Development and Care, 180, 889–900.

Bergman, A., Moskowitz, S. & Friedman, D. D. (2011). Early years of support group I: Three therapists’ views. Journal of Infant, Child, and Adolescent Psychotherapy, 10, 207–216.

Bergman, A. & Remez, A. (2011). The team approach to the treatment of a traumatized mother and child: Christina and Bobby. Journal of Infant, Child, and Adolescent Psychotherapy, 10, 286–295

Bergmann, M. V. (1992). An infantile trauma, a trauma during analysis, and their psychic connexion. International Journal of Psycho–Analysis, 73, 447–454.

Berkowitz, S. J., Stover, C. S., & Marans, S. R. (2011). The child and family traumatic stress intervention: secondary prevention for youth at risk of developing PTSD. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 52, 676–685.

Berliner, L., Thomas, A., & Fitzgerald, M. Children’s memory for trauma and positive experiences. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 16, 229–236.

Bernardon, S., Pernice-Duca, F. (2010). A family systems perspective to recovery from posttraumatic stress in children. The Family Journal: Counseling and Therapy for Couples and Families, 18(4) 349–357.

Bernie, S. (1997). Community reactions to disaster, an emerging role for the school psychologist. School Psychology International, 18,  99–118.

Bhushan, B., & Kumar, J. S. (2009). Emotional distress and posttraumatic stress in children: The impact of direct versus indirect exposure. Journal of Loss and Trauma, 14, 35–45.

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Black, P. J., Woodworth, M., Tremblay, M., & Carpenter, R. (2012). A review of trauma-informed treatment for adolescents. Canadian Psychology/Psychologie candienne, doi: 10.1037/a0028441

Blausten, M. E., & Kinniburgh, K. M. (2010). Treating traumatic stress in children and adolescents. New York: The Guilford Press.

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Bocknek, E. L., Sanderson, J., & Britner, P. A. (2009). Ambiguous loss and posttraumatic stress in school-age children of prisoners. The Journal of Child and Families Studies, 18, 323–333.

Bokszczanin, A. (2007). PTSD symptoms in children and adolescents 28 months after a flood: Age and gender differences. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 20, 347–351.

Bokszczanin, A. (2008). Parental support, family conflict, and overprotectiveness: Predicting PTSD symptom levels of adolescents 28 months after a natural disaster. Anxiety, Stress & Coping, 21, 325–335.

Bolton, D. A., Hill, J., O’Ryan, D., Udwin, O., Boyle, S., & Yule, W. (2004). Long-term effects of psychological trauma on psychosocial functioning. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45, 1007–1014.

Bolton, D., O`Ryan, D., Udwin, O., Boyle, S., & Yule, W. (2000). The long–term psychological effects of a disaster experienced in adolescence: II: General psychopathology. The Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 4, 513–523.       

Bossert E. (1994). Stress appraisals of hospitalized school–age children. Children’s Health Care, 23, 33–49.

Bovin, M. J., Marx, B. P., (2011) The importance of the pediatric experience in defining traumatic stress. Psychological Bulletin, 137, 47–67.

Boyce, W. T., Chesterman, E. A., Martin, N., Cohen, F., & Wara, D. (1993). Immunologic changes occurring in kindergarten entry predict respiratory illnesses after the Loma Prieta earthquake. Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 14, 296–303.

Bradburn, I. S. (1991). After the earth shook: children’s stress symptoms 6–8 months after a disaster. Advances in Behavior Research and Therapy, 13, 173–179.

Bradley, R., & Follingstad, D. (2001). Utilizing disclosure in the treatment of the sequelae of childhood sexual abuse: a theoretical and empirical review. Clinical Psychology Review, 21, 1–32.

Brand, B. L., & Alexander, P. C. (2003). Coping with incest: The relationship between recollections of childhood coping and adult functioning in female survivors of incest. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 16, 285–293.

Brandenburg, M. A., & Arneson, W. L. (2007). Pediatric disaster response in developed countries: ten guiding principles. American Journal of Disaster Medicine, 2, 151–162.

Brannon, L. C. (1994). The trauma of testifying in court for child victims of sexual assault v. the accused's right to confrontation. Law & Psychology Review, 18, 439–460.

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Bremner, J. D., & Vermetten, E. (2001). Stress and development: Behavioral and biological consequences. Development and Psychopathology, 13, 473–489.

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Broberg, A. (2002). “Hur mår du nu” Uppføljing av ungdomar som föll offer för diskotekbranden på Hisingen. Skriftserie från verksamhetsområde Barn– och ungdomspsykiatri, 4, nr. 1. Gøteborg: Sahlgrenska Universitetssjukhuset.

Brock, S. E. (1998). Helping classrooms cope with traumatic events. Professional School Counseling, 2, 110–116.

Brom, D., Pat-Horfenczyk, R., & Ford, J.D. (2009). (Eds.). Treating traumatized children, risk, resilience and recovery. London: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group.

Bromet, E., Goldgaber, D., Carlson, G., Panina, N., Golovakha, E., Gluzman, S., Gilbert, T., Gluzman, D., Lyubsky, S., & Schwartz, J. (2000). Children’s well–being 11 years after the Chernobyl catastrophe. Archives of General Psychiatry, 57, 563–571.

Bronfman, E. T., Biron Campis, L., & Koocher, G. P. (1998). Helping children to cope: clinical issues for acutely injured and medically traumatized children. Professionals Psychology: Research and Practice, 29, 574–581.

Bronner, M. B., Beer, R., Eldik, van v. Z. M. J., Grootenhuis, M. A., & Last, B. F. (2009). Reducing acute stress in a 16-year old using trauma-focused cognitive behaviour therapy and eye movement desensitization and reprocessing. Developmental Neurorehabilitation, 12, 170–174.

Bronner, M. B., Knoester, H., Bos, A. P., Last, B. F., & Grootenhuis, M. A. (2008). Follow-up after paediatric intensive care treatment: parental posttraumatic stress. Acta Pædiatrica, 97, 181–186.

Brown, E. J., & Bobrow, A. L. (2004). School entry after a community-wide trauma: Challenges and lessons learned from September 11th, 2001. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 7, 211–221.

Brown, R. T., Madan-Swain, A., Lambert, R. (2003). Posttraumatic stress symptoms in adolescent survivors of childhood cancer and their mothers. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 16, 309–318.

Brown, T., Pitman, E., & Pullen, S. (1996). Training in work with traumatised children: a placement at the Traumatic Stress Clinic, London, UK. Bereavement Care, 15, 17–19.

Bruce. D. P., & Pollard, R. (1998). Homeostasis, stress, trauma and adaptation. . Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 7, 33–51.

Bryant, R. A., Salmon, K., Sinclair, E., & Davidson, P. (2007). A prospective study of appraisals in childhood posttraumatic stress disorder. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 45, 2502–2507.

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Capewell, E. (1994). Systems for managing critical incidents in schools. Report to the Churchill Memorial trust on research undertaken in Australia, New Zealand and the USA through a Churchill fellowship. Centre for Crisis Management and Education.

Carney, A., G., & Merrell, K. W. (2001). Bullying in schools. School Psychology International, 22, 364–382.

Carr, A. (2004). Interventions for post-traumatic stress disorder in children and adolescents. Pediatric Rehabilitation, 7, 231–244.

Carrion, V. G., Weems, C. F., & Reiss, A. L. (2007). Stress predicts brain changes in children. A pilot longitudinal study on youth stress, posttraumatic stress disorder, and the hippocampus. Pediatrics, 19, 509–516.

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Cary, C. E., & McMillen, C. (2012). The data behind the dissemination: A systematic review of trauma-focused cognitive behavioural therapy for use with children and youth, Children and Youth Services Review, 1–52. doi:10.1016/j.childyouth.2012.01.003

CATS consortium. (2007). Implementing CBT for traumatized children and adolescents after September 11: Lessons learned from the child and adolescents trauma treatments and services (CATS) project. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 36, 581—592.

CATS Consortium. (2010). Implementation of CBT for youth affected by the World Trade Center disaster: Matching need to treatment intensity and reducing trauma symptoms. Journal of Traumatic Stress, doi:10.1002/jts.20594, 1–9.

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Ceyhan, E., & Ceyhan, A. A. (2007). Earthquake survivors’ quality of life and academic achievement six years after the earthquakes in Marmara, Turkey. Disasters, 31, 516–529.

Chartrand, M. M., Frank, D. A., White, L. F., & Shope, T. R. (2008). Effects of parents’ wartime deployment on the behaviour of young children in military families. Archives Pediatric Adolescents Medicine, 162, 1009–1014.

Charuvastra, A., Goldfarb, E., Petkova, E., & Cloitre, M. (2010). Implementation of a screen and treat program for child posttraumatic stress disorder in a school setting after a school suicide. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 23 (4), 500–503.

Chemtob, C. M., Madan, A., Berger, P., & Abramocitz, R. (2011). Adolescent exposure to the World Trade Center attacks, PTSD symptomatology, and suicidal ideation. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 24, 526–529.

Chemtob, C. M., Nakashima, J., & Carlson, J. G. (2002). Brief treatment for elementary school children with disaster–related posttraumatic stress disorder: A field study. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 58, 99–112.

Chemtob, C. M., Nakashima, J., & Hamada, R. S. (2002).

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