The Bible gives a clear and definitive origin of the nations that allegedly does not accord with what modern Science is asserting. When we examine the scientific record against the historical evidence and the known movement of tribes, we find that the Bible and Science can be in accord. The problem lies in the grossly elongated mathematical models that the evolutionists have constructed based on false assumptions.
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(Copyright 2006, 2007 Wade Cox)
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The Genetic Origin of the Nations
One of the greatest advances in human genetics is that of measuring the DNA of both males and females. Males are measured through the Y chromosome that is handed down from father to son in a continual line that mutates over time. This is called YDNA. Only males carry this through their Y chromosome, being XY. Females have XX chromosomes. Science says this rate of mutation is much slower than the Bible demands it to be in accord with its history of the nations as descended from Noah.
The female line is measured by testing their Mitochondrial DNA (termed mtDNA) that both males and females possess. Mitochondria are grouped in Haplogroups that relate to the lines of females in which they occur and this line is passed from mother to her offspring in the X chromosome, which both male and female possess.
The YDNA and mtDNA are measured in two different ways. YDNA is measured in what are termed polymorphs. These polymorphs are allocated a numeric value and, according to the value when tested, the sub-groupings that are formed are called clades and subclades of the overall grouping which is called a Haplogroup. These values record the change in YDNA mutations and lines.
The mtDNA is determined by reporting the polymorphic site such as for example 311C, meaning a mutation has occurred at base pair 16,311 and the base that changed here was actually changed to cytosine. The number 16,000 is the commencement point for DNA numbering and thus the 16,000 is dropped and the numbers used are the numbers in excess. So 16,311 becomes 311 and the letter indicates the chemical at that point in the polymorph. It is this change of the polymorphic site that determines the genetic ancestry, as the parent passes on to the offspring the DNA polymorphisms that they have with the same or similar numerical values. When tested, these values that are not exactly the same as the parent are termed mutations. The values thus vary and have determined the tribal groupings of the world’s nations.
The YDNA system that has been allocated to the male human species is grouped into a series of Haplogroups from A to R. The usual extensive measurement (using the Arizona system) is usually of 37 sites as markers. Basic testing is done for the first twelve, then to 25, and then on to 37 of these polymorphic sites, or locations to determine relatedness and Haplogroup association. There could be some 100 or more markers tested for changes (a.k.a. polymorphisms). An example of what might be a typical YDNA structure is as follows:
YCA II a
YCA II b
*Also known as DYS 394
**On 5/19/2003, these values were adjusted down by 1 point because of a change in Lab nomenclature.
There are values that when tested are allocated to the right column of the table. Those values help determine whether a person has fallen into a typical Celt Haplogroup or one that is found among a Semite, or an Amerindian, or Polynesian, or Chinese or Japanese racial type. To properly determine the type, what is known as an SNP test is run, but the values from the 12, 25 and 37 marker tests point us in the right direction. No national group is of a pure genetic Haplogroup with the exception of some Amerindian tribes of the Q group in South America (from the charts produced by Dr. J. D. McDonald). The table above, depending on tested values, could be that of the typical R1b Celt of Europe or the Native Americans, both of whose DNA belongs to the last two Haplogroups on the scale.
The mitochondria, first sequenced in 1981, became known as the Cambridge Reference Sequence (CRS). The CRS has been used as a basis for comparison with individual mtDNA. In other words, any place in an individual mtDNA that has a difference from the CRS is characterized as a mutation. If a result shows no mutations at all it means that the mtDNA matches the CRS. A mutation happens when: a) a base replaces another base - for example a C (Cytosine) replaces an A (Adenine); b) a base is no longer in that position, or a deletion; and c) a new base is inserted between the other bases without replacing any other (an insertion).
That is how the mtDNA mutates. The original female DNA of the human species was confined to seven females, but in Europe only. Throughout the world there are about 26 sub-branches of the tree of humankind on the female lineages. Thus the female lineages might be argued to be explicable within the biblical terms in Europe only. The mtDNA thus requires harmonising with the Bible account by explaining the entire 26 female lines.
We are dependent on Science in its organising of the Haplogroups. As the Polymorphs mutate they alter the values and so the rate of mutation may well cause some movement between Haplogroups not yet identified.