Cis250 Test 3 Tia review – Chapters 7, 12 & 13 Chapter 7 4G

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CIS250 - Test 3 TiA Review – Chapters 7, 12 & 13

Chapter 7

4G is the largest service standard and offers the fastest data-access speeds over cell-phone networks

Access Point is connected with cable to the main router

Backward Compatibility is the ability of current devices to use earlier standards in addition to the current standard

Broadband is often referred to as high-speed internet, and refers to a type of connection that offers a means to connect to the Internet with fast throughput (1 to 500 Mpbs)

Cable Internet is a broadband service that transmits data over the coaxial cables that also transmit cable television signals

Cat 5e Cable is the cheapest of the three types and is sufficient for many home networking tasks (100 Mbps)

Cat 6 Cable is designed to achieve DTS that support a gigabit Ethernet network (1,000 Mbps or 1 GBps)

Cat 6a is designed for ultrafast Ethernet networks (10,000 Mbps or 10 Gbps)

Client/Server Network is where a client is a computer on which users accomplish tasks and make requests, whereas the server is the computer that provides information or resources to the client computers as well as central administration for network functions such as printing

Coaxial Cable consists of a single copper wire surrounded by layers of plastic, and is used to connect your TV to a cable box

Data Plan is your fixed limit on data per month for your cell-phone, such as 2GB or 3GB

Data Transfer Rate (Bandwidth) is the maximum speed at which data can be transmitted between two modes on a network

DSL (Digital Subscriber Line) uses twisted-pair cables, the same that are used for telephones, to connect your computer to the internet

Ethernet Network uses the Ethernet protocol as the standard of communication between nodes

Fiber-Optic Cable is made up of plastic or glass fibers that transmit data at extremely fast speeds

Fiber-Optic Service uses fiber-optic lines, which are strands of optically pure glass or plastic that are as thin as human hair, and is usually not run inside the home

Firmware is the software that is written into the read-only memory of a router

Gigabit Ethernet is the standard for wired Ethernet, and is also known as 802.3

Home Area Network (HAN) is a specific type of LAN located in a home

Home Network Server are specialized devices designed to store files, share files across the network, and back up files on computers connected to the network

Internet of Things (IoT) is defined as the interconnection of uniquely identifiable embedded computing devices that transfer data over a network without requiring human-to-human or human-to-computer interaction (machines, appliances, buildings, vehicles, animals, people, plants, and soil)

Internet Service Provider (ISP) are specialized providers that provide homeowners, and small business, the opportunity to purchase internet access, and some providers also offer phone and cable TV

Local Area Network (LAN) is a network in which the nodes are located within a small geographical area

Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) is a large network designed to provide access to a specific geographical area, such as an entire city

Mobile Broadband connects you to the Internet through the same cellular network that cell phones use to get 3G or 4G Internet access

Mobile Hotspot lets you tether, or connect, more than one device to the internet but require access to a data plan

Modem connects your network to the Internet, and brings the internet signal to your home

Network is simply two or more computers that are connected via software and hardware so they can communicate with each other

Network Adapter is what the different nodes on a network use to communicate with each other and access the network

Network Administration involves tasks such as: installing new computers and devices, monitoring the network to ensure it is performing efficiently, updating and installing new software on the network, and configuring or setting up, proper security for a network

Network Architecture is another word for network design, and is classified by: the distance between nodes, the way in which the network is managed, the set of rules used to exchange data between network nodes

Network-Attached Storage (NAS) Device are specialized devices designed to store and manage all network data

Network Interface Card (NIC) are designed to use different types of transmission media, and all computers, tablets, smartphones, and many peripherals sold today contain network adapters

Network Navigation Device is how you share the internet signals with all of the devices in your home (router or switch)

Network Operating System (NOS) is software that handles requests for information, Internet access, and the use of peripherals for the rest of the network nodes

Network-Ready Device can be connected directly to a network through either a wired or wireless connection

Node is the name for each device connected to a network

Peer-to-Peer (P2P) Network each node connected on the network can communicate directly with every other node in the network

Peer-to-Peer (P2P) Sharing is the process of users transferring files between computers

Personal Area Network (PAN) is a network used for communication among devices close to one person, such as smartphones and tablets using wireless technologies such as Bluetooth and Wi-Fi

Piggybacking is connecting to a wireless network and stealing personal information, just as any other hacker could

Router transfers packets of data between two or more networks, for example between your home network and the internet

Satellite Internet requires a satellite dish that is placed outside your home and connected to your computer with a coaxial cable

Service Set Identifier (SSID) is the name to identify a wireless network

Smart Home

Switch acts like a traffic signal on a network, and receive data packets and send them to their intended nodes on the same network

Throughput is the actual speed of data transfer that is achieved

Transmission Media establishes a communications channel between the nodes on a network

Twisted-Pair-Cable is used for telephone cables, and is made up of copper wires that are twisted around each other and surrounded by a plastic jacket

Unshielded Twisted-Pair (UTP) Cable is composed of four airs of wires twisted around each other to reduce electrical interference, and is used for networks

Wi-Fi is a wireless network, based on the IEEE 802.11 standard

Wireless Internet Service Provider (Wireless ISP) connects your smartphone to the Internet

Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) is a wireless distribution method for two or more devices that use high-frequency radio waves and often include an access point to the internet

Wireless Range Extender is a wireless network device that repeats your wireless signal

Chapter 12

Access Card Reader is a relatively cheap device that reads information from a magnetic strip on the back of a credit card, such as an access card or student ID card

Access Method has to be established to control which computer is allowed to use the transmission media at a certain time

Active Topology means that nodes participate in moving data through the network

Application Server acts as a repository for application software

Authentication is the process whereby users prove they have authorization to use a computer network

Authentication Server is a server that keeps track of who is logging on to the network and which services on the network are available to each user

Bastion Host is a heavily secured server located on a special perimeter network between the company’s secure internal network and the firewall

Biometric Authentication Device uses a unique characteristic of human biology to identify authorized users

Bridge is a device that’s used to send data between different collision domains, depending on where the recipient device is located

Brute Force Attack is when someone attempts to access an account repeatedly by trying different passwords

Bus (Linear Bus) Topology is where all computers are connected in a sequence on a single cable

Centralized is when the server, not the individual user, coordinates data security

Client/Server Network (Server-Based-Network) contains servers as well as client computers

Cloud Server is a server that is maintained by hosting companies

Coaxial Cable consists of four main components: a copper core, a plastic insulation, a braided metal for shielding, and a plastic jacket

Communications Server handles all communications between the network and other networks, including managing Internet connectivity

CSMA/CD is short for carrier sense multiple access with collision detection

Data Collision will happen when two computers send data at the same time and the sets of data collide somewhere in the connection media, and are a problem on all networks

Database Server provides client computers with access to information stored in databases

Decentralized is when the individual user, not the server, coordinates data security

Dedicated Server is a server used to fulfill one specific function, such as handling e-mail

Device Driver is installed on all client computers in the client/server network

Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) allows the exchange of large amounts of business data (such as orders for merchandise) in a standardized electronic format

E-Mail Server is to process and deliver incoming and outgoing e-mail

Extranet is an extension of an intranet that only certain corporations or individuals can access

Fiber-Optic Cable is composed of: protective sheath, glass or plastic cladding, and optical glass fiber

File Server is a server that stores and manages files for network users

Frame is a container that can hold multiple data packets

Honey Pot is a computer system that’s set up to attract unauthorized users by appearing to by a key part of a network or a system that contains something of great value

Hybrid Technology is when multiple topologies are combined to construct business networks

Information Assurance ensures that information systems are adequately secured against tampering

Intranet is a private network set up by a business or an organization that’s used exclusively by a select group of employees, customers, suppliers, volunteers, or supporters

Jam Signal alerts the nodes that a collision has occurred

Local Area Network (LAN) is generally a small group of computers and peripherals linked together over a relatively small geographical area, for example the computer lab at your school

Media Access Control (MAC) Address is the physical address that is made up of 6 two-position characters, such as 01:40:87:79:44:A5, the first three sets of characters specify the manufacturer of the network adapter, and the second set of characters makes up a unique address

Network Adapter is a device that performs a specific tasks to enable nodes to communicate on a network

Network Administrator is who maintains the network, and has training in computer and peripheral maintenance and repair, networking design, and the installation of networking software

Network Operating System (NOS) needs to be installed on each client computer and server that’s connected to the network to provide the services necessary for them to communicate

Network Topology refers to the physical or logical arrangement of computers, transmission media (cables), and other network components

Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) provides the protocol guidelines for all modern networks

Packet Screening involves having an external screening router examining incoming data packets to ensure that they originated from or are authorized by valid users on the internal network

Passive Topology is when the devices (nodes) attached to a bus network do nothing to move data along the network

Possessed Object is any object that users carry to identify themselves and that grants them access to a computer system or computer facility

Print Queue is a software queue for spooled print jobs

Print Server manage all client-requested printing jobs for all printers on a network

Protocol is a set of rules for exchanging communications

Proxy Server acts as a go-between, connecting computers on the internal network with those on the external network

Ring (Loop) Topology is when the computers and peripherals are laid out in a configuration resembling a circle

Router is designed to send information between two networks

Scalability means that more users can be added easily without affecting the performance of the other network nodes

Shielded Twisted-Pair (STP) Cable is when the twisted-pair cable contains a layer of foil shielding to reduce interference

Star Topology is the most widely deployed client/server network topology because it offers the most flexibility for a low price

Switch makes decisions, based on the MAC address of the data, as to where the data is to be sent and rebroadcasts it to the appropriate network node

Terminator is a device that absorbs a signal so that it’s not reflected back onto parts of the network that have already received it

Token is the special data packet where data flows around the circle from device to device in one direction only

Token Method is the access method that ring networks use to avoid data collision, and involves the sending node generating a new token and it starts it going around the ring again

Transmission Media make up the physical system that data takes to flow between devices on a network, they can be wired or wireless

Tunneling is where data packets are placed inside other data packets

Twisted-Pair Cable consists of pairs of copper wires twisted around each other and covered by a protective sheath

Virtual Private Network (VPN) uses the public Internet communications infrastructure to build a secure, private network among various locations

Virtualization involves using specialized software to make individual physical servers behave as though they are more than one physical device

Web Server is used to host a website so that it will be available through the Internet

Wide Area Network (WAN) comprises a large number of users over a wider physical area or separate LANs that are miles apart, for example business that connect two or more geographically distant locations

Wireless Access Point (WAP) gives wireless devices a sending and receiving connection point to the network

Wireless Network Interface Card (Wireless NIC) is a special network adapter card that allows a computing device that connects to a networking using wireless access

Chapter 13

Applet is a small application actually located on the server, and when requested it is downloaded to the client, and is ready to run when needed, without additional data transfers between the client and server

Cascading Style Sheet (CSS) is a list of rules that defines in one single location how to display HTML elements

Circuit Switching a dedicated connection is formed between two points, such as two people on phones, and remains active for the duration of the transmission

Client/Server Model is what the majority of Internet communications follow, and where clients are devices such as computers, tablets, and smartphones that use browsers to request services such as web pages

Client-Side Program is a program that runs on the client computer and requires no interaction with a webs server

Commerce Server is where computers that host software that enables users to buy goods and services over the web, these servers generally use special security protocols to protect sensitive information (user’s credit card number)

Computer Protocol is the set of rules for exchanging electronic information

Connectionless Protocol doesn’t require any type of connection to be established or maintained between two computers exchanging information

Connection-Oriented Protocol requires two computers to exchange control packets, thereby setting up the parameters of the data-exchange session, before sending packets that contain data

Document Object Model (DOM) is used by JavaScript to organize the objects and page elements

Domain Name System (DNS) Server is where the mirrored database is located that functions like a phone book for the Internet translating URLs into IP addresses and vice-versa

Dotted Decimal Number (Dotted Squad) is the typical IP address expressed in the form (

Dynamic Addressing in which your computer is assigned a temporary address from an available pool of IP addresses

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) takes a pool of IP addresses and shares them with hosts on the network on as as-needed basis

Dynamic HTML (DHTML) is a combination of technologies- HTML, cascading style sheets, and JavaScript- that’s used to create lively and interactive websites

Element is what each pair of tags and the text between them are collectively referred as

E-Mail Server is a specialized computer whose sole function is to store, process, and send e-mail

Encryption refers to the process of coding your e-mail so that only the person with the key to the code can decode the message

eXtensible Markup Language (XML) describes the content in terms of what data is being described rather than how it’s to be displayed

File Server computers that are deployed to provide remote storage space, or to act as storage houses for files, that users can download

Handshaking is the process where two computers exchange control packets, setting up the parameters of the data-exchange session, before sending the packets that contain data

Hexadecimal is a base-16 number system, and each hexadecimal digit is one of 16 possible values: 0-9 or A-F

HTML Embedded Scripting Language tucks programming code directly within the HTML of a web page

HTML Tag is the blocks of text in HTML documents that surround and define HTML content (such as and

Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) is a standardized system for tagging text files to achieve graphic, and hyperlink effects on web pages

Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) was created especially for the transfer of hypertext documents across the Internet

Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure (HTTPS) ensures that data is sent securely over the web

Internet Backbone is the main paths of the Internet, along which data travels the fastest, and is a collection of large national and international networks, most of which are owned by commercial, educational, or government organizations

Internet Cache is a section of your hard drive that stores information you may need again, such as IP addresses and frequently accessed web pages

Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) is where IP addresses are registered, to ensure they’re unique and haven’t been assigned to other users

Internet Exchange Point (IXP) is generally made up of one or more network switches to which ISP’s connect, such a Verizon and Comcast

Internet of Things (IoT) is a term for the explosive growth of Internet-enabled devices such as appliances, switches, light bulbs, and smoke detectors

Internet Protocol (IP) sends data between computers on the Internet

Internet Protocol Version 4 (IPv4) was created in 1981, and was the original IP addressing scheme

Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) is an IP addressing scheme developed by IETF to make IP addresses longer, thereby providing more available IP addresses

IP Address is a unique identification number that defines each computer, service, or other device connected to the Internet

JavaScript is a commonly used scripting language for creating DHTML effects

JSON is a popular format used to transfer information between computers, and stands for JavaScript Object Notation.

Key Pair is two keys that are being encrypted publically

Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) is used by all e-mail client software to attach files

Negative Acknowledgement (NAK) is what Y sends to X, indicating the packet wasn’t received in an understandable form

Octet is each of the four numbers in dotted decimal number

Open System is designed to be made public for access by any interested party

Optical Carrier (OC) Line is a high-speed-fiber-optic line that provides communication on the Internet backbone

Packet (Data Packet) is chunks of data broken down into packets, and are sent over various routers at the same time

Packet Switching is the communications methodology that makes computer communication efficient

Point of Presence (POP) is a bank of modems, servers, routers, and switches, through which many users can connect to an ISP simultaneously

Positive Acknowledgement (ACK) is what Y sends back to X, after it has received a data packed from X

Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) is a public-key software package for data encryption purposes

Private Key is what you use to decode a message you have received, and is highly secure

Private-Key Encryption is where only two parties are involved in sending the message have the code

Proprietary System is designed that the access is private and only for a specific intended party

Public Key the key for coding

Public-Key Encryption is where two keys, known as a key pair, are created, one key for coding, and one key for decoding

Root DNS Server knows the location of all the DNS servers that contain the master listings for an entire top-level domain

Second-Level Domain is a domain that’s directly below a top-level domain

Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) is a network security protocol

Server-Side Program is the type of program that runs on a web server rather than on your computer

Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) is responsible for sending e-mail along the Internet to its destination

Static Addressing means that the IP address for a computer never changes and is most likely assigned manually by a network administrator or an ISP

T Line carries digital data over twisted-pair wires

TCP is a set of rules that govern the delivery of data over the Internet, and sets up a connection between the sending and receiving computers

TCP/IP comprises many interrelated protocols, and is named after the two protocols Transmission Control Protocol, and the Internet Protocol

Three-Way Handshake is when your computer establishes a connection to the ISP and announces it has an e-mail to send, the ISP server responds that it’s ready to receive the e-mail, then your computer acknowledges the ready state of the server and begins to transmit the e-mail

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)

Transport Layer Security (TLS) is an updated extension of Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)

User Datagram Protocol (UDP) create data packets

Web Server are computers that run specialized operating systems, enabling them to host web pages and other information and to provide requested information to clients
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