Amobile phone(also known as acellular phone,cell phone, and ahand phone) is a device that can make and receivetelephone callsover a radio linkwhile moving around a wide geographic area.
Wireless networking is a method by which homes, telecommunications networks and enterprise (business) installations avoid the costly process of introducing cables into a building, or as a connection between various equipment locations.
ANN, LTE, Mobile communication, Wireless communication.
A mobile phone is a device that can make and receive cellular calls over a radio link while moving around a geographical area. The concept of mobile networking and wireless networking is an important thesis in the area of intelligent and knowledge-based systems introduced in the modern technology.
The wireless networking was brought up into the world of communication by Alexander Graham Bell and Charles Sumner Tainter in the 1880. They invented and patented the photophone, a telephone that conducted audio conversations wirelessly over modulated light beams (which are narrow projections of electromagnetic waves).
The mobile is one of the best technologies invented. Early predecessors of cellular phones included analog radio communications from ships and trains. The advancements in mobile technology occurred right after the World War II. The advances in mobile telephony have been traced in successive generations from the early "0G" (zeroth generation) services like the Bell System's Mobile Telephone Service and its successor, Improved Mobile Telephone Service. The first handheld mobile cell phone was demonstrated by Motorola in 1973. The first commercial automated cellular network was launched in Japan by NTT in 1979.
1G, 2G and 3G- The first generation ("1G") (introduced in the mid-1980s) systems could support far more simultaneous calls, but still used analog technology. In 1991, the second generation (2G) digital cellular technology was launched which sparked competition in the sector, as the new operators challenged the incumbent 1G network operators. Ten years later, in 2001, the third generation (3G) was launched. This was followed by 3.5G, 3G+ or turbo 3G enhancements based on the high-speed packet access (HSPA) family, allowing UMTS networks to have higher data transfer speeds and capacity.
Mobiles and Wireless Technology
One of the best-known examples of wireless technology is the mobile phone, also known as a cellular phone. These wireless phones use radio waves to enable their users to make phone calls from many locations worldwide. They can be used within range of the mobile telephone site used to house the equipment required to transmit and receive the radio signals from these instruments
Wireless data communications.
Wireless data communications are an essential component of mobile computing. The various available technologies differ in local availability, coverage range and performance, and in some circumstances, users must be able to employ multiple connection types and switch between them. To simplify the experience for the user, connection manager software can be used, or a mobile VPN deployed to handle the multiple connections as a secure, single virtual network. Wi-Fi is a wireless local area network that enables portable computing devices to connect easily to the Internet. . Wi-Fi has become the de facto standard for access in private homes, within offices, and at public hotspots. Cellular data service offers coverage within a range of 10-15 miles from the nearest cell site. Speeds have increased as technologies have evolved, from earlier technologies such as GSM,CDMA and GPRS, to 3G networks such as W-CDMA, EDGE or CDMA2000.
Mobile Satellite Communications may be used where other wireless connections are unavailable, such as in largely rural areas or remote locations.] Satellite communications are especially important for transportation, aviation, maritime and military use.
Wireless Sensor Networks are responsible for sensing noise, interference, and activity in data collection networks. This allows us to detect relevant quantities, monitor and collect data, formulate meaningful user displays, and to perform decision-making functions.
Wireless Wide Area Networks (WWANs) use mobile telecommunication cellular networks such Mobitex, GSM, CDMA2000, UMTS, WiMAX and LTE for data transfer.
Wireless networking is used to meet many needs. Perhaps the most common use is to connect laptop users who travel from location to location. Another common use is for mobile networks that connect via satellite. A wireless transmission method is a logical choice to network a LAN segment that must frequently change locations. The following situations justify the use of wireless technology:
To span a distance beyond the capabilities of typical cabling,
To provide a backup communications link in case of normal network failure,
To link portable or temporary workstations,
To overcome situations where normal cabling is difficult or financially impractical, or
To remotely connect mobile users or networks.
Applications may involve point-to-point communication, point-to-multipoint communication, broadcasting, cellular networks and other wireless networks, Wi-Fi technology.
Types of wireless Networks
Wireless personal area networks (WPANs) interconnect devices within a relatively small area, that is generally within a person's reach.] For example, both Bluetooth radio and invisible infraredlight provides a WPAN for interconnecting a headset to a laptop. ZigBee also supports WPAN applications.
A wireless local area network (WLAN) links two or more devices over a short distance using a wireless distribution method, usually providing a connection through an access point for Internet access. The use of spread-spectrum or OFDM technologies may allow users to move around within a local coverage area, and still remain connected to the network.
Products using the IEEE 802.11 Fixed wireless technology implements point-to-point links between computers or networks at two distant locations, often using dedicated microwave or modulated laser light beams over line of sight paths.
A wireless mesh network is a wireless network made up of radio nodes organized in a mesh topology. Each node forwards messages on behalf of the other nodes.
Wireless metropolitan area networks are a type of wireless network that connects several wireless LANs.
WiMAX is a type of Wireless MAN and is described by the IEEE 802.16 standard.
Wireless wide area networks are wireless networks that typically cover large areas, such as between neighboring towns and cities, or city and suburb. The wireless connections between access points are usually point to point microwave links using parabolic dishes on the 2.4 GHz band, rather than omnidirectional antennas used with smaller networks. A typical system contains base station gateways, access points and wireless bridging relays.
A cellular network or mobile network is a radio network distributed over land areas called cells, each served by at least one fixed-location transceiver, known as a cell site or base station. In a cellular network, each cell characteristically uses a different set of radio frequencies from all their immediate neighbouring cells to avoid any interference.
When joined together these cells provide radio coverage over a wide geographic area. This enables a large number of portable transceivers (e.g., mobile phones, pagers, etc.) to communicate with each other and with fixed transceivers and telephones anywhere in the network, via base stations, even if some of the transceivers are moving through more than one cell during transmission.
Although originally intended for cell phones, with the development of smartphones, cellular telephone networks routinely carry data in addition to telephone conversations:
Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM): The GSM network is divided into three major systems: the switching system, the base station system, and the operation and support system. The cell phone connects to the base system station which then connects to the operation and support station; it then connects to the switching station where the call is transferred to where it needs to go. GSM is the most common standard and is used for a majority of cell phones.
Personal Communications Service (PCS):PCS is a radio band that can be used by mobile phones in North America and South Asia. Sprint happened to be the first service to set up a PCS.
D-AMPS: Digital Advanced Mobile Phone Service, an upgraded version of AMPS, is being phased out due to advancement in technology. The newer GSM networks are replacing the older system.
A global area network (GAN) is a network used for supporting mobile across an arbitrary number of wireless LANs, satellite coverage areas, etc. The key challenge in mobile communications is handing off user communications from one local coverage area to the next. In IEEE Project 802, this involves a succession of terrestrial wireless LANs.
Space networks are networks used for communication between spacecraft, usually in the vicinity of the Earth. The example of this is NASA's Space Network.
5G (5th generation mobile networks or 5th generation wireless systems) is a term used in some research papers and projects to denote the next major phase of mobile telecommunications standards beyond the current 4G/IMT-Advanced standards. 5G is also referred to as beyond 2020 mobile communications technologies. 5G does not describe any particular specification in any official document published by any telecommunication standardization body.
New mobile generations are typically assigned new frequency bands and wider spectral bandwidth per frequency channel (1G up to 30 kHz, 2G up to 200 kHz, 3G up to 20 MHz, and 4G up to 100 MHz), but skeptics argue that there is little room for larger channel bandwidths and new frequency bands suitable for land-mobile radio. From users' point of view, previous mobile generations have implied substantial increase in peak bitrate (i.e. physical layer net bitrates for short-distance communication), up to 1 Gbit/s to be offered by 4G.
If 5G appears, and reflects these prognoses, the major difference from a user point of view between 4G and 5G techniques must be something else than increased peak bit rate; for example higher number of simultaneously connected devices, higher system spectral efficiency (data volume per area unit), lower battery consumption, lower outage probability (better coverage), high bit rates in larger portions of the coverage area, lower latencies, higher number of supported devices, lower infrastructure deployment costs, higher versatility and scalability or higher reliability of communications. Those are the objectives in several of the research papers and projects below.
Key concepts suggested in scientific papers discussing 5G and beyond 4G wireless communications are:
Massive Dense Networks also known as Massive Distributed MIMO providing green flexible small cells 5G Green Dense Small Cells. A transmission point equipped with a very large number of antennas that simultaneously serve multiple users. With massive MIMO multiple messages for several terminals can be transmitted on the same time-frequency resource, maximising beamforming gain while minimising interference.
Advanced interference and mobility management, achieved with the cooperation of different transmission points with overlapped coverage, and encompassing the option of a flexible usage of resources for uplink and downlink transmission in each cell, the option of direct device-to-device transmission and advanced interference cancellation techniques.
Efficient support of machine-type devices to enable the Internet of Things with potentially higher numbers of connected devices, as well as novel applications such as mission critical control or traffic safety, requiring reduced latency and enhanced reliability.
The usage of millimetre wave frequencies (e.g. up to 90 GHz) for wireless backhaul and/or access (IEEE rather than ITU generations)
Pervasive networks providing Internet of things, wireless sensor networks and ubiquitous computing: The user can simultaneously be connected to several wireless access technologies and seamlessly move between them (See Media independent handover or vertical handover, IEEE 802.21, also expected to be provided by future 4G releases. See also multihoming.). These access technologies can be 2.5G, 3G, 4G, or 5G mobile networks, Wi-Fi, WPAN, or any other future access technology. In 5G, the concept may be further developed into multiple concurrent data transfer paths.
Multi-hop networks: A major issue in beyond 4G systems is to make the high bit rates available in a larger portion of the cell, especially to users in an exposed position in between several base stations. In current research, this issue is addressed by cellular repeaters and macro-diversity techniques, also known as group cooperative relay, where also users could be potential cooperative nodes thanks to the use of direct device-to-device (D2D) communications.
Cognitive radio technology, also known as smart-radio: allowing different radio technologies to share the same spectrum efficiently by adaptively finding unused spectrum and adapting the transmission scheme to the requirements of the technologies currently sharing the spectrum. This dynamic radio resource management is achieved in a distributed fashion, and relies on software-defined radio. See also the IEEE 802.22 standard for Wireless Regional Area Networks.
Dynamic Adhoc Wireless Networks (DAWN), essentially identical to Mobile ad hoc network (MANET), Wireless mesh network (WMN) or wireless grids, combined with smart antennas,cooperative diversity and flexible modulation.
Vandermonde-subspace frequency division multiplexing (VFDM): a modulation scheme to allow the co-existence of macro-cells and cognitive radio small-cells in a two-tiered LTE/4G network.
IPv6, where a visiting care-of mobile IP address is assigned according to location and connected network.
Wearable devices with AI capabilities. such as smartwatches and optical head-mounted displays for augmented reality
One unified global standard.
Real wireless world with no more limitation with access and zone issues.
User centric (or cell phone developer initiated) network concept instead of operator-initiated (as in 1G) or system developer initiated (as in 2G, 3G and 4G) standards
Li-Fi, or light fidelity, is a massive MIMO visible light communication network to advance 5G. Li-Fi uses light-emitting diodes to transmit data, rather than radio waves like Wi-Fi.
World wide wireless web (WWWW), i.e. comprehensive wireless-based web applications that include full multimedia capability beyond 4G speeds.
I have presented in this paper an extensive review that captures diverse technology used in the mobiles and wireless communications. Genetic algorithm (and other evolutionary computing techniques) have been shown to be very useful in optimization problems such as network design, antenna design and resource allocation. ANNs offer powerful prediction capability due to its great generalization power and learning capability. Fuzzy logic, which is the backbone of soft computing, is suitable for tracking imprecision and uncertainty. This is very useful for innovative control, load balancing and handoff decisions. Wireless and mobile communications applications are subject to the uncertainty, ambiguity, nonlinearity and complex nature of their respective networks.
Lotfi A. Zadeh, "Fuzzy Logic, Neural Networks and Soft Computing", Communications of the ACM, Vol. 37, No. 3, 1994, pp.77 – 84
Paper written by Aderemi A. Atayero and Matthew K. Luka (Ota, Nigeria).
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Jones, George. “Future Proof. How Wireless Energy Transfer Will Kill the Power Cable.” MaximumPC. 14 Sept. 2010. Web. 26 Oct. 2013.
Linebaugh, Kate. “Medical Devices in Hospitals go wireless.” Online.wsj. The Wall Street Journal. 23 May 2010. Web. 27 Oct. 2013.
Paventi, jared. “How does a Wireless Keyboard Work.” Ehow. Web. 26 Oct. 2013.
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