Classification of The Synovial Joints 1- numerical classification



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Classification of The Synovial Joints

1- Numerical classification:

Depends on the number of articulated bones.

A- Simple joint: (two articulated bones).

B- Composite Joint: (more than two bones within one joint capsule).



2- Anatomical classification:

Depends on the shape of articular surface.

A- Ball and socket joint: e.g. (shoulder j. Hip i.)

B- Saddle joint: e.g. (Pastern joint of the dog).

C- Hing joint : e.g ( Elbow j. )

D- Condylar joint: e.g. (Mandibular J.).

E- Trochoid joint: e.g. (Atlantoaxial joint).

F- Plane joint: e.g. (joint between the articular processes of vertebrae)



Joint of The Thoracic Limb

1- Shoulder or Humeral Joint

Type: Simple, ball and socket.

Location: Between the glenoid cavity of scapula and the head of humerous bone.

Ligament: Has no well developed ligament.

Movement:

  1. Extension and flexion.

  2. Adduction and abduction are very limited.

2- Elbow or Cubital Joint

Type: Composite , hing J.

consists of:



  1. Humero-radial J.

  2. Humero-ulnar J.

  3. Radio-ulnar joint (proximal)

Location: Articular surface

  1. Humerus → Trochlea + Head of this bone.

  2. Radius → Humeral articular surface.

  3. Ulna → Trochlear notch.

Ligament: Lateral and medial collateral ligament.

Movement: Extension and flexion only.

Note:

Proximal radio-ulnar joint ossified in horse and ruminants, so it classify as a fibrous joint.



3- Carpal Joint

Type: Composite , hing J.

Composite consist of:



  1. Antebrachio – Carpal J.

Loction: Articular surface between the distal end of the radius ulna and with the proximal carpal row.

  1. Inter carpal J.

Location: Articular surfaces: between the proximal and distal carpal rows.

  1. Carpo-metacarpal

Location: Articular surfaces: between the distal carpal row and the bases of metacarpal bones.

Ligaments: consist of

1- Common Ligament:



  1. Lateral collateral carpal ligament.

  2. Medial collateral carpal ligament.

2- Special Ligament

  1. Dorsal ligament.

  2. Palmar ligaments.

  3. Interosseous ligaments.

  4. Ligaments associated with the accessory carpal bone.

Movements:

  1. Extension and flexion → for (A) and (B) joint.

  2. Narrow gliding → for (C) joint.

4- Inter metacarpal joints:

Type: Fibrous joints.

Location: Proximal ends of metacarpal bones in all species articulated with the adjacent bone to form these joints.

5- Metacarpo-phalangeal or Fetlock joint

Type: Composite J.

Location: Between the distal end of metacarpal bones and the bases of proximal phalanx with the two proximal sesamoid bones.

Ligament: Consist of

  1. Lateral and medial collateral ligament.

  2. Sesamoidean ligaments.

  1. Proximal sesamoidean ligament. Also called suspensory ligament or interosseous tendon.

  2. Middle seasamoidean ligament.

  1. Intersesamoidean ligament.

  2. Lateral and medial collateral sesamoidean ligament.

  1. Distal seseamoidean ligaments

  1. Straight sesamoidean ligament.

  2. Oblique sesamoidean ligament.

  3. Gruciate sesamoidean ligament.

  4. Short sesamoidean ligament.

Note:

  1. In the ruminants the straight sesamoidean ligament is absent.

  2. In the dog the straight and short ligg. are absent.

6- Proximal interphalangeal or pastern joint

Type: Simple joint.

Location: Between the proximal or 1st phalanx and middle phalanx.

Ligament:

  1. Lateral and medial collateral ligament.

  2. Palmar ligament are present only in Horses and ruminants.

Movement: Extension and flexion

7- Distal interphalangeal or coffin joint

Type: Composite

Location: Between the distal end of 2nd or middle phalanx and articular surface of 3rd or distal phalanx with the distal sesamoid bone.

Ligament:

  1. Lateral and medial collateral ligament.

  2. Lateral and medial collateral sesamoidean ligs.

  3. Distal sesamoidean ligament.

Movement: Extension and flexion

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