Computer architecture and organization unit I modern computer organization



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II BSC ECS

COMPUTER ARCHITECTURE AND ORGANIZATION
UNIT I MODERN COMPUTER ORGANIZATION

Introduction – Layers in modern computer - Computer organization – Main Memory – CPU Operation –

Computer types – System performance and measurement – High performance techniques – Booting sequence –

Computer design process – Computer structure – Computer Function – Architecture and Organization – CISC Vs

RISC

UNIT II PROCESSOR DESIGN AND DATA PATH

Introduction – Processor role – Processor design goals – Processor design process – Data path organization

– Main memory interface – Local storage register file – Data path simple instructions

UNIT III MEMORY DESIGN AND MANAGEMENT

Introduction – Memory parameters – Classification of memory – Memory Technology – Main memory

allocation – Static RAM IC – Dynamic RAM – ROM logic – Multiple memory decoding – Memory Hierarchy –

Cache memory – Principle of cache – Virtual memory Concept – Advantage of Virtual memory



UNIT IV COMPUTER PERIPHERALS

Introduction – Keyboard – CRT display monitor – Printer – Magnetic storage devices – Floppy disk drive –

Hard disk drive – Special types of disk drives – Mouse and Track ball – Modem – CD-ROM Drive – Scanner –

Digital Camera – DVD.



UNIT V ADVANCED SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE

Introduction – High performance computer architecture – RISC systems – Superscalar architecture – VLIW

architecture – EPIC architecture –Multiprocessor Systems

TEXT BOOK

1. Govindarajalu.B “Computer Architecture and Organization Design Principles and Applications” Tata



McGraw-Hill, 2006

B.Sc. Electronics & C. Sys. (Colleges-revised) 2010-11

Page 11 of 35

Annexure No. 30 B

SCAA Dt.

PART-A

UNIT-1

MODERN COMMPUTER ORGANIZATION

  1. Arithmetic and logical operations are done in CPU

  2. The abbreviation of RISC is reduced instruction set computing

  3. Registers are the temporary memory area while data manipulation.

  4. Computers uses binary based codes to give the information.

  5. The maximum number of clock cycles measured in MHz is speed .

  6. The memory inbuilt in the processor is cache memory .

  7. The abbreviation of PGA is pin grid array.

  8. ASCII is the standard code used for text character.

  9. The abbreviation of ASCII is American standard code for information interchange.

  10. The abbreviation for DRAM is Dynamic random access memory .

  11. A microprocessor is an IC that contains CPU on a single chip.

  12. The stepping process of computer is called Booting.

  13. AT & ATX stands for advanced technology & extended advanced technology.



PART-A

UNIT-2

PROCESSOR DESIGN AND DATAPATH

  1. An IC is an electronic device that contains resitors, capacitors and transistors.

  2. Processors are divided as 3 stages CU, CPU, ALU.

  3. The system crystal determines the speed of the CPU.

  4. The three keys that measures the CPU performance are speed,addressbus,databus.

  5. Pentium MMX is used for multimedia world.

  6. Today’s standard p3 processor speeds up to 500 MHz.

  7. The Pentium processor uses multithreading and RISC technology.

  8. The p3 processor uses streamline coding and advanced cache technology.

  9. The PowerPC name stands for performance optimization with RISC .

  10. LIF & ZIF stands for low insertion force & zero insertion force.

  11. When handling CPU see electrostatic discharge and potential pin damage.

  12. EMI & RFI stands for electromagnetic interference & radio frequency interference.

PART-A

UNIT—3

MEMORY DESIGN AND MANAGEMENT

  1. The types of memory are primary & secondary memories.

  2. The abbreviation of BIOS is basic input output systems.

  3. The other name for BIOS is firmware.

  4. The PCI stands for Peripheral component interconnect.

  5. POST refers to power on self test.

  6. ROM is an nonvolatile memory.

  7. DRAM uses microscopic transistors and microscopic capacitors for storing data bit.

  8. SIPP stands for single inline pinned package.

  9. SIMM stands for single inline memory module.

  10. SRAM uses flip flops for storing the data bits.

  11. The original onboard cache is known as internal cache.

  12. The UMA ranges from 640 KB to 1024 KB.

  13. The function of the shadow ram is to re-writes the contents of ROMBIOS.

  14. The MEM command gives the information of the amount and type of memory available.

PART—A

UNIT—4

COMPUTER PHERIPERALS

  1. The mouse is a graphical user interface.

  2. The term MODEM stands for modulator and demodulator .

  3. The round shape device on that the letters are fixed is TRACE BALL.

  4. The types of keyboard are membrane, capacitive, mechanical keyboards.

  5. The device that is used to get the pictorial information into CPU is scanner.

  6. The capacity of the hard disk is given by CHS values.

  7. SCSI stands for small computer system interface.

  8. The HDD has the sector value of 512 bytes.

  9. The 3.5 inch floppy is the industrial standard.

  10. FDD parameters are stored in CMOS.

  11. The term LPT stands for line print terminal.

  12. The horizontal printing is known as LANDSCAPE.

  13. The resolution of the printer is measured in dot per inch (dpi).

  14. The CRT stands for cathode ray tube and it works as a output device.

  15. The scanner converts the photographic information into digital information.

  16. The input devices are mouse.keyboard, joystic, microphone, scanner, cd-rom drive.

  17. The output devices are printer, monitor, plotter, speaker.

  18. The input and output devices are HDD, FDD, MODEM,TAPE DRIVE.

PART—A

UNIT—5

ADVANCED SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE.

  1. The abbreviation for RISC is reduced instruction set computing.

  2. The system which does more than one process is called multiprocessor.

  3. The term CISC stands for complex instruction set computing.

  4. The super scalar technology uses two instruction pipelines such as U & V.

  5. The abbreviation of FRC is functional redundancy check.

  6. The abbreviation of DCL is data conversion logic.

  7. In 8088 processor RAM logic contains 4 banks of 9 chips.

  8. The lock signal is used to prevent the system bus from other bus.

  9. The term DVD refers to digital versatile disc.

  10. The hardware and software collectively called as firmware.


PART-B

UNIT 1

MODERN COMPUTER ORGANIZATION

1. Define computer.

A computer is a machine that can be programmed to manipulate symbols. Its principal characteristics are:

  • It responds to a specific set of instructions in a well-defined manner.

  • It can execute a prerecorded list of instructions (a program).

  • It can quickly store and retrieve large amounts of data.

Therefore computers can perform complex and repetitive procedures quickly, precisely and reliably. Modern computers are electronic and digital. The actual machinery (wires, transistors, and circuits) is called hardware; the instructions and data are called software. All general-purpose computers require the following hardware components:

  • Central processing unit (CPU): The heart of the computer, this is the component that actually executes instructions organized in programs ("software") which tell the computer what to do.

  • Memory (fast, expensive, short-term memory): Enables a computer to store, at least temporarily, data, programs, and intermediate results.

  • Mass storage device (slower, cheaper, long-term memory): Allows a computer to permanently retain large amounts of data and programs between jobs. Common mass storage devices include disk drives and tape drives.

  • Input device: Usually a keyboard and mouse, the input device is the conduit through which data and instructions enter a computer.

  • Output device: A display screen, printer, or other device that lets you see what the computer has accomplished.

In addition to these components, many others make it possible for the basic components to work together efficiently. For example, every computer requires a bus that transmits data from one part of the computer to another.

 2. Write about notebook computer.



Notebook computer

An extremely lightweight personal computer. Notebook computers typically weigh less than 6 pounds and are small enough to fit easily in a briefcase. Aside from size, the principal difference between a notebook computer and a personal computer is the display screen. Notebook computers use a variety of techniques, known as flat-panel technologies, to produce a lightweight and non-bulky display screen. The quality of notebook display screens varies considerably. In terms of computing power, modern notebook computers are nearly equivalent to personal computers. They have the same CPUs, memory capacity, and disk drives. However, all this power in a small package is expensive. Notebook computers cost about twice as much as equivalent regular-sized computers. Notebook computers come with battery packs that enable you to run them without plugging them in. However, the batteries need to be recharged every few hours.

3. Define about workstation computer.

It is a type of computer used for engineering applications (CAD/CAM), desktop publishing, software development, and other types of applications that require a moderate amount of computing power and relatively high quality graphics capabilities. Workstations generally come with a large, high-resolution graphics screen, at large amount of RAM, built-in network support, and a graphical user interface. Most workstations also have a mass storage device such as a disk drive, but a special type of workstation, called a diskless workstation, comes without a disk drive. The most common operating systems for workstations are UNIX and Windows NT. Like personal computers, most workstations are single-user computers. However, workstations are typically linked together to form a local-area network, although they can also be used as stand-alone systems.

4. Write short notes on desktop computer.

N.B.: In networking, workstation refers to any computer connected to a local-area network. It could be a workstation or a personal computer Desktop model

A computer designed to fit comfortably on top of a desk, typically with the monitor sitting on top of the computer. Desktop model computers are broad and low, whereas tower model computers are narrow and tall. Because of their shape, desktop model computers are generally limited to three internal mass storage devices. Desktop models designed to be very small are sometimes referred to as slim line models.

5. Write about palmtop computer.

A small computer that literally fits in your palm. Compared to full-size computers, palmtops are severely limited, but they are practical for certain functions such as phone books and calendars. Palmtops that use a pen rather than a keyboard for input are often called hand-held computers or PDAs. Because of their small size, most palmtop computers do not include disk drives. However, many contain PCMCIA slots in which you can insert disk drives, modems, memory, and other devices. Palmtops are also called PDAs, hand-held computers and pocket computers.

6. What are the requirements of a computer?



All general-purpose computers require the following hardware components:

  • Central processing unit (CPU): The heart of the computer, this is the component that actually executes instructions organized in programs ("software") which tell the computer what to do.

  • Memory (fast, expensive, short-term memory): Enables a computer to store, at least temporarily, data, programs, and intermediate results.

  • Mass storage device (slower, cheaper, long-term memory): Allows a computer to permanently retain large amounts of data and programs between jobs. Common mass storage devices include disk drives and tape drives.

  • Input device: Usually a keyboard and mouse, the input device is the conduit through which data and instructions enter a computer.

  • Output device: A display screen, printer, or other device that lets you see what the computer has accomplished.

PART-C

UNIT-1

MODERN COMPUTER ORGANIZATION

1. Write about Supercomputer and Mainframe.

Supercomputer is a broad term for one of the fastest computers currently available. Supercomputers are very expensive and are employed for specialized applications that require immense amounts of mathematical calculations (number crunching). For example, weather forecasting requires a supercomputer. Other uses of supercomputers scientific simulations, (animated) graphics, fluid dynamic calculations, nuclear energy research, electronic design, and analysis of geological data (e.g. in petrochemical prospecting). Perhaps the best known supercomputer manufacturer is Cray Research.

Mainframe was a term originally referring to the cabinet containing the central processor unit or "main frame" of a room-filling Stone Age batch machine. After the emergence of smaller "minicomputer" designs in the early 1970s, the traditional big iron machines were described as "mainframe computers" and eventually just as mainframes. Nowadays a Mainframe is a very large and expensive computer capable of supporting hundreds, or even thousands, of users simultaneously. The chief difference between a supercomputer and a mainframe is that a supercomputer channels all its power into executing a few programs as fast as possible, whereas a mainframe uses its power to execute many programs concurrently. In some ways, mainframes are more powerful than supercomputers because they support more simultaneous programs. But supercomputers can execute a single program faster than a mainframe. The distinction between small mainframes and minicomputers is vague, depending really on how the manufacturer wants to market its machines.

2. Write about CPU in detail.


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