Computer fundamentals

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Computer fundamentals

  1. What is the full form of computer?

C = commonly

O = operated

M = machine

P = particularly

U = Used

T = Trade

E = Education

R = Research

NOTE****Computer Word Come from “Latin” Word “Compute”. ****

What is computer?

Computer is an electro machine calculating device, through the input device we can store data in CPU, then processing them though Central processing Unit and calculate or displayed result though the output device, It is called computer.

Advantage of computer:

  1. Speed

  2. Accuracy

  3. Diligence

  4. Versatility

  5. Memory

  6. Automatic

Disadvantage of computer:

  1. No I.Q

  2. Need Of Environment

  3. Need Of Known Special Language

  4. Vary Costly

  5. Non Employment

Classi fication of computers
Different Part of personal computer

Analogue Computer:

Analogue computers are these which measure the physical value like temperature or pressure that all along with a continuous scale.

Example of analogue computer is speedometer of a car.
Digital Computer:

Digital computer can perform arithmetic and logical operating with binary digits (0, 1).

Example of digital computer is pcs.

Digital computer may be classified into four types according to their performance, size and cost etc.

These are

  1. Micro computer

  2. Mini computer

  3. Main frame computer

  4. Super computer

Hybrid computer:-

Hybrid computer is a computer which combines both the features of analogue and digital computer.

*** Difference between analogue and digital computer?

Analogue computer

Digital computer

  1. Analogue computer is mainly measuring device.

  2. Analogue computer measures continuous quantity.

  3. Error rate is more in analogue computer.

  4. Analogue computer is special purpose computer

  1. Digital computer is actually a counting device

  2. Digital computer counts discrete number.

  3. Digital computer is more accurate.

  4. Digital computer is general purpose computer .

**** Different part of computer:-


All the physical computers of a computer are known as hardware.

Example: - mouse, keyboard and monitor etc.


Software is a set of programs. A program is set of command and commands are a set of instructions.

>>> Software may be three types-

  1. Applications software

  2. System software

  3. Utility software

Application software:

Application software are a set of programs designed to carry out operations for a specific applications.

Example of application software is word, excel and power point etc.

System software:

System software is a set program that controls the operation of a computer system.

Example of system software is Dos, windows and UNIX etc.


  1. Input device.

  2. Output device.

Input device:

  1. Keyboard

  2. Mouse

  3. Scanner

  4. OCR (Optical Character Reader)

  5. OMR (Optical Mark Reader)

  6. MICR (Magnetic Ink Character Reader)

  7. BCR (Bar Code Reader)

  8. Joy stick

  9. Touch screen

  10. Light pen

  11. Web camera

  12. Micro phone

Output device:

  1. Monitor

  2. Printer

  3. Speaker

  4. Projector

Keyboard is two types:-

  1. standard

  2. multimedia keyboard (more than 104)


Enhanced keyboard


  1. alpha numeric key (A-Z, 0-9)

  2. numeric key (0-9)

  3. functional key (F1-F12)

  4. special key (CTRL, ENTER, ALT)

  5. Direction key (, , , )

What is Input device?

Data and instructions are entered into a computer through input device. The commonly input devices are the keyboard.

Example of others input devices are mouse, OMR, MICR and Scanner etc.

Write about keyboard.

The keyboard is one of the most common input devices which are used in almost all computers. Data and program are entered into a computer though keyboard. Layout of a keyboard is similar to the keyboard of type is writer. It contains alphabet, digits, special character, function key and some control keys.

Write about mouse:

Mouse is the most popular input device that is used to point and select an option on the computer screen.

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