Defence: what: r eusable Launch Vehicle td



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ALL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY RELATED + ENVIRONMENT + POLICIES GOI:

DEFENCE:


WHAT: Reusable Launch Vehicle TD.

WHERE: SATISH DHAWAN SPACE CENTRE, SRIHARIKOTA, landed on Bay of bengal

WHEN: 23-MAY-2016

WHOM: ISRO

WHY: To decrease the space cost, space debris and with speed @Mach5. Time taken 770 seconds from launch to landing. Reusable thermal protection system and re-entry mission management is succesfull. ISRO acknowledge the support of Indian coast guard and National Institute of Ocean technology (NIOT) .

WHAT: National Institute of Ocean technology (NIOT) 

WHERE: Head quarters - Chennai.

WHEN: Established in Nov,93

WHOM: Autonomous society under the Ministry of Earth Sciences

WHY: develop reliable indigenous technology to solve the various engineering problems associated with harvesting of non-living and living resources in the Indian Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ), which is 2/3rd of land area of India. The Vessel Management Cell widely known as 'VMC' is an operational wing of NIOT which proficiently manages the running, operation and maintenance of the fleet of MoES research vessels.

WHAT: IRNSS (NAVIC)

WHERE: Indian orbit, 36,000km

WHEN: 1-July-2013 to 28-Apr-2016

WHOM: ISRO

WHY: To provide accurate position information service to users in India as well as the region extending up to 1500 km from its boundary, which is its primary service area. An Extended Service Area lies between primary service area and area enclosed by the rectangle from Latitude 30 deg South to 50 deg North, Longitude 30 deg East to 130 deg East. 2 types of services: Standard Positioning Service (SPS) which is provided to all the users and Restricted Service (RS), which is an encrypted service provided only to the authorised users. expected to provide a position accuracy of better than 20 m in the primary service. PM dedicated this NAVIC to Indian fishermen. 7 satellites, 3 GEO and 4 GSO. As part of the project, ISRO opened a new satellite navigation center within the campus of ISRO Deep Space Network (DSN) atByalalu, in Karnataka. PSLV C-22, C-24, C-26,C-28&C-29, C-31,C-32,C-33. 

Other additional facilities are :



  • Mapping and Geodetic data capture.

  • Terrestrial navigation aid for hikers and travellers.

  • Visual and voice navigation for drivers.

Geo Stationary Orbit:

An object in such an orbit has an orbital periodequal to the Earth's rotational period (one sidereal day) and thus appears motionless, at a fixed position in the sky, to ground observers.Communications satellites and weather satellites are often placed in geostationary orbits, so that the satellite antennas (located on Earth) that communicate with them do not have to rotate to track them, but can be pointed permanently at the position in the sky where the satellites are located.



Geosynchronous - An orbit around Earth whose orbital period is equal to a sidereal day (23 hours, 56 minutes), irrespective of its inclination.
A person on a point on Earth, will see a satellite in this orbit in the same place in the sky at the same time of the day, everyday.
Geostationary - A geosynchronous orbit around Earth at 35,786 km above the equator, so that it remains stationary as seen from Earth. 
- A person on any point on Earth, will see a satellite in this orbit stationary w.r.t his position, just like a star in the sky.
Every geostationary orbit is a geosynchronous orbit but not the other way around.

WHAT: Rosetta mission and also Philae

WHERE: 67P/Churymov-Gerasimenko

WHEN: 2-Mar-2004

WHOM: European Space Agency 

WHY: To R&D on Comets. Launched in Guiana of French Guiana. A Jupiter family comet.

WHAT: Astrosat Satellite

WHERE: Satish Dhawan Space Centre.

WHEN: September 28, 2015

WHOM: ISRO by PSLV-C30.

WHY: ASTROSAT will observe universe in the optical, Ultraviolet, low and high energy X-ray regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. India’s first dedicated multi wavelength space observator, more detailed understanding of our universe. unique features of ASTROSAT mission is that it enables the simultaneous multi-wavelength observations of various astronomical objects with a single satellite. Five payloads of ASTROSAT are chosen to facilitate a deeper insight


  • To understand high energy processes in binary star systems containing neutron stars and black holes

  • Estimate magnetic fields of neutron stars

  • Study star birth regions and high energy processes in star systems lying beyond our galaxy

  • Detect new briefly bright X-ray sources in the sky

  • Perform a limited deep field survey of the Universe in the Ultraviolet region

WHAT: Falcon 9

WHERE: Earth’s Orbit and

WHEN:

WHOM: Space X, NASA



WHY: Falcon 9 is a family of two-stage-to-orbit launch vehicles, named for its use of nine engines, designed and manufactured by SpaceX. Falcon 9 delivers payloads to space aboard the Dragon spacecraft or inside a composite fairing. Dragon carries cargo in pressurized capsule. In future it carries astronots in pressurized channel.

Launch sites : Cape Canaveral, Kennedy space centre(Florida), Vanderberg all are in USA.

WHAT: India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) project 

WHERE: Bodi west Hills, Tamil Nadu.

WHEN:

WHOM: underground project, jointly supported by the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) and the Department of Science and Technology (DST)



WHY: For setting up experiments for neutrino double detector and dark matters. host experiments such as the neutrino-less double beta decay and the search for dark matter. also involves Inter-Institutional Centre for High Energy Physics (IICHEP) and Iron Calorimeter Detector (ICAL). Government has also approved the construction of a 50,000 tonne magnetised iron calorimeter detector (ICAL). 

Neutrino It is an electrically neutral, weakly interacting elementary subatomic particle with half-integer spin. It belongs to the lepton family. There are three types of neutrinos: electron neutrinos (ve), muon neutrinos(vu) and tau neutrinos(vT)differing in terms of mass. 

WHAT: Mars Orbitor Mission / Mangalyan

WHERE: Satish Dhawan Space centre - First launch pad

WHEN: 5 November 2013,

WHOM: ISRO, PSLV-XL C-25

WHY:  It is India's first interplanetary mission and ISRO has become the fourth space agency to reach Mars, after the Soviet space program, NASA, and the European Space Agency. The mission is a "technology demonstrator" project to develop the technologies for designing, planning, management, and operations of an interplanetary mission. The spacecraft is currently being monitored from the Spacecraft Control Centre at ISRO Telemetry, Tracking and Command Network (ISTRAC) in Bangalore with support from Indian Deep Space Network (IDSN) antennae at Byalalu.

WHAT: Mars One

WHERE: Goal to establish a human settlement on Mars by 2027..

WHEN: May 2012

WHOM: Netherlands (private company - Mars One and Interplanetary Media Group) with Crew vehicle Mars Transit Habitat.

WHY: private spaceflight project is led by Dutch entrepreneur  Bas Lansdorp, Mars One's original concept included launching a robotic lander and orbiter as early as 2016 to be followed by a human crew of four in 2022.

WHAT: New Horizon

WHERE: Cape Canaveral SLC-41

WHEN: January 19, 2006

WHOM: NASA with ATLAS V551 rocket

WHY: It’s a Pluto moon probe. New Horizons is an interplanetary space probe that was launched as a part of NASA's New Frontiers program.[1] Engineered. The primary mission to perform a flyby study of the Pluto system, and a secondary mission to fly by and study one or more other Kuiper belt objects (KBOs). Most of the post-Jupiter voyage was spent in hibernation mode to preserve on-board systems, except for brief annual checkouts. First spacecraft to explore the dwarf planet

WHAT: Kuiper belt

WHERE: Beyond Neptune, 50AU from Sun

WHEN:

WHOM:


WHY: WHY: similar to the asteroid belt, but it is far larger—20 times as wide and 20 to 200 times as massive. Like the asteroid belt, it consists mainly of small bodies, or remnants from the Solar System's formation. Although many asteroids are composed primarily of rock and metal, most Kuiper belt objects are composed largely of frozen volatiles (termed "ices"), such as methane, ammonia and water. The Kuiper belt is home to three officially recognized dwarf planets: Pluto, Haumea, andMakemake. Some of the Solar System's moons, such as Neptune's Triton and Saturn's Phoebe, are also thought to have originated in the region. The Kuiper belt was named after Dutch-American astronomer Gerard Kuiper, though he did not actually predict its existence. In 1992, 1992 QB1 was discovered, the first Kuiper belt object (KBO) since Pluto.

KEPLER’S FIRST LAW DESCRIBES THE SHAPE OF AN ORBIT

The orbit of a planet around the Sun (or of a satellite around a planet) is not a perfect circle. It is an ellipse—a “flattened” circle. The Sun (or the center of the planet) occupies one focus of the ellipse. A focus is one of the two internal points that help determine the shape of an ellipse. The distance from one focus to any point on the ellipse and then back to the second focus is always the same.



KEPLER’S SECOND LAW DESCRIBES THE WAY AN OBJECT’S SPEED VARIES ALONG ITS ORBIT

A planet’s orbital speed changes, depending on how far it is from the Sun. The closer a planet is to the Sun, the stronger the Sun’s gravitational pull on it, and the faster the planet moves. The farther it is from the Sun, the weaker the Sun’s gravitational pull, and the slower it moves in its orbit. 



KEPLER’S THIRD LAW COMPARES THE MOTION OF OBJECTS IN ORBITS OF DIFFERENT SIZES

A planet farther from the Sun not only has a longer path than a closer planet, but it also travels slower, since the Sun’s gravitational pull on it is weaker. Therefore, the larger a planet’s orbit, the longer the planet takes to complete it.

Kepler- A German Scientist.

NASA's Kepler mission has confirmed its first planet in the "habitable zone," the region where liquid water could exist on a planet's surface. Kepler also has discovered more than 1,000 new planet candidates, nearly doubling its previously known count. Ten of these candidates are near-Earth-size and orbit in the habitable zone of their host star. Candidates require follow-up observations to verify they are actual planets.

The newly confirmed planet, Kepler-22b, is the smallest yet found to orbit in the middle of the habitable zone of a star similar to our sun. The planet is about 2.4 times the radius of Earth. Scientists don't yet know if Kepler-22b has a predominantly rocky, gaseous or liquid composition, but its discovery is a step closer to finding Earth-like planets. The Kepler science team uses ground-based telescopes and the Spitzer Space Telescope to review observations on planet candidates the spacecraft finds. The star field that Kepler observes in the constellations Cygnus and Lyra can only be seen from ground-based observatories in spring through early fall. Kepler-22b is located 600 light-years away from our Solar System.

This time last year, Kepler identified its first Earth-sized planet in a habitable zone: Kepler-186f. The habitable zone, sometimes referred to as the “Goldilocks Zone,” is the region around a star that has just the right conditions to find liquid water on a planet's surface.

WHAT: ExoMars (Exobiology on Mars) 

WHERE:


WHEN: 14 March 2016 Orbiter, Rover in 2020.

WHOM: joint mission of European Space Agency (ESA) and Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos) 2 Proton Rockets, Orbiter, 2 Landers and rover

WHY:  An astrobiology project to investigate the past habitability environment of Mars and to demonstrate new technologies paving the way for a future Mars sample return mission in the 2020s. The ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter (TGO) and a test stationary lander called Schiaparelli were launched on 14 March 2016.[1] The TGO will deliver Schiaparelli lander in 19 October 2016, and then proceed to map the sources of methane on Mars and other gases. TGO features four instruments and will also act as a communications relay satellite.

WHAT: NISAR (NASA ISRO SAR mission)

WHERE: A Sun Synchronous Low -Earth

WHEN: 2019-2020

WHOM: NASA and ISRO

WHY: A Dedicated US and Indian InSAR mission, in partnership with ISRO, optimized for studying the hazards and global environmental changea and to co-develop and launch a dual frequency synthetic aperture radar satellite. A Radar Satellite. The satellite will be the first radar imaging satellite to use dual frequency and it is planned to be used for remote sensing to observe and understand natural processes of the Earth. designed to observe and take measurements of some of the planet's most complex processes, including ecosystem disturbances, ice-sheet collapse, and natural hazards such as earth quakes, tsunamis, volcanoes and landslides.

The satellite is likely to be launched from India aboard an Indian launch vehicle.[6] mission life of 3 years.


  • NASA's Dawn mission, representing the first spacecraft to orbit two extraterrestrial targets, was honored with the National Aeronautic Association. All of us at NASA are very proud of our Dawn team. For the past eight years, Dawn has taught us much about Vesta and Ceres, and in a broader sense, about ourselves. Dawn is a project of NASA's Science Mission Directorate Discovery Program, managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. UCLA is responsible for overall Dawn mission science. Orbital ATK Inc., in Dulles, Virginia, designed and built the spacecraft. The German Aerospace Center, Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Italian Space Agency and Italian National Astrophysical Institute are international partners on the mission team.  

WHAT: Exploration Mission 1 (previously known as Space Launch System 1 or SLS-1)

WHERE: Kennedy LC-39B - launching and Pacific Ocean – landing site.

WHEN: September 2018

WHOM: NASA and ESA by Orion MPCV

WHY: Exploration Mission 1 or EM-1 (previously known as Space Launch System 1 or SLS-1) is the first planned flight of theSpace Launch System and the second uncrewed test flight of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle. The launch is planned for September 30, 2018 from Launch Complex 39B at the Kennedy Space Center. The Orion spacecraft is planned to spend approximately 3 weeks in space, with 6 days of this in a retrograde orbit around the Moon.[5] It is planned to be followed byExploration Mission 2 in 2023.

WHAT: GAGAN

WHERE:

WHEN: 2011-2012, Fully operational by 2013-14



WHOM: ISRO, RAYTHEON, AIRPORTS AUTHORITY INDIA, GSAT-8, GSAT-10, GSAT-15

WHY: GAGAN) is an implementation of a regional satellite-based augmentation system(SBAS) by the Indian government. It is a system to improve the accuracy of a GNSS receiver by providing reference signals.[2] TheAAI’s efforts towards implementation of operational SBAS can be viewed as the first step towards introduction of modern communication, navigation, surveillance/Air Traffic Management system over Indian airspace.[3]

One essential component of the GAGAN project is the study of the ionospheric behavior over the Indian region. GAGAN after its final operational phase completion, will be compatible with other SBAS systems such as the Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS), the European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service (EGNOS) and the Multi-functional Satellite Augmentation System (MSAS) and will provide seamless air navigation service across regional boundaries. The space segment will consist of one geo-navigation transponder. GAGAN will be the world’s most advanced air navigation system and further reinforces India’s leadership in the forefront of air navigation. GAGAN will greatly improve safety, reduce congestion and enhance communications to meet India’s growing air traffic management needs

WHAT: Cartosat-2 (Images black and white only)

WHERE: SHAR

WHEN: 10 January 2007

WHOM: ISRO, PSLV C7

WHY: Geo Centric and Sun synchronous satellite. Cartosat-2 is an Earth observation satellite in a sun-synchronous orbit and the second of the Cartosat series of satellites, applications will mainly be towards cartography in India. Take black and white pictures of the earth in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum. Cartosat-2 is an advanced remote sensing satellite capable of providing scene-specific spot imagery. The data from the satellite will be used for detailed mapping and other cartographic applications at cadastral level, urban and rural infrastructure development and management, as well as applications in Land Information System (LIS) and Geographical Information System (GIS).

WHAT: Astrobiology Mission

WHERE:


WHEN:

WHOM: NASA and ISRO

WHY: For the first time India is part of Spaceward Bound programme, which funds expeditions to places with extreme climate conditions. Even as India prepares for a second mission to Mars, a team of scientists from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Mars Society Australia and the Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeobotany, Lucknow, will mount an expedition to Ladakh this August to study the similarities of certain parts of the region’s topography and microbial life to Martian surroundings. India’s second mission to Mars — scheduled to be in 2020 — will involve collaboration with France and may include a lander or rover. Before Ladakh, there have been expeditions to the deserts such in Atacama, Chile; Mojave, California; Arkaroola, Australia as well as the Arctic and Antarctica, organised since 2006. Ladakh offers a “high UV (ultra-violet) exposed, dry ecosystem with Mars analogue topological features that tell us heaps about the origin and evolution of our planet’s topological features…”

 WHAT: ARIES telescope

WHERE: Devasthal, Nainital @ 2500metres.

WHEN:

WHOM: Jointly by Indian, Russian, and Belgian scientists



WHY: Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi and Belgian Prime Minister Charles Michel unveiled Asia's largest optical telescope in Nainital, Uttarakhand from Brussels, Belgium. "Even the sky is not the limit for the ARIES Telescope" said Modi after launching the Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences or ARIES project. High end technology incorporated in the telescope enables it to be operated with the help of remote control anywhere in the world. To Study and exploration of planets, starts, magnetic field and astronomical debris. Scientists will also help in research of the structures of stars and magnetic field structures of stars.

The Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) is a proposed astronomical observatory with an extremely large telescope (ELT) that has become the source of controversy over its planned location on Mauna Kea in the state of Hawaii. Construction of the TMT on land which is considered sacred to Native Hawaiian culture and religion,[5] attracted international coverage[6] after October 2014, when construction was temporarily halted voluntarily due to protests. 

WHAT: SOFIA (Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy)

WHERE: Armstrong Flight research centre, California, USA

WHEN:

WHOM: NASA and German Aerospace center



WHY: To construct and maintain an airborne observatory. SOFIA is the successor to the Kuiper Airborne Observatory. SOFIA's telescope saw first light on May 26, 2010. Telescope is designed for infrared astronomy observations in the stratosphere at altitudes of about 12 kilometers (41,000 ft). SOFIA's flight capability allows it to rise above almost all of the water vapor in the Earth's atmosphere, which blocks some infrared wavelengths from reaching the ground. The aircraft can also travel to almost any point on the Earth's surface, allowing observation from the northern and southern hemispheres. The optical system uses a Cassegrain reflector design with a parabolic primary mirror and a remotely configurable hyperbolic secondary. A Infrared Telescope. SOFIA’s telescope is by far the largest ever to be placed in an aircraft.

WHAT: CubeSat 

WHERE:

WHEN: First proposed in 1999



WHOM: NASA

WHY: type of miniaturized satellite for space research that is made up of multiples of 10×10×11.35 cm cubic units and often use of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components for their electronics and structure. CubeSats are most commonly put in orbit by deployers on the International Space Station, or launched as secondary payloads on a launch vehicle. Uses typically involve experiments which can be miniaturized or serve purposes such as Earth observation or amateur radio. Many CubeSats are used to demonstrate spacecraft technologies that are targeted for use in small satellites or that present questionable feasibility and are unlikely to justify the cost of a larger satellite.



Stellar Evolution: When a star exhausts the supply of hydrogen by nuclear fusion processes in its core, the core contracts and its temperature increases, causing the outer layers of the star to expand and cool. The star's luminosity increases greatly, and it becomes a red giant. The asymptotic giant branch (AGB) is the region of the Hertzsprung–Russell diagram populated by evolving low- to medium-mass stars. This is a period of stellar evolution undertaken by all low- to intermediate-mass stars (0.6–10 solar masses) late in their lives.

The AGB phase is divided into two parts, the early AGB (E-AGB) and the thermally pulsing AGB (TP-AGB). During the E-AGB phase, the main source of energy is helium fusion in a shell around a core consisting mostly of carbon and oxygen. During this phase, the star swells up to giant proportions to become a red giant again. The star's radius may become as large as one astronomical unit.

After the helium shell runs out of fuel, the TP-AGB starts. Now the star derives its energy from fusion of hydrogen in a thin shell, which restricts the inner helium shell to a very thin layer and prevents it fusing stably.

WHAT: Sakaar APP

WHERE:

WHEN:


WHOM: ISRO

WHY: Sakaar is Indian Space Research Organisation's (ISRO) Augmented Reality (AR) application designed for Andriod devices. This AR application shows live camera view on your device to represent physical world and virtual objects/video clips are superimposed on live camera view upon pointing the device's camera at a Trigger Card. The combined view of camera and virtual object(s) appear to be tightly coupled on your device's screen.

The virtual objects can consist of 3D models, videos and anaglyph images. Sakaar & its contents are sole property of ISRO. This application shall be used for educational purposes only. Application is based on ARToolkit.

WHAT: IBEX

WHERE: USA

WHEN: 19-Oct-2008

WHOM: NASA

WHY: The Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) mission science objective is to discover the nature of the interactions between the solar wind and the interstellar medium at the edge of our solar system. It is making a map of the boundary between the Solar System and interstellar space. The mission is part of NASA's Small Explorer program and launched with a Pegasus-XL rocket.



  • The Alpine ibex (Capra ibex), also known as the steinbock or bouquetin, is a species of wild goat that lives in the mountains of the European Alps. Least concern by the IUCN.

WHAT: Sterile Neutrino

WHERE:


WHEN:

WHOM:


WHY: Sterile neutrinos (or inert neutrinos) are hypothetical particles (neutral leptons – neutrinos) that interact only via gravity and do not interact via any of the fundamental interactions of the Standard Model. The term sterile neutrino is used to distinguish them from the known active neutrinos in the Standard Model, which are charged under the weak interaction. This term usually refers to neutrinos with right-handed chirality (see right-handed neutrino), which may be added to the Standard Model. The existence of right-handed neutrinos is theoretically well-motivated, as all other known fermions have been observed with left and right chirality, and they can explain the observed active neutrino masses in a natural way. The mass of the right-handed neutrinos themselves is unknown and could have any value between 1015 GeV and less than one eV. Hypothetical status.

Electric charge is Zero.

WHAT: NeoShield

WHERE: Sapce

WHEN: Jan 2012

WHOM: EU (European Union) funded.

WHY: NEOShield was an international, of the EU -funded initiative to explore ways in which the Planetary Defense at a threat to humanity by near-Earth objects (NEO) could look like. The primary purpose of the research was possible methods of Asteroid Defense to examine. The study began in January 2012. At the international research project, scientists and research institutions from European countries, Russia and the United States involved.

Neo Shield 2 project has been started in 2015 for near earth object impact prevention.

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