E list the 3 “g”s draw a caravel draw a compass uropean Exploration—Causes and Effects

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list the 3 “g”s

draw a caravel

draw a compass

uropean Exploration—Causes and Effects


  • Desire for wealth and power. (Gold and Glory)

  • European explorers hoped to find riches in distant countries and to discover a sea route to Asia.

  • Search for spices (nutmeg, ginger, cloves, cinnamon, pepper, etc.) and luxury goods (silk, gold, silver, jewels, ivory, porcelains, tea, etc.) from Africa and the East.

  • Religious aims (God)

  • Renaissance spirit

  • Europeans adventurers wanted to test the limits of human ability and to explore the unknown. Discover far away places and settle in the new lands.

  • Improvements in technology

  • Europeans began to build stronger, faster sailing ships (caravel, a ship with two sails one each for running with the wind and for sailing into the wind.

draw an astrolabe

  • The hull design was improved and could ride out ocean storms.
  • They could also put canons on the decks of these ships).

  • They developed better navigational instruments (astrolabe, could tell north and south of the equator by the position of the stars

  • magnetic compass, told direction accurately)

  • m

    did Prince Henry go exploring? yes or no

    where was da Gama the 1st explore?

    circle the country that got the better end of the demarcation line

    circle the name of the treaty

    ore accurate maps with the discovery of how to find the longitude.

Immediate Effects

  • Sailors learned more about geography (longitude, latitude, new places, etc.) and improved navigation.

  • The Portuguese built plantations and trading posts in West Africa and many made Africa their home.

  • Prince Henry of Portugal organized a school for navigation at Sagres, Portugal and taught navigators how to develop and apply the new sailing innovations.

  • The Portuguese discovered a sea route to India.

  • Bartholomew Diaz traveled to the Cape of Good Hope at the tip of Africa. (1488)

  • Columbus was the first European to reach the Americas. (1492)

  • Vasco da Gama discovered the route to India and back 27,000 miles (1497-1499)

  • The Line of Demarcation was established to prevent disputes over newly discovered lands in the America’s.

  • The imaginary line was drawn north to south, through the Atlantic Ocean.

  • Spain was given possession of lands west of that line, while Portugal could claim lands to the east of the line. (1493)

  • Treaty of Tordesillas moved the line of Demarcation west. Portugal received Brazil as a colony. (1494)

  • He died in the Philippines and his crew finished the trip around the world.

  • Hernando Cortez landed on the shores of Mexico with his conquistadors

  • He claimed the land for Spain.

  • Cortés and 600 men reached the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlán

  • By 1521, they had conquered the Aztec empire and captured Montezuma.

  • European diseases wipe out large numbers of Aztecs

  • Francisco Pizarro, marched a small force into South America.

  • He conquered Atahualpa and the Inca Empire.(1532)

write Magellan and list where he was the first to travel
write Aztecs and the conqueror
write incas and the conqueror

circle what caused the need to bring in slaves

Long Term Effects

  • European nations competed to establish colonies in the Americas

  • They expanded their wealth and power. (Gold and Glory)

  • Europe established sea trade with India.


  • The slave trade expanded.

  • Epidemics killed most of the native population in the Americas and created a need for workers.

  • Slaves provided a quick and available solution to the need for workers.

  • In 1540, about 10,000 slaves per year were brought to the Americans.

  • In the 1700’s there were about 70,000 slaves per year.

Triangular Trade Route

  • A network of trading between Europe, Africa, and the Americas made the Triangular Trade Route.

  • The Europeans traded goods to traders on the west coast of Africa in exchange for captured Africans.

  • These Africans were then transported across the Atlantic to the West Indies and merchants brought goods produced back to Europe.

Columbia Exchange

  • The Columbian Exchange, the global transfer of plants, animals, disease, and food brought together the Eastern and Western hemispheres and touched, in some way, nearly all the people of the world. (page 572)

Rise of Capitalism

  • Rise of capitalism resulted from the growth of town and city life and the expansion of trade.

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    list the 3 countries that made up the triangular trade

    apitalism is an economic system based on the private ownership and use of capital (goods and services).

Rise of Mercantilism

  • Rise of Mercantilism resulted from economic growth and expanding royal power.

  • Rulers encouraged exports (sell products to other countries) and discouraged imports (buy products from other countries).

  • The trade with colonies was expected to supply the home country with great wealth and new products.

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