The expository teaching is a learning technique where teachers actively guide learners to learn the intended educational outcome through such technique as asking question, watching a demonstration by teachers, effective teacher led teacher-learner discussions or activities etc. In reality, the expected educational can never be achieved solely through expository teaching but must be complement with other learning techniques largely the academic work approach. None of these approaches is absolute as each has its ups and down.
01 1a. Expository teaching promote students learning as the make clear the needed elements to be learnt. The teacher by this method teachers actively take learners through what is expected to be learnt, stressing the core expectations. Teachers gradually demonstrate the what and how of the entire lesson. Learners are informed of the objection of the lesson before hand and are informed whether or not the objective was achieved by the end of the lesson. Learners’ willingness to know the outcome prepares fertile grounds for students learning as lesson is link to student previous knowledge horizontally and or vertically.
1b. Effective use of this method requires advance preparedness of the teachers to be equipped with the needed content, process and outcome. Inadequacy in any of the above call for improper coordination of the lesson rendering this method ineffective.
1a. Expository teaching induces student learning as learners do not learn by trier and error. With this method teachers carefully select and transmit the needed information required to be learnt. For instance, words devoid of wrong spelling as well as right steps or process are either written on the board or demonstrated for student to see and learn. By this means, learner efficiently and effectively corporate in the learning task, consequently learning the desire outcome with little or no difficulty. Expository methods like lecturing and demonstration are mostly used to achieve this.
1b. The whole class involvement makes it difficulty in selecting the right exposition that elicit students learning. The inability on the part of the teacher to choose appropriate expository put most students at a disadvantage.
1b. expository teaching focus greatly on product than process. Thus, excessive use of this approach does encourage the learning out is attained. This makes student recipients of knowledge.
2a. Small group promote “collaborative learning” and this help the teacher to get students’ full attention which induce students learning.
2b. Small group works better in subjects like Social Studies, English, Religion, History than in subjects Science, Mathematics, geography. Inappropriate use of this approaches will not help achieve the intended output.
02. What qualities are involved in the effective use of the questioning by teachers?
One effective technique mostly used by teachers to foster students learning is questioning. The efficient and effective use of the questioning technique rest much on the teacher’s abilities as follows;
The teacher’s ability to factor his students’ way of comprehending, reasoning among others. With this the teacher is able to question with high level of clarity.
The teacher should be able to strategically distribute question among student for response. There is absence of skewness in selection -to only brilliant student or volunteers to respond to questions. Evenly distribution of question among student help review the class status with regards to the lesson.
To effectively employ the questioning technique the teachers is expected to have interacting ability. Thus, the teachers should be able to gradually guide student to produce the needed response. Teacher should be able to use such skills as voice regulation, appropriate timing, probing to guide the learner in giving the right response to question.
Another quality to effective questioning is the teacher’s appropriateness in reacting to students’ response. Ability of the teacher to rightly use reinforcement, reward and punishment, scoring of response in reacting to student response can either create conductive learning environment rather than making student feel reluctant to contribute answers in future. For a success of this approach, teacher should not score, especially oral questions.
Ability to prove student reasoning and critical thinking ability. The ability to formulate higher level questions that push students to extra miles using previous information. An over use of the traditional initiation-response-feedback styles limit the chance of achieving the intended learning outcome. In this regard, the teacher should formulate questions to initiate thoughtful response, initiate discussion from students’ response, improving student thinking using dialogues etc as opined by Alexander(2008a) to increase students’ readiness contribute to questioning.
03. In what circumstances is experiential learning particularly used?
Among the various approaches employed in fostering academic work is the experiential learning. cases that call for the use of this technique is stipulated below as;
When lesson is aimed at developing the individual self or the individua’s own
How can ICT- based learning activities be used to best effect?
Another single most enhanced academic work is the increasing use of Information and communication technology (ICT) -based activities to promote students learning. Research have it that ICT- based learning activities can be used to motivate pupils to learn. ICT-based activities like videos, games and pictures that convey the learning objectives make learning content so clear as it brings reality to the class room. Videos on real events like female genital mutilation, documentaries on war scenes and its consequent effects, video on volcanic eruptions or activities in teaching topic like outmoded cultural practices, peace and conflict resolution and land forms respectively make teaching and learning more practical and concrete than abstract. These activities can be used to enthused pupils in the learning process and to appreciate what, how and why they learn. This keeps student focused and makes them participative in the learning process. Learners can be engaged in computer activities or games like puzzle, graft among other computerizes problem solving activities are used to test or develop students’ ingenuity or knowledge.
How might the teacher’s choice of learning activities be influenced by the intended learning outcome.
In the work of Kyriacou, there is no one way to achieve intended educational outcomes. To this, varied teaching and learning activities have been proposed which must be employed rightly to achieve desired learning outcome.
The teacher as a curriculum agent carefully chooses what activities students are to undertake. The main motive of learning activities is to elicit permanent change in learners’ behaviour. The teacher’s knowledge of the desired education outcome greatly determines the type of learning activities to employ and at what time. A learning outcome such as development positive students’ relation, critical think skills are more process oriented than product. Teachers will choose more learner centered activities like group work, individualized programmes of work, ICT- base activities among others and use at the right time. Lesson aimed at inculcating historical facts, important principles etc, activities that fosters product like lecturing, demonstration, role play will be employ.
What role does teachers feedback play in the use of different types of learning activities?
The teacher’s feedback primarily communication to students their development on the learning task.
Teachers feedback on any learning activities communicate to student about their state in relation to the teacher’s expectations.
Positive feedback communicates students’ progress and vice versa. With teacher’s feedback, student get to know activities that work well from them. It again helps both teachers and students to realize students’ strength and weakness on the learning tasks and the need for remedial.