1642 The area which has become Amelia County, Virginia was once under the jurisdiction of the Anglican Parish of Bristol, Virginia which was formed on this date. The Rev. George Robertson was licensed as a missionary in Virginia by Dr. Compton, Bishop of London, on February 20, 1692. He assumed leadership of Bristol Parish in 1693 and served as minister of the parish until his death in 1739. The Parish included an area 40 miles long and 20 miles wide, with about 430 families and 1100 tithables. His salary was 16,000 pounds of tobacco. He located at Picketts, now Chesterfield County, Virginia. John Compton, one of the sons of Rev. George Compton, seems to have married several years before his father's death and established his home in Amelia County, Virginia, so "Parson George" had a special interest in Amelia. At a vestry held on February 26, 1732, it was ordered that a "chapelle" be built on Mr. Cobb's land near Flat Creek ("Flatt Creek") with the same dimensions as the Numisseen Chapel. Major William Kennon and George Wilson were to inspect the workmanship and Mr. Booker was given leave to build a pew for his family at his own charge. John Bently was appointed to officiate as sexton for the Flat Creek chapel (“Flatt Creek Chapel”) when it was finished. It was further ordered that 10,000 pounds of tobacco be levied toward defraying the charges of the chapel ordered to be built at Flat Creek, sometimes called “Flatt Creek”.Hist Notes on Amelia Cnty, Va., Amelia Cnty Hist Comm, Sect VIII "Some Matters of Religion" 1643/05/10 Richard Caweter (“Richard Cavender”?) married Ann Chalke in Downton Parish, Wilts County, England.439
It is of interest to note that, in the index of the "CALENDAR OF DOCUMENTS PRESERVED IN FRANCE", illustrative of the history of Great Britain and Ireland, Vol. 1, AD 918-1206, it is suggested that the surname “Cawenter” is a variation of “Cawentry” and “Cawender” which are derived from the Charter of Hugh, Bishop of Coventry. As names were quite often derived from titles and regions from where individuals came, the name “Coventry” could have been pronounced by the English, Scots, Irish and Welsh as “Caweter”, “Cawentry”, “Cawenter”, “Cawender” and quite possibly “Cavender”. Thus, the Bishop name today may be pronounced Hugh, Bishop of Cavender. The main entry states:
“Charter of Hugh, Bishop of Coventry, notifying that in consideration of the poverty of the monks of St. Martin of Sées, and their good reputation and humility, he grants (to) them forever (the sum of) 6 marcs a year from the church of Crostonne, to be paid by that clerk whom the monks to whom rightfully belongs the presentation, shall present to him or his successors, 3 marcs at Michaelmas and 3 (marcs) at Easter; and, if the clerk fails to pay whin 15 days ofthe appointed time, he shall be proud to pay a penalty of 10 shillings in addition.” 439 1645 William Claiborne and Richard Ingle sacked St. Mary's City and claimed Maryland for Virginia in the name of the new Parliamentary government in England. Lord Calvert regained the colony 2 years later, but died shortly afterwards in 1647. In 1694-1695, the seat of the government of Maryland was moved from St. Mary's City to what later became Annapolis.
1646-1647 Estimated date of birth of a Hugh Cavenagh ("Hugh Cavenaugh"? & "Hugh Cavender"?) who was living in Charles County, Maryland in 1668.412 It is to be noted that on page 76 of the book entitled “The Bristol Register of Servants sent to Foreign Plantations”, it is stated that on August 20, 1658, Hugh Cavenagh, yoeman, was sent to Mr. Wills to serve 5 years in Virginia.
1647/10/22 Jeames Cavener (“James Cavender”?) was buried in the cemetery of the Church of St. Augustine the Less in Bristol, Bristol County, England.Bristol Record Soc., Parish Records of the Church St. Augustine the Less, 1577-1700 1649-1660 England became a commonwealth.
1651/04/04 At a "machcomacoi" held at Rappanhannock, Virginia, apparently attended by Accopatough, Wionance, Toskicough, Coharneittary, Pacauta, Mamogueitan, Opathittare, Cakarell James, Minniiaconaugh and Kintassa-hacr Indian tribes, Major Moore Fantleroy (now spelled Moore Fauntleroy") purchased a very large tract of land from tribal king Accopatough, "King of the Indians of Rappanhannock Town and Townes" is hereby conveyed to "my brother and loving friend" and which consisted of all the land thereto belonging in consideration of 10 fathom of peake and goods, amounting to 30 arms'-length of Rohonoke already in hand received. The territory was in two necks on the north side of Rappahannock Creek, beginning for breadth at the southernmost branch or creek of Macaughtions bay or run, and so up along the side of said river of Rappanhannock unto a great creek or river which run-Totosha or Tanks Rappanhannock Town, for length extending easterly with its full breath unto the bounds of the Potowmack River at the uttermost bounds of my land.
Of interest is the following provision to insure peaceful usage: "hereby giving unto my said brother full power, leave, license and authority to punish, correct, beat or kill any Indian or Indians whatsoever, which shall contrary to the intent of this my act and deed presume to molest, harm or offer any manner of harm, wrong, injury or violence upon the said land, or any part of it, unto said Fantleroy, his heirs and assigns." "Old Churches, Ministers, etc", Bishop Meade, Vol IIpp 478-479
1652/04/11 John Bailes ("John Bales"?) and Thomas Bailes ("Thomas Bales") of Northumberland County, Virginia, were required to take the following Oath of Allegiance: "Those whose names are published doe promise and Ingage and saludt to be true and faithful to the Commonwealth of England as it is now established without King or House of Lordes."
1652 (1) Scottish prisoners James Kallender ("James Cavender"?) and David Kallender ("David Cavender"?) were transported (i.e. deported) from Scotland to Massachusetts. 253 & 254
(2) Surry County, Virginia, was formed from James City County, an "original" county of the Colony of Virginia.
1653/10/06 Apparently the Last Will and Testament of Moore Fauntleroy (also "Moore Fantleroy")was probated on this date and stated: "Know ye that More Fantleroy ("Moore Fauntleroy") for sundry causes and considerations me thereunto moveing doe give unto Leroy Griffin, ye son of Thomas Griffin." Lancaster Cnty, Va Deed & Will Bk 1652-1657, p 74
The Last Will and Testament of Thomas Griffin was subsequently executed in Essex County, Virginia on April 27, 1720.
1653/10/10 The Last Will and Testament of Toby Smith was probated in Nansemond County, Virginia and stated: "I Toby Smith of Nansmum in ye Colony of Virginia (actually Nansemond County, Virginia), Gentleman, for certaine considerations by me received of my brother in law More Fantleroy ("Moore Fantleroy" & "Moore Fauntleroy') of Royes Rest in ye County of Nansemum, Gentleman, as also for the natural love and affection which I have unto my Sone, Tobies ("Toby Smith") and my daughter Phoebe ('Phoebe Smith')."Lancaster Cnty, Va Deed & Will Bk 1652-1657, p 81-82
NOTE: Nansemond County, Virginia apparently was a county of Virginia from 1637-1643 and then was combined with Warrosquoyacke County (1634-1637) to become Isle of Wight County, Virginia.
1656 Old Rappanhannock County, Virginia was formed on this date from Lancaster County, Virginia and was later abolished when it was split to form Richmond County, Virginia and Essex County, Virginia on April 26, 1692.
1657 John Washington, the great grandfather of the first President, George Washington, arrived in Virginia from England about 1657 and about 75 years before his great grandson, George Washington, was born and later obtained a tract of 150 acres of land in Westmoreland County, Virginia. John Washington had a son named Lawrence Washington who was the grandfather of George Washington and lived for a while in Westmoreland County, Virginia. Lawrence Washington had a son named Augustine Washington who was the father of George Washington and who likewise lived for a while in Westmoreland County, Virginia.
1658/08/20 Hugh Cavenagh ("Hugh Cavenaugh"?, "Hugh Cavenough" & "Hugh Cavender"?), yeoman, departed the port of Bristol, England for the colony of Virginia to begin service as an indentured servant to a Mr. Wills for a period of 5 years in Virginia. This entry was found in "Register of Servants to Foreign Plantations" (P.W. Coldham's edition, 1988). From this listing, it would appear that Hugh Cavenagh was to be an indentured servant on the plantation in Virginia owned by a Mr. Wills.112, 281, 350, 363 & 393 This particular Hugh Cavenagh (“Hugh Cavender”) may have been the grandfather of the particular Hugh Cavender who later settled in Amelia County, Virginia. The above Mr. Wills may be the same Edward Wills who was granted a land patent in 1652 on the Ware River in Gloucester County, Virginia and who claimed transportation for himself, John Wills, Katherin Wills (“Katherine Wills”?) and Susanna Wills (“Susannah Wills”?), and who was living in Warwick County, Virginia in 1657, and who was later living in Gloucester County, Virginia in 1668.393 1660 Charles II became King of England and reigned until 1685.
1660-1661 Because of a scarcity of ministers during this time period, a law was first enacted in the colonies which required all persons wishing to be married by license, must go to the county court clerk and give bond with sufficient security (usually $150 by the 19th. century) that there was no lawful cause to prevent the marriage. The license was then prepared by the clerk and presented to the minister who would perform the ceremony.
1661 The laws of England were adopted by Virginia, one of which related to "tithables" (sometimes "tythables", "tithes" or "tythes") which provided that all male persons, of whatever age, who were imported in to this colony would be liable for the payment of all tithe and other taxes, together with all male and female Negro slaves of whatever age, and all male and female Indian servants who were at least 16 years of age, from which none shall be exempted. However, any Christian who were either natives of this country, or are imported free by their parents or by others would be exempt until they reached the age of 16, unless otherwise exempted by any county court. In other words, tithables were all non-Christians of whatever age, all slaves of whatever age, all Indians of whatever age who were not servants, and all others who were at least 16 years of age were considered tithables, unless the law stated otherwise. From another source, it is stated that in October of 1649, all white male natives, those who were imported free (by their parents or otherwise), or native born servants from age 16 and up, all male servants of all ages, "notwithstanding the yearly importation of people into the colony, the number of tithables in the said list is rather diminished than augmented, where is in great part conceived, by this Assembly, to happen, in that all under the age of 16 years are exempted from the lists, and once passing under that age they are seldom or never acknowledged to exceed the same." No women of any race or station were tithable.
Effective March 1657/1658, all male servants of whatever age; all Negroes imported, male or female, and Indian servants, male or female, however procured and 16 years and over, and all Christian servants who are natives of this country, or free persons imported by parents or otherwise who are 16 years or over was subject to the payment of a tything tax.
Effective March 1661/1662 it was reiterated: "It is hereby enacted and declared that all male persons, of what age soever imported into this country shall be brought into the lysts and be lyable to the payment of all taxes, and all Negroes, male or female, being imported shall be accompted tythable, and all Indian servants, male or female, however procured being adjudged 16 years of age shall likewise be tythable (sometimes "tithables", "tithes" or "tythes") from which none shall be exempted, but such Christians only as are either natives of this country, or are imported free by their parents or others who shall not be lyable to the payment of levies until they be 16 years of age, or such others as by particular acts of assembly are exempted." Further acts exempted persons such as Councillors and 10 members of their families, artisans who did not normally plant tobacco and his servants employed in his trade, all persons who came into this country in the last coming in of Sir Thomas Yates, etc. Most of these people still had to pay church levies, and all but those with Yates had to fulfill their militia duties.
Effective December 1662, the Assembly noted that many persons purchased women servants for working the ground in order to avoid paying levies on their servants, so that all women servants usually employed in working the crops were added to the tithable list. No age was mentioned.
Effective September 1672, all Negro women born in this country were accounted tithable at the age of 16 years.
Effective October 1705, all male persons 16 and up; all Negroes, mulattos, and Indian women age 16 and up and who were not free were tithable.
Effective May 1723, all free Negroes, mulattos or Indians (except those tributary to the Government), male or female, over 16 years of age, and all wives of such were added to the tithable lists.
The Act of October 1748 simply restated the situation as it was in 1723. i.e. "That all male persons of the age of 16 years and upwards, and all Negroes, mulatto, and Indian women of the same age, except Indian tributary to this Government, and all wives of free Negroes, mulattos, and Indians, except as before excepted, shall be and are hereby declared to be tithable, and chargeable for defraying the public, county, and parish levies, ...... ".
Effective June 10, 1751, the distinction between Christians and non-Christians was removed with the following provision which rendered null and void all previous provisions: "All male persons of the age of 16 years and upwards, and all Negroes, mulatto, and Indian women of the same age, except Indians tributary to this government, and all wives of free Negroes, mulattos and Indians, except as before excepted, shall be and are hereby declared to be tithable and chargeable for defraying dominion, excepting only such as the county courts, for charitable reasons appearing to them, shall think fit to excuse." Specifically excepted were: (i) the governor or commander in chief of this colony, for the time being, and his domestic servants; (ii) the president, masters, scholars, and domestic servants of the College of William and Mary; (iii) the person of any constable, so long as he continues to be the constable; (iv) mariners and seafaring persons who were not freeholders who actually paid towards the support of Greenwich hospital out of their wages; and, (v) any person specifically exempted by the county courts for so-called "charitable" reasons. The County Courts actually recorded in the official records the names of all persons who had previously received an exception to the payment of tithe taxes. Additionally, a person was liable to pay tithe taxes even though he also paid property taxes on the land that he owned. As summarized by Daphne Gentry of the Virginia State Library:
“Virginians paid several kinds of taxes during the colonial period, some of which resulted from laws that the Virginia General Assembly itself passed. The revenue raised by those taxes went into the colonial treasury. Other taxes resulted from laws that the British Parliament passed. The revenue raised by those taxes went into the royal treasury. Different officers of government were responsible for collecting and auditing and disbursing the money raised for the colonial treasury and the money raised for the royal treasury. In some instance, however, the county sheriffs or their agents acted as the collectors of both colonial and royal taxes. The collectors, treasurers, and auditors of most of the taxes kept specified percentages of the money they handled in lieu of a salary.
TAX ON Tythables ("tithables" & "tithes") - This was a capitation or poll tax passed by the General Assembly. The people subject to the tax were: all free Caucasian males age sixteen or older; some adult female Caucasians (usually widows) who were heads of households; all slaves age sixteen or older; Native American servants, both male and female, age sixteen or older. In most instances, the head of the household or the owner of the slaves or master of the servants paid the tithable tax. The money raised by this tax went into the colonial treasury and was used to pay the expenses incurred in carrying out the policies of the colonial government that the assembly put into effect. Following the American Revolution, this tax was replaced by taxes on items of moveable personal property, such as on slaves, livestock, and some luxury items. This is the origin of the modern Virginia personal property tax system.
QUIT RENT - This was a kind of land tax that the Crown originally imposed and that was regulated by acts of Parliament. The basic English land laws under which the people of colonial Virginia gained title to their land required the owners to pay to the Crown a quitrent of two shillings for each hundred acres of land. If a landowner failed to pay the quitrent for a specified number of years, the Crown had the right to take back the land and grant it or sell it to another person. The money raised by this tax went into the royal treasury and was used to pay the expenses of the royal government in the colony. The county rent rolls, as they were called, which were kept in the office of the royal auditor general of the colony in Jamestown or Williamsburg, no longer exist. This is the origin of the modern system of land taxes in Virginia. Some documents recording the number of landowners and the total amount of quitrent for each of the counties can be found in the records of the colonial governors and of the royal auditors general of Virginia in the Virginia Colonial Records Project microfilm of documents from the British Public Record Office.
COUNTY LEVIES - This was also a capitation or poll tax regulated by acts of the General Assembly but imposed by the county courts. The county governments collected it to defray some of the expenses of operating the county government, such as keeping the courthouse, jail, and roads in repair.
PARISH LEVIES - This was also a capitation or poll tax. The parish vestries collected it to defray the expenses of paying ministers, keeping the churches and chapels of ease in repair, and until the 1790s to pay for providing for the poor and for orphans, which were then the responsibility of the parishes.
PORT DUTIES - The Trade and Navigation Acts that Parliament passed to regulate the commerce of the colonies and to raise revenue for the royal treasury imposed taxes on a number of items when they passed through a port of entry. These taxes were often not directly visible to the Virginians, since the value of the tax was added to the retail cost of the merchandise. Both Parliament and the General Assembly imposed specific duties on items of commerce, including taxes on the importation into Virginia of slaves, wine, and on gunpowder and shot, among other items.
EXPORT DUTIES - Among the other revenue sources for the support of the royal government of the colony was a tax of two shillings per hogshead on all tobacco exported from Virginia. The Crown required the General Assembly to impose this tax to provide a source of revenue for paying for upkeep on the governor's palace, to pay the salary of the governor, and for the support of the royal government in the colony. This tax was paid at the time of export, and because most tobacco growers sent their crops to market through intermediaries, such as merchants and agents for British mercantile houses, these taxes were often not directly visible to the planter who had grown the tobacco for export. The General Assembly also imposed a tax on furs exported from Virginia, with the money raised from that tax devoted to the maintenance of the College of William and Mary.
FEES - These were not taxes, but they were imposed and regulated by law or under the direct authority of the Crown. Most of the officials of the colonial government, from the governor all the way down to the various local officers and clerks, collected fees for the performance of their duties. The General Assembly regularly passed laws to regulate the fees that the officers charged. Fees had to be paid for registering deeds and proving wills, having land surveyed, granting land patents, inspecting tobacco at public warehouses, passing merchandise through the customs house, issuing licenses to operate taverns and ordinaries, and for many other routine transactions. The money raised through these fees defrayed the costs of running the offices and took the place of a salary for the officers, almost none of whom, except a few high-ranking royal appointees, received any salary. Almost all official colonial records about taxes and fees give values either in British pounds, shillings, and pence, or in pounds of tobacco. The government of the Commonwealth of Virginia continued to keep some of its official financial records in pounds, shillings, and pence until the turn of the nineteenth century, when the treasurer and auditors began keeping accounts in U.S. dollars and cents. In practice, most colonial Virginians were accustomed to reckoning values in a variety of ways, i.e., British pounds sterling, several different kinds of colonial currency that had sterling values but often changed hands at a reduced rate, or discount and Spanish coins with values given in dollars, doubloons, pistereens, and pieces of eight. Frequently, both in colonial government accounts and in private transactions, people stated the value of a commodity or service in pounds of tobacco, and certificates or promissory notes payable in tobacco were often the most abundant circulating medium in the colony.”
In the early colonial days, a 14 year old male could witness a legal document, and could even choose his legal guardian in the event both of his parents were then deceased. However, he had to be at least 21 years of age in order to own and sell property in his own name, even though he could inherit property at whatever age which will be held in trust for him until he reaches the age of 21.
1662 (1) The Church of England was officially declared to be the state church of the colony of Virginia.
(2) Newly crowned King Charles II granted a royal charter to the royalty colony of Connecticut.261
1663 (1) King Charles II granted a royal charter to the colony of Rhode Island.261
(2) Elinor Cavenagh ("Elinor Cavenah" & "Elinor Cavender"?) and Richard Michebirne obtained a marriage license in Ireland.447
1664 (1) England conquered the Dutch America colonies, and the colonies of Delaware, New Jersey and Vermont became a part of the "Duke of York Province" by grant of Charles II of England and the city and colonies were renamed New York.261
(2) The Last Will and Testament of Edward Cavenagh ("Edward Cavender"?), a gentleman, was probated in Dublin, Dublin County, Ireland.447
1665 (1) Charter to Carolina Company repeated the English claim to what was then the State of Tennessee.
(2) Margery Cavenagh ("Margery Cavenah", "Margery Cavender"? & “Marjorie Cavender?”) and James Doole obtained a marriage license in Ireland.447