265 SNL Kagan, Cable TV Investor: Deals & Finance, Oct. 31, 2011, at 3-6.
266 See, e.g., DIRECTV, http://www.directv.com/DTVAPP/content/technology/mobile_apps/ipad (visited Mar. 2, 2012); Cablevision, http://optimum.custhelp.com/app/answers/detail/a_id/2694/kw/ipad%20streaming (visited Mar. 2, 2012).
271 DISH Network, http://www.dishnetwork.com/compare/index.aspx?WT.ac=ACQ_MKTG_DISH_STATIC_0112_getMoreForLess (visited Jan 25, 2012).
272 Verizon FiOS has mailed marketing materials containing messages such as: “Say good-by to the cable company”; “FiOS vs. Cable or should we say the future vs. the past”; and “You’re paying all that for cable and not getting all this?”
273 See, e.g., DISH Network 2010 Form 10-K at 4; Time Warner Cable 2010 Form 10-K at 6.
274 See, e.g., Time Warner Cable 2010 Form 10-K at 6.
277 See, e.g., DIRECTV 2010 Form 10-K at 39.
278 DIRECTV 2010 Form 10-K at 7.
279 Time Warner Cable 2010 Form 10-K at 6.
281 Charter Communications, 2010 Annual Report, Letter to Shareholders at 4.
282 See,e.g., DSL Reports, http://www.dslreports.com/shownews/Consumer-Reports-FiOS-UVerse-Tops-113561 (visited Mar. 2, 2012).
283 Comcast, 2010 Annual Review, Letter to Shareholders at 2.
285 Time Warner Cable, 2010 Annual Report, Letter to Shareholders at 2.
287 Seesupra, ¶¶ 18, 28 & n. 33.
288 47 U.S.C. § 543(b)(7).
289 Comcast 6/8/11 Comments at 7. In approving the Comcast’s joint venture with General Electric, the Commission concluded that the transaction would give the joint venture the incentive and ability to block – temporarily or permanently – Comcast’s video distribution rivals from accessing programming owned by the joint venture and to raise the programming costs of its video distribution rivals. Comcast-NBCU Order, 26 FCC Rcd at 4250, ¶ 29. Given the findings, the Commission adopted an arbitration remedy applicable to all Comcast-NBCU affiliated programming, including regional sports networks, to prevent these potential harms. Id. at 4364-70, App. A, § VII. With respect to program carriage, the Commission found that the vertical integration of Comcast’s distribution network with NBCU’s programming assets increased Comcast’s ability and incentive to discriminate against or foreclose unaffiliated programming. Id. at 4282, ¶ 110. To remedy these harms, the Commission adopted a program carriage condition prohibiting Comcast from discriminating against programming vendors, including regional sports networks, on the basis of affiliation or nonaffiliation in the selection, price, terms or conditions of carriage. Id. at 4287, ¶ 121; see also id. at 4358, App. A, § III.1.
290 For a list of Comcast’s national programming interests, see Appendix B, Table B-1.
291 For a list of Comcast’s regional programming interests, see Appendix C, Table C-1.
292 Comcast 2010 Form 10-K at 2.
293 Time Warner Cable 2010 Form 10-K at 1.
294 For a list of Time Warner Cable’s programming interests, see Appendix B, Table B-1 and Appendix C, Table C-1.
295 Comcast 2010 Form 10-K at 3; Comcast 6/8/11 Comments at 9.
296 Time Warner Cable, https://www.timewarnercableoffers.com/ (visited Mar. 3, 2012).
297 Time Warner Cable 2010 Form 10-K at 6.
298 Comcast 6/8/11 Comments at 8-9, 11.
299 Id. at 10.
300 Time Warner Cable, http://www.timewarnercable.com/nynj/learn/cable/ (visited Mar. 2, 2012).
301 Id. See also Time Warner Cable 2010 Form 10-K at 3.
313 Communities in Central Oregon served by BendBroadband include: Bend, Black Butte, Culver, LaPine, Madras, Metolius, Prineville, Powell Butte, Redmond, Sisters, Sunriver, and Terrebonne. The company changed its name from Bend Cable to BendBroadband in 2003 in recognition that its services had expanded beyond cable television. See BendBroadband, http://www.bendbroadband.com/residential/abb_company_info.asp?pageID=abbb&subID=aci (visited Nov. 2, 2011).
322 Buckeye offers 250 digital channels, HD channels, DVR service, and thousands of hours of VOD programming. Buckeye CableSystem, http://www.buckeyecablesystem.com/digital/index.html (visited Oct. 31, 2011); BendBroadband offers a total of 108 HD channels, DVR service, and VOD. BendBroadband, http://www.bendbroadband.com/residential/alpha_index.asp?pageID=al&adct=1 (visited Nov. 2, 2011); Adams video services are comparable to those offered by the largest cable MVPDs, but it offers fewer VOD programs and its DVR service does not deliver programs to other televisions throughout the house. Adams Cable Service, http://www.adamscable.com/index.html (visited Nov. 2, 2011). According to Sweetwater Cable’s website, it offers the Salt Lake City broadcast stations and a number of national cable networks in HD, with plans to add additional HD channels upon availability and system capacity. Sweetwater Cable, http://www2.sweetwaterhsa.com/digitalcable.html (visited July 10, 2012).
326 See Letter from Barbara S. Esbin, Counsel to the American Cable Association, to Marlene Dortch, Secretary, FCC, MB Docket No. 11-169, PP Docket No. 00-67 (Feb. 27, 2012).
327 We note that not all of the smallest cable systems offer Internet access or telephone services. FCC staff analysis shows that 160 cable systems, each with less than 5,000 subscribers, filed a Form 325 for 2010. Of these, five cable systems offered neither Internet access nor telephone service.
336 Id. DIRECTV has been expanding its local-into-local service and currently offers local broadcast television stations in 194 television markets and local broadcast television HD channels in 181 markets. DIRECTV, http://www.directv.com/DTVAPP/content/hd/hd_locals (visited Apr. 6, 2012).
343 In addition to the contiguous 48 states, DIRECTV states that it provides the same programming packages for the same prices to customers in Alaska and Hawaii. DIRECTV 6/8/2011 Comments at 13-14. DISH Network also appears to offer the same programming packages to the contiguous 48 states and Alaska and Hawaii. See SatelliteSales.com, http://www.satellitesales.com/ak-fairbanks-dish-network.html; D&M Satellite Solutions, http://www.dishtvhawaii.com/ (visited Mar. 14, 2012).
347 DIRECTV, 2010 Annual Report, Message to Shareholders.
348 Id. See also DIRECTV, http://www.directv.com/DTVAPP/content/technology/mobile_apps?footernavtype=-1&lpos=header (visited Mar. 2, 2012).
349 DIRECTV, http://www.directv.com/entertainment/watch_online/ (visited Mar. 5, 2010).
350 DISH Network, 2010 Annual Report, Letter to Shareholders.
352 DISH Network, http://www.dish.com/testdrive/ and http://www.dish.com/technology/tv-everywhere/ (visited Mar. 2, 2010).
353 DIRECTV 2010 Form 10-K at 5-6.
355 DIRECTV 6/8/11 Comments at 16; DISH Network 2010 Form 10-K at 3.
356 DIRECTV 2010 Form 10-K at 17.
357 Id. DIRECTV has cooperative arrangements with telephone companies that use DSL technology to offer Internet access and telephone services. When telephone companies (e.g., AT&T and Verizon) upgrade their systems and begin offering their own MVPD service, they may end their cooperative arrangements with DIRECTV. One analyst explains that DBS MVPDs remain “enormously dependent” on the telephone companies’ legacy DSL as their partner for broadband. Craig Moffett, The Long View: Cord Cutting, Household Formation, and the Long Road to a New Pay TV Video Equilibrium, Bernstein Research, Nov. 10, 2011, at 15.
358 DISH Network 2010 Form 10-K at 3.
359 DIRECTV’s and DISH Network’s main websites market video programming, with no mention of Internet access or telephone services. DIRECTV, http://www.directv.com/DTVAPP/index.jsp (visited Feb. 29, 2012); DISH Network, http://www.dishnetwork.com/ (visited Jan. 25, 2012). See also DIRECTV 6/8/11 Comments at 3.
364 Kagan Research, LLC., Cable TV Investor: Deals & Finance, Sept. 30, 2006, at 1, 6.
365 Verizon, 2006 Annual Report at 19. The 207,000 subscribers in 2006 included both video and Internet subscribers. Verizon is organized into a Domestic Wireless and Wireline segment. FiOS is included in the Wireline segment. Verizon, 2010 Annual Report at 14, 22.
366 Verizon 6/8/11 Comments at 5-6; Verizon, 2010 Annual Report at 14-15.
367 In an interview with UBS analyst John Hodulik, Lowell McAdam, Verizon President & CEO, stated, “With FiOS we are about 16 million POPs at this point and we want to get to about 18 million. If we built out the whole footprint, we would be more in the 21 million, maybe a little bit more, range . . . But for now the bottom line is we are going to build out what we said and not any more.” See VZ-Verizon Communications Inc at UBS Media and Communications Conference, Final Transcript, Thomson StreetEvents, Dec. 7, 2011, http://www22.verizon.com/idc/groups/public/documents/adacct/event_1012_trans.pdf (visited Feb. 10, 2012).
368 AT&T 6/8/11 Comments at 2-3. AT&T has four operating segments: Wireless, Wireline, Advertising Solutions, and Other. U-verse is included in the Wireline segment. AT&T, 2010 Annual Report, at 33.
377 AT&T, http://www.att.com/Common/about_us/files/pdf/HowUverseIsDelivered_2-22.pdf (visited Oct. 26, 2011). A node is a communications control unit in a video system that interconnects traditional coaxial cable and fiber-optics. It is the place where an optical signal is converted to a radio frequency (RF) signal, or vice versa.
393 See Application and Public Interest Statement of SpectrumCo., LLC, transferor, to Cellco Partnership d/b/a Verizon Wireless, transferer (Dec. 16, 2011) (“Verizon Wireless-SpectrumCo- Application”). See also Verizon, Comcast, Time Warner Cable, and Bright House Networks Sell Advanced Wireless Spectrum to Verizon Wireless for $3.6 Billion (press release), Dec. 2, 2011.
394 See Application and Public Interest Statement of Cox TMI Wireless, LLC, transferor, to Cellco Partnership d/b/a Verizon Wireless, transferer (Dec. 21, 2011) (“Verizon Wireless-Cox Application”). See also Verizon, Cox Communications Announces Agreement to Sell Advanced Wireless Spectrum to Verizon Wireless (press release), Dec. 16, 2011.
395 See Cellco Partnership D/B/A Verizon Wireless, SpectrumCo, LLC and Cox TMI Wireless, LLC Seek FCC Consent to the Assignment of AWS-1 Licenses, WT Docket No. 12-4, Public Notice, 27 FCC Rcd 360 (WT 2012).
396 Verizon Wireless-SpectrumCo Application, Public Interest Statement, at 1; Verizon Wireless-Cox Application, Public Interest Statement, at 1.
397 Verizon, 2010 Annual Report, at 2-3.
398 Id. at 8, 15. Verizon states that “Current and potential competitors for network services include other telephone companies, cable companies, wireless service providers, foreign telecommunications providers, satellite providers, electric utilities, Internet service providers, providers of VoIP services, and other companies that offer network services using a variety of technologies.” Id. at 37.
399 See Verizon, http://www22.verizon.com/home/aboutfios/?CMP=DMC-CVS_ZZ_ZZ_E_TV_N_X001 (visited Jan. 26, 2012).
400 AT&T, http://www.att.com/shop/u-verse/#fbid=QmA4InkA_TN (visited Mar. 5, 2012).
401 CenturyLink, http://www.centurylink.com/prismtv/#index.html (visited Mar. 2, 2012).
402 See 47 U.S.C. § 543(k).
403 The 1992 Cable Act requires operators to offer an entry-level basic service, which must include, at a minimum, all commercial and noncommercial local broadcast stations entitled to carriage under the must-carry provisions of the Communications Act of 1934, 47 U.S.C. §§ 534-35. Basic service must also offer any other local broadcast station provided to any subscriber, as well as public, educational, and governmental access channels that the local franchise authority (LFA) may require the operator to carry. See 47 U.S.C. § 543(b)(7). Cable programming refers to a tier of video channels for which the operator charges a separate rate, other than the basic service channels and channels for which per-channel or per-program charges apply. See 47 U.S.C. § 543(k)(l)(2). Cable equipment refers to a converter box and other customer premises equipment for accessing cable services. See 47 U.S.C. § 543(b)(3).