The first stage of basic education and pedagogy protects and improves the interest in and openness to cognition, understanding and learning in children entering schooling. Children are led from the play-oriented activities of the nursery school (óvoda) to the learning activities of the school. They are made receptive to their own environment, nature, interpersonal relationships, then to the values of society in its wider sense. The school gives room to the desire of children to play and move around, promotes their natural development and maturing. The processing of teaching contents delivers elementary knowledge, improves fundamental abilities and basic skills.
This stage builds on curiosity and inquisition, and thus develops the sense of responsibility, the ability of perseverance and promotes the enrichment of emotions in young children through motivated work. It provides models for the acquisition of knowledge, the solution of tasks and problems, and founds learning habits.
It promotes the surfacing of individual aptitudes, helps in tackling learning difficulties; deals with the alleviation of disadvantages arising from the social-cultural environment or different maturing pace of children.
It increases children’s awareness of moral values recognisable in their immediate and wider surroundings, strengthens humanitarian behavioural patterns, habits, and serves the maturing of personality by formulating the character of children. So pedagogical work focuses on the aim of individualised development.
Key areas of development
Harmonic development of body and soul: by satisfying the need for motion and by establishing the culture of motion; by improving the co-ordination of motion, sense of rhythm and hearing; by communicating the basics of a healthy way of life, by establishing habits serving this purpose; by enriching one’s emotional life; by improving self-knowledge and realistic self-evaluation, by strengthening the demand for interpersonal relationships.
Facilitation of the processes of socialisation: by providing an intellectual and emotional foundation of the moral façade of personality; by introducing and exercising the proper forms of behaviour; by strengthening peer relationships; by offering practical knowledge related to elementary citizenship and everyday pursuit of life.
Establishment of the fundamentals of basic literacy: by acquiring solid use of language orally and in writing, and basic abilities and skills; by targeted development of mental abilities; by providing a foundation for self-learning and self-education.
Key issues in selecting learning strategies and in using courseware: the consideration of age features; the empirical foundation of knowledge, the possibility of exploration, the development of creativity, differentiated development, the balance among artistic, practical and general knowledge skills, healthy student load; ongoing monitoring of their development, individualised improving assessment
System of subjects and the required number of teaching hours