Grey-headed Flying-fox Management Strategy for the Lower Hunter Grey-headed Flying-fox



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Grey-headed Flying-fox

Management Strategy for the Lower Hunter



Grey-headed Flying-fox

Management Strategy for the Lower Hunter


Prepared for: Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities

© GeoLINK, 2013
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PO Box 119

Lennox Head NSW 2478

T 02 6687 7666
PO Box 1446

Coffs Harbour NSW 2450

T 02 6651 7666
info@geolink.net.au


Version History

UPR

Description

Date Issued

Issued By

Reviewed By

2029-1001

Literature Review (Sec1-4)

14/09/2012

Anna Lloyd

Veronica Silver

2029-2008

First issue

07/01/2013

Anna Lloyd and Peggy Eby

Veronica Silver

2029-1015

Second issue – Final Draft

06/02/2013

Anna Lloyd and Peggy Eby

Veronica Silver

2029-1028

Final

08/03/2013

Anna Lloyd and Peggy Eby

Kim Casson

2029-1042

Updated Final

02/04/2013

Anna Lloyd and Peggy Eby

Veronica Silver




Overview 9

Table 1.1The Grey-headed Flying-fox and the Lower Hunter 9

Table 1.2Sustainable Regional Development Program 9

Table 1.3Purpose and Structure of this Study 11

Table 1.4Abbreviations 13

Legislation and Policy 15

Table 4.1Federal Legislation and Policy 15

4.1.1Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 15

4.1.2Draft National Recovery Plan for the GHFF 16

4.1.3Federally Funded Studies 18

4.1.4Broad Conservation Policies / Strategies 18

Table 4.2State Legislation and Policy 18

Table 4.3Regional and Catchment-based Policies 22

4.3.1Lower Hunter Regional Strategy 22

4.3.2Lower Hunter Regional Conservation Plan 22

4.3.3Newcastle-Lake Macquarie Western Corridor Planning Strategy – draft 23

4.3.4The Hunter-Central Rivers Catchment Action Plan and PVPs 23

4.3.5Other State-wide Policies or Agreements 23

Table 4.4Local Government Legislation and Policy 24

Table 4.5Non-government Organisation Policies / Information 25

1.Summary of Legislation and Policies 25



The Lower Hunter 27

Table 7.1Description 27

7.1.1Location 27

7.1.2Traditional Context 27

7.1.3Environmental Values 27

7.1.4Growth and Development 27

7.1.5Future Development 28

The Grey-headed Flying-fox 30

Table 10.1General Ecology 30

10.1.1Taxonomy 30

10.1.2Conservation Status 30

1.Distribution 31

2.Habitat 32

3.Reproduction and Life Expectancy 33

4.Diet 35

5.Environmental Services 35

Table 10.2GHFF in the Lower Hunter 36

10.2.1Foraging Behaviour 36

10.2.2GHFF Observations 36

Table 10.5Research / Monitoring Programs 39

6.Previous Studies 39

7.Current Research / Monitoring Programs 40

Roosting Habitat in the Lower Hunter 43

Table 12.1Locations 43

12.1.1Existing Information 43

12.1.2Camp Verification Surveys 43

Table 12.3Camp Characteristics 47

12.3.1Seasonality 47

12.3.2Vegetation 48

12.4.1Position in the Landscape 49

12.5.1Flying-fox Species Present 51

52


Table 12.7Conservation Importance 54

13.1.1Cessnock LGA 55

13.1.2Lake Macquarie LGA 56

13.1.3Newcastle LGA 56

13.1.4Maitland LGA 56

13.1.5Port Stephens LGA 57



Foraging Habitat in the Lower Hunter 61

Table 15.1Background 61

Table 15.2Methods 61

15.2.1Flower Scores 63

15.2.2Nectar Habitat Scores 64

15.2.3Fruit Habitat Score 65

15.2.4Habitat Ranks 65

15.2.5Additional Considerations 66

Table 15.3Results 67

15.3.1Diet Plants 67

15.6.1Vegetation Classification and Map 70

15.7.2Habitat ranks 71

Table 15.9Accuracy of GHMV Spatial Layer and Implications for the Assessment 72

Conservation Threats 77

Table 17.1Identified Key Threatening Processes 77

Table 17.3Foraging Habitat Loss 78

17.3.1Identified Potential Future Development 79

17.5.1LEP Zoning 82

Table 17.6Loss and Disturbance of Roost Sites 82

17.6.1Impact on Existing Camps 82

17.6.2Potential for Future Camp / Human Conflict 83

Table 17.7Electrocution and Entanglement 84

Table 17.9Competition 90

Table 17.10Public Perception 90

Table 17.11Climate Change 91

17.11.1Food Shortages 91

17.11.2Intense Storms and Heat Waves 92

Table 17.12Other Risks 92

17.12.1Low Reproductive Output 92

17.12.2Environmental Management Decisions Outside of the Lower Hunter 93

17.12.3Inadequately Resourced Conservation Programs 93



Conservation and Restoration 94

Table 19.1Current Conservation Status of GHFF Habitat 94

19.1.1Identified Conservation Areas 94

19.1.2Habitat Conserved Under Environmental Planning Policies 95

19.3.1Habitat Conserved Under State Legislation 100

19.3.2Summary of Conserved GHFF Habitat 101

Table 19.5Priority Conservation Areas 102

19.5.1Foraging Habitat 102

19.5.2Roosting Habitat 102

Table 19.6Habitat Currently Under Restoration 103

19.7.1Australian Government Funded Environmental Programs 106

19.7.2NSW Government Funded Environmental Programs 106

Table 19.8Priority Restoration Areas 107

19.8.1Roosting Habitat 108

19.8.2Foraging Habitat 109

Table 19.9Conclusion 110



Management Actions for the GHFF 114

Table 21.1Previously Identified Actions 114

21.1.1Priority Action Statements 114

Table 21.3Recommended Actions for the Lower Hunter 125



Summary and Conclusions 133

Table 23.1Summary 133

Table 23.2Conclusion 135






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