Group 1 Phonological focused on Vowel and Consonant sounds and Suprasegmental Features

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Phonological focused on Vowel and Consonant sounds and Suprasegmental Features
(vowel:reduced vowels/schwa in unstressed syllables,
consonants :salient features)

Philippine English, more commonly known as Filipino English, has a distinctive accent that is characterized by a strong rhoticity. Rhoticity in English refers to the pronunciation of the consonant /r/ in all r position contexts, while non-rhoticity refers to the dropping of the /r/ sound in particular r positions (Costa & Serra, 2022). This feature is likely influenced by the Filipino language, the first language of most speakers, which is also rhotic. In addition to the influence of Filipino, the prosodic character of American English also plays a role in shaping the accent of Philippine English. Since American English has long been the standard in the archipelago, due to its introduction in public education by Americans, its prosodic influence can be heard in Philippine English as well.

When it comes to the pronunciation of English in the Philippines, there is a variation among speakers that is linked to their social class and the influence of the various Philippine languages spoken in the country. According to Tayao (2008), speakers can be grouped into three categories based on their education level, job, and language usage in different contexts. The first group, called the acrolectal group, includes professionals who use English in both their work and personal lives, while the mesolectal group includes professionals who use English frequently at work but not at home. The basilectal group, on the other hand, includes working-class people who only use English occasionally at work. Tayao (2008) noted that the first languages (L1) of the participants were not identified, so it is not possible to trace the substrate influence to a specific language in these descriptions. There is also a need for further exploration of phonological variations among speakers from different language regions, such as L1 Tagalog and L1 Cebuano speakers.

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