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New Perspectives on Computer Concepts 2011 Instructor’s Manual of

Computer Concepts

Chapter Nine: The Computer Industry:
History, Careers, and Ethics

A Guide to this Instructor’s Manual:

We have designed this Instructor’s Manual to supplement and enhance your teaching experience through classroom activities and a cohesive chapter summary.
This document is organized chronologically, using the same heading in blue that you see in the textbook. Under each heading you will find (in order): Lecture Notes that summarize the section, Figures and Boxes found in the section (if any), Teacher Tips, Classroom Activities, and Lab Activities. Pay special attention to teaching tips, and activities geared towards quizzing your students, enhancing their critical thinking skills, and encouraging experimentation within the software.
In addition to this Instructor’s Manual, our Instructor’s Resources CD also contains PowerPoint Presentations, Test Banks, and other supplements to aid in your teaching experience.
For your students:

Our latest online feature, CourseCasts, is a library of weekly podcasts designed to keep your students up to date with the latest in technology news. Direct your students to, where they can download the most recent CourseCast onto their mp3 player. Ken Baldauf, host of CourseCasts, is a faculty member of the Florida State University Computer Science Department, where he is responsible for teaching technology classes to thousands of FSU students each year. Ken is an expert in the latest technology and sorts through and aggregates the most pertinent news and information for CourseCasts so your students can spend their time enjoying technology, rather than trying to figure it out. Open or close your lecture with a discussion based on the latest CourseCast.

Table of Contents

Chapter Objectives


Section A: Computer History


Section B: The Computer and IT Industries


Section C: Careers for Computer Professionals


Section D: Professional Ethics


Section E: Work Area Safety and Ergonomics


Glossary of Key Terms


Chapter Objectives

Students will have mastered the material in Chapter Nine when they can answer the following questions:

  • What are the key events in the history of computers?

  • Before digital computers and calculators, what kinds of devices were used to carry out calculations?

  • Who invented the first digital computer?

  • How long did it take for computers to become such a ubiquitous part of modern life?

  • What technical innovations characterize each of the four generations of computers?

  • Which companies are major players in the computer industry?

  • How important are the computer and IT industries in today’s global economy?

  • Is the IT industry affected by outsourcing and offshoring?

  • What do consumers need to know about the life cycles of hardware and software products in order to make smart purchasing and investment decisions?

  • How can consumers take advantage of the computer industry’s overlapping marketing channels?

  • What kinds of jobs are available in the computer and IT industries?

  • What qualifications are IT industry employers looking for?

  • How do computers and the Internet figure into the process of job hunting?

  • Are computer professionals faced with tricky ethical decisions?

  • How safe are computers and other digital devices?

  • What is ergonomics and how does it apply to computers?


090100 Charles Babbage invented the first digital circuits. (Answer: False) (488)

090200 The ABC, Harvard Mark I, COLOSSUS, and ENIAC can be classified as computer prototypes. (Answer: True) (489)

090300 UNIVAC was one of the first personal computers. (Answer: False) (491)

090400 Transistors were an important technology in radios and computers. (Answer: True) (492)

090500 Integrated circuits were a key technology in 3rd generation computers. (Answer: True) (493)

090600 The dot com bubble refers to the period when domain names were added to the Internet. (Answer: False) (501)

090700 VARs are online discount computer dealers. (Answer: False) (508)

090800 The Internet is regulated in the U.S. by the FDIC. (Answer: False) (508)

090900 Many computer professionals work in IT departments. (Answer: True) (510)

091000 The computer industry employs very few contract workers. (Answer: False) (513)

091100 The Association for Computing Machinery has identified five major computing disciplines. (Answer: True) (514)

091200 In the computer industry, certification works just as well as a 4-year degree. (Answer: False) (515)

091300 A metasearch tool can search more than one online database at a time. (Answer: True) (521)

091400 The Digital Millennium Copyright Act was replaced by the USA Patriot Act. (Answer: False) (524)

091500 Using BitTorrent is not ethical. (Answer: False) (532)

091600 CRTs are safer to use than LCDs. (Answer: False) (535)

091700 Carpal Tunnel Syndrome is classified as a sedentary lifestyle risk factor. (Answer: False) (536)



092100 If you were around when third-generation computers were invented, you would have been listening to what type of popular music?

  1. Grateful Dead

  2. Beatles

  3. Elvis

  4. Aerosmith

(Answer: b)

Manual Calculators (486)


  • Explain that a manual calculator is a device that helps you to perform numeric calculations, but requires you to keep track of the algorithm—the process used to manipulate numbers.

  • Identify the earliest manual calculators, including the abacus, Napier’s Bones, and the slide rule. Figures 9-1 and 9-2 show examples of all three types.


Consider asking students to bring examples of manual and mechanical calculators to class, and supplement them with your own samples of calculators (such as an abacus or slide rule). Do any of your students know how to use an abacus or a slide rule?

  • Figure 9-1, Figure 9-2


  • Quick Quiz:

    1. A(n) _________ calculator is a device that assists in the process of numeric calculations, but requires a human operator to keep track of the algorithm. (Answer: manual)

  • A(n) _________ consists of beads mounted on rods within a rectangular frame. (Answer: abacus)

  • True/False: Slide rules were used through the 1960s. (Answer: True)

Mechanical Calculators (487)


  • Demonstrate the difference between a manual calculator—which requires you to apply algorithms to perform calculations—and a mechanical calculator—which uses algorithms on its own.

  • Identify early types of mechanical calculators, including Schickard’s Calculator, the Pascaline, the Leibniz Calculator, the Analytical Engine, and the Hollerith Tabulating Machine. Of these, the Analytical Engine is significant because it shared many characteristics that define modern computers, such as storing programs and data for calculations on punched cards.

  • Point out that the Tabulating Machine is also an important historical development, because it led to the founding of IBM.


  • Figure 9-3


    • Class Discussion: Ask students if any of them regularly use a calculator. Why or why not? For what purpose?

    • Class Discussion: Discuss the calculating power and costs of early calculators versus those today.

    • Quick Quiz:

      1. Mechanical calculators were developed as early as ________. (Answer: 1623)

      2. What was the first mass-produced calculator? (Answer: de Colmar’s Arithmometer)

      3. True/False: The Analytical Engine was completed in 1834. (Answer: False)

Computer Prototypes (489)


  • Emphasize that no one person invented the computer. Instead, it evolved from a series of prototypes.

  • Discuss COLOSSUS and ENIAC, a machine that was programmed by connecting cables and setting 6,000 switches.


As students read through this section, have them make a list of ways that inventors influenced each other in the development of the modern computer. Do they feel that one person stands out as having contributed more than others have?

  • Figure 9-4, Figure 9-5


  • Quick Quiz:

    1. The Atanasoff-Berry Computer (ABC) was the first to use ________, instead of mechanical switches for processing circuitry. (Answer: vacuum tubes)

    2. True/False: The ABC is often considered the first electronic digital computer. (Answer: True)

Generations of Computers (491)


  • Explain that historians consider the UNIVAC, completed in 1951, to be the first commercially successful digital computer. The UNIVAC set the trend for future generations of computers—although it was smaller than the ENIAC, it was more powerful. As computer technology improved, computers became smaller, faster, more dependable, and less expensive to operate.

  • If possible, show students photos of vacuum tubes, transistors, and early integrated circuit boards (or use real examples).

  • Review the differences in technology between first, second, third, and fourth generation computers.


  • Figure 9-6, Figure 9-7, Figure 9-8, Figure 9-9


  • Assign a Project: Ask students to list the defining characteristics of each computer generation.

  • Quick Quiz:

  1. Transistors regulate current or voltage flow and act as a(n) _________ for electronic signals. (Answer: switch)

  2. True/False: First-generation computers can be characterized by their use of vacuum tubes. (Answer: True)

  3. True/False: Microprocessors are a characteristic of third-generation computers. (Answer: False)

Personal Computers (494)


  • Discuss the milestones in the history of personal computers: the first commercial microcomputer, the Altair, the Apple I, the Apple II.

  • Discuss the differences between the early and current PC.

  • Demonstrate the use of DOS. Show how to display the directory using Windows and how to display it using DOS.

  • Discuss IBM’s role in the development of the PC.

  • Discuss the relationship between PCs and the software industry. Software made personal computers useful. Advances in hardware technology allowed developers to create more powerful, and more appealing software.

  • Discuss the role the Internet played in the popularity of PCs.


Find an advertisement for an early PC on the Internet or in a library. Have students look at a current advertisement and the early advertisement. For each feature, compare the differences.

  • Figure 9-10, Figure 9-11, Figure 9-12, Figure 9-13


  • Quick Quiz:

  1. True/False: The Altair was a computer for the hobbyist. (Answer: True)

  2. The IBM PC used an operating system called _________. (Answer: PC-DOS)



092200 Understanding the computer industry can be useful when purchasing a computer or making investment decisions. Which one of the following is the LEAST important aspect of the computer marketplace for consumers and investors?

  1. Market share

  2. Market tiers

  3. Market channels

  4. Market synthesis

(Answer: d)

Industry Overview (497)


  • Differentiate between the computer industry—companies that manufacture computers—and the information technology industry—companies that develop, produce, sell, or support computers, software, and computer-related products.

  • Identify companies in the IT industry, including equipment manufacturers, chipmakers, and software publishers.

  • Discuss the roles of equipment manufacturers, chipmakers, and software publishers. Focus on their interdependence.

  • Discuss the fact that some companies are computer intensive in their technology needs, but do not actually belong to the IT industry

  • Discuss outsourcing and offshoring. What are their implications on the IT industry. Discuss how the lack of trained computer scientists and IT professionals is impacting these phenomena.


  • Figure 9-14, Figure 9-15, Figure 9-16


  • Class Discussion: Ask students to write a brief summary of what their previous ideas of the computer and IT industries were. Have them compare their ideas to the description in the text. Were their ideas accurate?

  • Quick Quiz:

  1. _________ is defined as the use of components or labor from outside suppliers. (Answer: Outsourcing)

  2. True/False: Offshoring is defined as relocating business processes to lower-cost locations in other countries. (Answer: True)

  3. True/False: All companies that use computers are part of the IT industry. (Answer: False)

Economic Factors (500)


  • Explain that the IT industry has grown steadily since the mid-1980s, and has contributed significantly to the gross domestic product.

  • Discuss the increased globalization of the IT industry.


Have students discuss which factors they think most account for the success of the IT industry. Have them discuss which factors they believe will continue to play a role in the next ten years.

  • Figure 9-17, Figure 9-18


  • Quick Quiz:

    1. True/False: The IT industry is dominated by the US. (Answer: True)

    2. True/False: Two important factors that contribute to the success of the IT industry is population growth and business globalization. (Answer: True)

    3. True/False: Another dot com boom is likely. (Answer: False)

Product Development (502)


  • Discuss why so many new computer products appear each year.

  • Identify and describe the five stages of a typical product development life cycle for hardware: product development, product announcement, introduction, maintenance, and retirement.

  • Review alpha testing and beta testing, pointing out the differences between the two.


Ask students to select an IT product and describe which stages of the product development life cycle it has completed. Encourage them to use the Internet to research how the company handled each stage. For example, have them provide examples of the product announcement. Which products had a shorter life span than others did?

  • Figure 9-19, Figure 9-20


  • Assign a Project: Figure 9-20 displays three sample computers. Have the student find three different computers and make the same comparison. Have prices increased or decreased based on features.

  • Quick Quiz:

    1. True/False: Unlike computer hardware products, older versions of software typically do not remain in a vendor’s product line. (Answer: True)

    2. Products that are announced, but are never produced are known as _________. (Answer: vaporware)

    3. True/False: The first phase of testing is called an alpha test. (Answer: True)

    4. True/False: Few software products undergo extensive testing before they are released. (Answer: False)

Market Share (504)


  • Explain that market share refers to a company’s share, or percentage, of the total market. Research and see if these market share percentages are current or have the students do the research.

  • Use Figure 9-22 to discuss market tiers.

  • Describe the kinds of companies that belong to each computer industry market tier.


  • Figure 9-21, Figure 9-22


  • Quick Quiz:

    1. _________ refers to a company’s share of the total market. (Answer: Market share)

    2. True/False: Hewlett-Packard leads worldwide hardware sales. (Answer: True)

    3. True/False: Industry analysts classify PC makers with market levels. (Answer: False)

Marketing Channels (506)


  • Explain that hardware and software companies sell their products through marketing channels, which include computer retail stores, mail-order and Internet outlets, value-added resellers, and direct from the manufacturer.

  • Go over the strengths and weaknesses of each channel.

  • Explain that for personal computer users, the choice of channels is usually between retail and mail order. Retail still seems to be the best choice for novice users.


Ask students to imagine that they are representing a small business, large corporation, school, or individual and who needs to compare computer-pricing information. For example, they could visit a Web site that sells computers, select and price a system, and then call a local computer retailer to compare prices for a similar system. Students should also identify any additional services the computer vendor provides, such as support or training.

  • Figure 9-23, Figure 9-24


  • Class Discussion: Ask students where they purchased their own computers. Were they satisfied with their experiences? Would they recommend buying that way?

  • Quick Quiz:

  1. Computer hardware and software are sold through marketing outlets called _________. (Answer: marketing channels)

  2. A(n) _________ purchases computer products from a variety of manufacturers, and then sells those products to consumers. (Answer: computer retail store)

  3. True/False: Mail order refers to hardware manufacturers that sell their products directly to consumers without a middleman. (Answer: False)

Industry Regulation (508)


  • Explain that some parts of the IT industry are regulated by the FCC, and are policed by other federal agencies, including the FTC.

  • Explain that the Internet is largely unregulated, leaving it to Internet service companies to police and monitor customers’ activity.

  • Discuss how the IT industry perceives regulations.


In class, visit Web sites for IT trade organizations, such as the Software and Information Industry Association ( and the Information Technology Industry Council ( to see what types of standards and policies these organizations advocate.

  • Figure 9-25


  • Class Discussion: Which IT companies are located in your geographic area? Are there many, or just a few? How many can your student’s name?

  • Quick Quiz:

    1. True/False: The IT industry is highly regulated. (Answer: False)

    2. True/False: The IEEE Standards Association is the regulatory authority for the IT industry. (Answer: False)



092300 Suppose you’re considering a computing career. Which one of the following would give you the LEAST marketable resume for a career in the computer industry?

  1. An associates degree in computer engineering and a network certificate

  2. A Ph. D. in information technology with 4 years of work experience at Apple

  3. A four-year degree in software engineering

  4. An MBA with an emphasis on information systems

(Answer: a)

Jobs and Salaries (510)


  • Define a computer professional as one whose primary occupation involves designing, configuring, analyzing, developing, modifying, testing, or securing computer hardware or software.

  • Identify computer professional job titles and describe the responsibilities and skills associated with each.

  • Emphasize that industry analysts think the largest increases in computer careers will be for technical support specialists, network systems designers and administrators, and security specialists.

  • Point out that many IT companies are characterized by employee-friendly working conditions and low turnover rates.

  • Discuss the pros and cons of contract work and telecommuting.


Have the students go to the Internet and find five computer professional job titles and the associated qualifications and salaries. Which seems most appealing to them?

  • Figure 9-26, Figure 9-27, Figure 9-28


  • Class Discussion: Which IT professions are students interested in pursuing? What factors have led to their decisions?

  • Quick Quiz:

  1. A(n) _________ investigates the requirements of a business or organization, its employees, and its customers in order to plan and implement new or improved computer services. (Answer: systems analyst)

  • A(n) _________ analyzes a computer system’s vulnerability to threats from viruses, worms, unauthorized access, and physical damage. (Answer: security specialist)

  • True/False: Computer professionals always work in IT departments. (Answer: False)

Education and Certification (514)


  • Discuss the various jobs in the IT industry and the education requirements. Discuss the difference in job opportunities for students receiving A.S., B.S., M.S., and PhD.

  • Emphasize that many job positions in the IT industry demand ongoing training to keep up with innovations in hardware and software development.

  • Explain that certificates of completion specify that someone has taken a series of classes in a certain subject, such as User Support.

  • Explain that certification exams are tests that verify someone’s knowledge about a particular technology, such as desktop publishing.


In class, visit the Peterson’s college and university search Web site at, to find more information about computer-related degree programs.

  • Figure 9-29, Figure 9-30, Figure 9-31


  • Discussion: Have students discuss any certificates they have or are planning to acquire. Ask the student why and how they plan to prepare for it.

  • Quick Quiz:

  1. _________ focuses on the design of computer hardware and peripheral devices, often at the chip level. (Answer: Computer engineering)

  2. _________ focuses on computer architecture and how to program computers to make them work effectively and efficiently. (Answer: Computer science)

  3. True/False: Certification exams are offered in a variety of formats. (Answer: True)

Job Hunting Basics (517)


  • Refer to Figure 9-32 for typical job hunting steps.

  • Encourage students not only to use the Internet to research potential jobs and employers, but also to develop a network of friends and associates to trade job information.

  • Explain that before starting a job search, students should define the jobs for which they are qualified.


  • Figure 9-32


  • Class Discussion: Are any students currently looking for an IT job? What steps have they taken or do they plan to take to find an IT job? What job hunting Web sites are students aware of?

Resumes and Web Portfolios (518)


  • Explain that students should prepare different versions of their resumes, such as electronic and printed.

  • Emphasize that all versions of resumes should use a professional format and design, and provide accurate information in correct, standard English.

  • Review Figure 9-34 for guidelines on writing resumes.

  • Explain that a Web portfolio is an HTML version of a resume, which can contain links to Web sites for previous employers and to work samples.

  • Point out that if students plan to use a personal home page for a Web portfolio, they should remove any information that would not be of interest to a potential employer.

  • Discuss what should and should not be included on a resume (for example, multimedia).

  • Point out that online job search services often have sample resumes and Web portfolios for job seekers.

  • Tell students that online job search Web sites can place their resume into a pool of thousands of applicants; walking a resume into a personnel office is still acceptable.


  • Figure 9-33, Figure 9-34


  • Assign a Project: Have students refer to the tips in Figure 9-34 to create a professional resume.

  • Assign a Project: Have students investigate and report to the class what resume and job hunting services are available through their school.

  • Quick Quiz:

    1. True/False: You should have one version of your resume in a word processing file. (Answer: True)

    2. True/False: It’s a good idea to format a resume in side-by-side columns. (Answer: False)

    3. A(n) _________ is a hypertext version of a resume. (Answer: Web portfolio)


  • Use Microsoft Word to create a resume. Be sure to include a cover letter. Submit the resume as an attachment to e-mail.

Job Listings (520)


  • Emphasize that successful job searches use several strategies (such as submitting applications, posting resumes, and contacting recruiting firms).

  • Explain that many IT industry employers include links on their Web sites to job information.

  • Demonstrate visiting an online job bank that specializes in the IT industry to show students the kind of information they provide. Also show students how to use a job search agent to find a job.

  • Be sure and discuss the privacy issues of using job banks. This could also be a good place to discuss the job implications of the kind of material the student places on social networks (such as FaceBook).


In class, ask students to brainstorm other strategies for finding jobs. First, list each of their ideas. After the brainstorming session, discuss the details of how to use the strategy.

  • Figure 9-35, Figure 9-36


The New Perspectives Lab ,“Online Job Hunting,” deals with issues that relate to this section of the textbook. You might want to go through the lab during class time if you have a computer with a projection device. Or, assign this lab for students as an out-of-class assignment.

  • Have students work in groups to create a list of steps to use in an effective job search. List the pitfalls for any other steps.

  • Quick Quiz:

  1. A(n) _________ tool is a software program that performs broad-based Web searches, such as searching more than one job database at a time. (Answer: metasearch)

  2. True/False: A contract worker is typically hired as a permanent employee. (Answer: False)



092400 It is not unusual to encounter situations at work that call for ethical decisions. Which one of the following is the LEAST useful way to prepare for such situations?

  1. Accumulate as much proprietary information as possible that pertains to your company and its employees.

  2. Become familiar with relevant laws and legal decisions.

  3. Take time to look at one or more codes of ethics.

  4. Get to know your employer’s policies.

(Answer: a)

Ethics Basics (523)


  • Explain that the term professional ethics refers to on-the-job choices and actions that reflect a person’s values.

  • Discuss the difference between ethics and law.

  • Use Figure 9-38 on page 524 to provide a brief overview of the most significant computer laws and court decisions in the United States.


  • Figure 9-37, Figure 9-38


  • Critical Thinking: Refer students to the situation described in Figure 9-37 and have them think about what their response would be.

  • Quick Quiz:

    1. The term _________ refers to on-the-job choices and actions that reflect a person’s values. (Answer: professional ethics)

    2. True/False: Laws and ethics are the same thing. (Answer: False)

    3. True/False: Laws relating to computers vary from country to country. (Answer: True)

IT Ethics (525)


  • Discuss with the students situations that might require ethical decisions. Have students discuss any ethical situations they have experienced.

  • Introduce the Digital Millennium Copyright Act.

  • Point out that it is not unusual to find oneself in a software copyright dilemma, like the one described in Figure 9-39.

  • Discuss confidentiality and disclosure of proprietary information.

  • Discuss the use of the student’s work computer for personal activities.

  • Emphasize that employees—particularly computer professionals—should be familiar with laws and company policies applicable to privacy.


  • Figure 9-39, Figure 9-40, Figure 9-41, Figure 9-42, Figure 9-43, Figure 9-44, Figure 9-45


  • Class Discussion: Have students discuss their views of pirating music.

  • Quick Quiz:

  1. True/False: Privacy rights sometimes clash with safety issues or business goals. (Answer: True)

  2. __________ is the obligation not to disclose willingly any information obtained in confidence. (Answer: Confidentiality)

  3. True/False: A decision to short-cut software testing should not be taken lightly. (Answer: True)

Ethical Decision Making (529)


  • Explain that ethical decisions made on the job can have long-term career and lifestyle consequences, so it is important to approach these decisions seriously.

  • Use the strategies on page 530 to help students define and evaluate their options.

  • Discuss how a code of ethics is different from laws, regulations or standards.

  • Show Figure 9-46, which contains a code of ethics from the Computer Ethics Institute.


  • Figure 9-46, Figure 9-47


Refer students to the New Perspectives Web site for a Student Edition Lab called “Computer Ethics.”

  • Assign a Project: Ask students to read the ACM’s code of ethics posted on their Web site ( Have students discuss any questions or concerns they have with the code.

  • Quick Quiz:

    1. A(n) _________ is a set of guidelines designed to help professionals thread their way through a sometimes tangled web of ethical on-the-job decisions. (Answer: code of ethics)

    2. True/False: Ethical decisions that you make on the job can have long-term consequences for your career and lifestyle. (Answer: True)

Whistleblowing (532)


  • Explain that whistleblowing is the “disclosure by an employee (or professional) of confidential information which relates to some danger, fraud, or other illegal or unethical conduct connected with the workplace, be it of the employer or of fellow employees.”

  • Go over whistleblowing repercussions.

  • Review suggestions for reducing the risk of career repercussions, which can be found on pages 532–533.


  • Figure 9-48


  • Class Discussion: Have students research and prepare a report on a whistleblowing incident.

  • Quick Quiz

  1. The term _________ refers to the disclosure by an employee of confidential information, which relates to some danger, fraud, or other illegal or unethical conduct connected with the workplace. (Answer: whistleblowing)

  2. True/False: Whistleblowing can result in a loss of your job. (Answer: True)



092500 Which one of the following is the best way to avoid health hazards while working with computers?

  1. Use a CRT display.

  2. Take frequent breaks.

  3. Move your display to a position lower than your chin.

  4. Elevate your keyboard to chest height.

(Answer: b)

Radiation Risks (534)


  • Discuss exactly what radiation is.

  • Discuss how radiation is in all types of devices and some perceive it to adversely affect one’s health.

  • Explain how CRTs work, as described on page 535.

  • Emphasize that the research on CRT risks is not conclusive.

  • Discuss the differences in a CRT and a LCD.

  • Discuss the contradictory studies about the effects of RF radiation given long-term use.

  • Discuss the radiation risks associated with cell phone use and how to limit the effects.


Survey students about their use of cell phones and hands-free headsets. Did their opinion cell phone use change after reading this section on radiation levels?

  • Figure 9-49, Figure 9-50


  • Class Discussion: Do students know anyone who refuses to use digital devices due to radiation? Does this seem like a reasonable choice or not? Are students concerned about radiation emitted from digital devices?

  • Quick Quiz:

    1. True/False: Some types of radiation are considered safer than others. (Answer: True)

    2. True/False: LCD devices do not emit radiation. (Answer: False)

Repetitive Stress Injuries (536)


  • Define ergonomics.

  • Encourage students to consider each of the callouts and the guidelines accompanying Figure 9-52 against their own desks at home or in their offices.


  • Figure 9-51, Figure 9-52


  • Assign a Project: Have students use Figure 9-52 as a guide for an ergonomic workstation and evaluate their own workstations. Are they ergonomic? If not, then what changes do they need to make?

  • Quick Quiz:

    1. A(n) _________ is not a specific disease, but a group of similar overuse disorders that affect tendons, muscles, and nerves. (Answer: repetitive stress injury)

    2. _________ is the study of safe and efficient environments, particularly working environments. (Answer: Ergonomics)

    3. True/False: Many states have regulations designed to protect workers from repetitive stress injuries. (Answer: True)

    4. True/False: The mouse should be positioned slightly below the keyboard. (Answer: False)

Eye Strain (538)


  • Discuss computer-related eye problems.

  • Use Figure 9-53 to determine proper positioning of their monitor. Have the student compare their lab computer setup or their home computer setup against the suggestions in that figure and the associated narrative.

  • Explain native resolution.

  • Encourage students to follow the steps in Figure 9-54 to check (and adjust if necessary) the resolution of their displays.

  • Discuss the ergonomic problems associated with notebooks.

  • Discuss how eyewear affects computer-related eye strain.


  • Figure 9-53, Figure 9-54, Figure 9-55


  • Quick Quiz:

    1. True/False: There are no links between computer use and eye problems. (Answer: False)

    2. LCD screens have a(n) _________, which displays one pixel for each tiny light in the display matrix. (Answer: native resolution)

    3. True/False: Typically, the highest resolution available is your screen’s native resolution. (Answer: True)

Back Pain (540)


  • If in a lab setting, have students examine one another for computer slump. Discuss and demonstrate computer slump.

  • Use Figure 9-56 as an illustration of the flex-forward position common to computer users.


Survey students about their awareness of posture at the computer. Discuss and demonstrate correct computer posture.

  • Figure 9-56


  • Quick Quiz:

    1. True/False: Bad posture can lead to back pain. (Answer: True)

    2. The layman’s term _________ refers to sitting hunched over a computer keyboard with the neck craned forward. (Answer: computer slump)

    3. True/False: A body of evidence suggests that the best posture for computer work is with the upper torso leaning back slightly. (Answer: True)

Sedentary Lifestyles (540)


  • Discuss the importance of exercise and eating right.

  • Discuss the impact of an increasing number of sedentary activities (including television viewing and computer use) on a growing number of Americans.

  • Introduce break reminder software.


  • Figure 9-57


  • Quick Quiz:

    1. True/False: Your thighs should be at a 45-degree angle to the ground to allow for good blood flow. (Answer: False)

    2. Make sure there is at least _________ inches of clearance between your calf and the front of your chair. (Answer: 2)


093100 Have you ever contacted a call center that you suspected was located outside the United States?

a. Yes

b. No

c. Not sure

093200 Are you surprised that high-tech jobs, such as software engineering, requiring advanced skills can be handled by offshore firms?

a. Yes

b. No

c. Not sure

093300 Are you against offshoring?

a. Yes

b. No

c. Not sure

Glossary of Key Terms

  • Abacus, 486

  • Alpha test, 504

  • Analytical Engine, 488

  • Apple I, 495

  • Apple II, 495

  • Apple Lisa, 495

  • Apple Macintosh, 496

  • Atanasoff-Berry Computer, 489

  • Beta test, 504

  • Break reminder software, 541

  • Certificates of completion, 515

  • Certification exam, 516

  • Channel conflict, 508

  • Chief information officer, 510

  • Chipmakers, 498

  • Code of ethics, 530

  • COLOSSUS, 490

  • Computer engineer, 512

  • Computer engineering, 514

  • Computer industry, 497

  • Computer operator, 511

  • Computer professional, 510

  • Computer programmer, 511

  • Computer retail store, 506

  • Computer retailers, 498

  • Computer salesperson, 512

  • Computer science, 514

  • Confidentiality, 526

  • Contract worker, 513

  • Database administrator, 511

  • DEC PDP-8, 493

  • de Colmar’s Arithmometer, 487

  • Difference Engine, 488

  • ENIAC, 490

  • Equipment manufacturers, 498

  • Ergonomics, 537

  • First-generation computers, 491

  • Fourth-generation computers, 494

  • Harvard Mark I, 490

  • Hollerith Tabulating Machine, 488

  • IBM 360, 493

  • IBM AS/400, 493

  • IBM PC, 495

  • IBM PC XT, 495

  • Information systems, 514

  • Information technology, 514

  • Information technology industry, 497

  • Job search agent, 521

  • Leibniz Calculator, 487

  • Mail order, 507

  • Manual calculator, 486

  • Manufacturer direct, 507

  • Manufacturing technician, 512

  • Mark-8, 494

  • Market share, 504

  • Market tiers, 505

  • Marketing channels, 506

  • Mechanical calculator, 487

  • Metasearch tool, 521

  • MITS Altair, 494

  • MSRP, 503

  • Napier’s Bones, 487

  • Native resolution, 539

  • Network specialist/administrator, 511

  • Offshoring, 500

  • Online job bank, 520

  • Outsourcing, 499

  • Pascaline, 487

  • Professional ethics, 523

  • Proprietary information, 526

  • Prototype, 489

  • Quality assurance specialist, 512

  • RCA Spectra 70, 493

  • Repetitive stress injury, 536

  • Schickard’s Calculator, 487

  • Second-generation computers, 492

  • Security specialist, 511

  • Service companies, 498

  • Slide rule, 487

  • Software engineering, 515

  • Software publishers, 498

  • Street price, 503

  • Systems analyst, 510

  • Technical support specialist, 511

  • Technical writer, 512

  • Telecommuting, 513

  • Third-generation computers, 493

  • Transistors, 492

  • UNIVAC, 491

  • Vacuum tube, 491

  • Vaporware, 503

  • VAR, 508

  • VisiCalc, 495

  • Web portfolio, 519

  • Web site designer, 511

  • Whistleblowing, 532

  • Xerox Alto, 495

  • Z3, 489

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