Health sciences 365 Chapter 12 – The Trunk & Spinal Column



Download 48.06 Kb.
Date06.08.2017
Size48.06 Kb.
HEALTH SCIENCES 365

Chapter 12 – The Trunk & Spinal Column


Bones of the Trunk, Spinal Column, and Rib Cage




Vertebral Column

General Structures

  1. Body

  2. Pedicle

  3. Transverse Processes

  4. Articular Processes

  5. Lamina

  6. Spinous Process

  7. Vertebral Foreman

  8. Intervertebral Foreman

  • Neural Arch








Cervical (7)

  1. Bifed Spinous Process

  2. Transverse Foreman

  3. Atlas (Articular Fossa)

  4. Axis (Odontoic Process)











Thoracic (12)

  1. Superior & Inferior Costal Facets

  2. Transverse Costal Facet



Lumbar (5)








Sacral (5)

  1. Median Sacral Crest

  2. Sacral Canal

  3. Sacral Foramen

  4. Sacral Hiatus

  5. Superior Articular Facet

  6. Superior Sacral Notch

Coccyx (4)







Sternum

  • Manubrium

  • Clavicular Notch

  • Jugular Notch

  • Sternal Angle

  • Body of Sternum

  • Costal Notches

  • Transverse Ridge

  • Xiphoid Process






Ribs

  • True (7)

  • False (3)

  • Floating (2)

  • Head

  • Neck

- Articulating facet

  • Tubercle

    • Articular part

    • Nonarticular part

  • Superior Border

  • Inferior Border

  • Costal Groove

  • Shaft

  • Costal Angle









Joints & Range of Motion of the Vertebral Column

Atlantooccipital (condyloidial)

  • Occiptial condyles of skull sitting on the articular fossa of the atlas

  • Approx. 15° flexion/extension


Atlantoaxial (trochoid)

  • Rotation of atlas (C1) around the fingerlike process (odontoid process - dens) of the axis (C2) during rotation of the head

  • 75° rotation, 14° extension, 24° lateral flexion


Vertebral Facet Joints (articulation between the superior & inferior articular processes)
Intervertebral Disks

Acts as cushions and shock absorbers and produces the natural curves of the spines



  • Annulus Fibrosus

  • Nucleus Pulposus

  • Intervertebral Discs and Movement

    • During bending

    • During compression loads

    • Nutrient supply




Ligaments





Ligamentum Nuchae

  • Connects spinous processes, runs from external occipital protuberance to C7


Supraspinal

  • Connects tips of spinous process from C7 to sacrum


Ligamentum Flavum

  • Connects lamina from adjacent vertebrae from axis to sacrum


Interspinal

  • Connects inner surface of spinous processes of adjacent vertebrae


Intertransverse

  • Connects transverse processes of adjacent vertebrae


Anterior Longitudinal

  • Connects adjacent vertebral bodies, runs from axis to sacrum on anterior aspect


Posterior Longitudinal

  • Connects adjacent vertebral bodies, runs from axis to sacrum on posterior aspect



Movements & Range of Motion (ROM)


Cervical Region: Flexion 45°, Extension 45°, Lateral Flexion 45°, Rotation 60°


Lumbar Region: Flexion 20° 30°, Extension 20° to 30°, Lateral Flexion 35°,

Rotation 45°





Selected Major Muscles of the Spine

Sternocleidomastoid

O. Manubrium

Anteriosuperior surface of medial clavicle

I. Mastoid process

A. ________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________

N. Spinal Accessory





Splenius Cervicis

O. Spinous processes of T3-T6

I. Transverse processes of C1-C3

A. ________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________

N. Cervical nerves 4-8






Splenius Capitis

O. Lower half of ligamentum nuchae, spinous processes C7-T3

I. Mastoid process and occipital bone

A. ________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________

N. Cervical nerves 4-8






Erector Spinae: Spinalis

O. Ligamentum nuchae, spinous process C-7, spinous process T11-12,

spinous process L1-2.

I. Spinous process C2, spinous process T5-12, occipital bone

A. ________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________

N. Spinal nerves





Erector Spinae: Longissimus

O. Posterior/medial iliac crest, thoracolumbar aponeurosis, transverse

processes L1-5, transverse processes T1-5, articular processes C5-7

I. Spinous processes C2-6, transverse processes T1-12, lower 9 ribs,

mastoid process

A. ________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________

N. Spinal nerves






Erector Spinae: Iliocostalis

O. Posterior/medial iliac crest, thoracolumbar aponeurosis, posterior

ribs 3-12

I. Posterior ribs 1-12, transverse processes C4-7

A. ________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________

N. Spinal nerves





Quadratus Lumborum

O. Posterior inner lip of iliac crest

I. Medial inferior surface of 12th rib, transverse processes of L1-4

A. ________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________

N. T12, L1 nerves







Muscles of the Abdominal Wall

Rectus Abdominis

O. Pubic crest, pubic symphysis

I. Styloid process, cartilage of 5th, 6th, 7th ribs

A. ________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________

N. Intercostals T7-T12






External Oblique

O. External surfaces of 5th -12th ribs (dovetailing the Serratus Anterior)

I. Anterior half of iliac crest, Inguinal ligament, pubic crest, fascia of

Rectus Abdominus

A. ________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________

N. Intercostal nerves T8-T12, Iliohypogastic, ilioinguinal nerve





Internal Oblique

O. Inner lip anterior half of iliac crest, upper half of inguinal ligament,

lumbar fascia

I. Inferior borders of 10th -12th ribs, linea alba

A. ________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________

N. Intercostal nerves T8-T12, Iliohypogastic, ilioinguinal nerve





Transverse Abdominis

O. Inner rim of the iliac crest, inner surfaces of ribs 7th – 12th, upper half of

inguinal ligament, lumbar fascia

I. Linea alba, pubic crest, iliopectinal line

A. ________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________

N. Intercostal nerves T7-T12, Iliohypogastic, ilioinguinal nerve








Tendinous Connective Tissue Associated with the Abdominals – connecting or supporting

the abdominal arrangement of muscles in lieu of bony attachments.



  • Linea Alba: __________________________________________________________

  • Linea Semilunaris: ____________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

  • Tendinous Inscriptions: ________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________




Functions of the Abdominal Wall

Abdominal Considerations

Protection ____________________________

Support of Viscera _____________________

Elimination ___________________________

Forced Expiration ______________________

Stabilization of Trunk and Pelvis __________

Trunk Movement ______________________

Parturation ___________________________


Causes for weakness of the abdominal wall

  • Developmental

  • Pathological

Abdominal Ptosis: _____________________

Beever’s Sign: ________________________



Kinesiology of the Abdominal Muscles: List in order the importance or degree of involvement of

the abdominals in the following activities.

_____ Straight leg raises (unilateral) _____ Sit-ups _____ Pull-ups _____ Ambulation

_____ Straight leg raises (bilateral) _____ Push-ups _____ Curl-ups



Lordosis – Excessive anterior curvature of the lumbar spine (Anterior Pelvic Tilt)

  • Relationship of ASIS to PSIS

Causes

  1. Congenital deformity

  2. Poor body mechanics

  3. Muscle imbalance (disuse or disease)

  4. Overtraining in certain sports

  5. Compensatory deformity to a kyphosis

or other deformities of foot, knee, or hip

________________________________



Considerations

  1. More common in tall ectomorphs

  2. More common in child and adolescents

  3. Asymptomatic unless due to trauma

  4. Relationship to low back pain

______________________________

  1. Changes in intervertebral body distance

______________________________

  1. Bony changes uncommon







Loose/Weak Muscles/Ligament

  1. _______________________________

  2. _______________________________

  3. ________________________ ligament




How Strengthen (isolate)?


Pelvic Roll

Tight/Inflexible Muscles/Ligaments

  1. _______________________________

  2. _______________________________

  3. ________________________ ligament




How Stretch (isolate)?




Scoliosis – Lateral deviation(s)/curve(s) of the spine


Causes

  1. Known: (20%) Hemivertebrae,

Congenital spinal deformities, neuron-

muscular problems, leg length difference

cerebral palsey, muscular dystrophy

2. Unknown: Idiopathic (80%)



Considerations

  1. Most common in adolescence 10-18

  2. Onset, typically during puberty

  3. Affects 2% women, .5% men

  4. Usually asymptomatic







Classification: Simple “C”


Classification: Compound “S”





Signs of Scoliosis

  1. Unilateral problems

  2. Rotation of trunk (one shoulder forward)

  3. Contour of trunk (waistline), skin folds

  4. Distance from arm to thorax

  5. Asymmetry of scapula

  6. Deviations of spinous processes

  7. Chest flatness on side of convexity

Adam’s Forward Bend Test

  1. Asymmetry of erector spinae

  2. Rotation of vertebrae with rib

Angulation (Razor back sign)

  1. Level of fingertips

  2. Trunk contour

Download 48.06 Kb.

Share with your friends:




The database is protected by copyright ©ininet.org 2020
send message

    Main page