Skills (to be incorporated into instruction throughout the academic year)
Make connections between the past and the present.
Sequence events in United States history from pre-Columbian times to 1877.
Interpret ideas and events from different historical perspectives.
Interpret patriotic slogans and excerpts from notable speeches and documents.
Summarize the following ideas expressed by the abolitionists in their work to end slavery:
Most abolitionists demanded immediate freeing of the slaves.
Abolitionists believed that slavery was
Cruel and inhumane
A violation of the principles of democracy.
Identity the roles of the following abolitionist leaders:
William Lloyd Garrison
Explain the following main ideas of the suffrage movement, which helped women gain equal rights:
Supporters declared that “All men and women are created equal.”
Supporters believed that women were deprived of basic rights.
Denied educational opportunities, especially higher education
Denied equal opportunities in business
Limited in rights to own property.
Describe the following strong women who led the campaign for women’s suffrage before the Civil War and continued after the war had ended:
Isabel Sojourner Truth
Susan B. Anthony
Elizabeth Cady Stanton.
Below is an annotated list of Internet resources for this organizing topic. Copyright restrictions may exist for the material on some Web sites. Please note and abide by any such restrictions.
American Memory: The Frederick Douglass Papers at the Library of Congress: Historical Collections for the National Digital Library. Library of Congress. <http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/doughtml/doughome.html>. This site presents the papers of the 19th African American abolitionist.
“Angelina Grimke.” Spartacus Educational. <http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USASgrimke.htm>. This site provides information about Angelina and Sarah Grimke, who campaigned against slavery in the 19th century.
“Declaration of Sentiments,” The National Park Service site. <http://www.nps.gov/wori/declaration.htm>. This site provides the full text of the Declaration of Sentiments.
Carnell, Brian. “The Reality of Men’s and Women’s Wages.” EquityFeminism.Com, April 19, 2001.<http://www.equityfeminism.com/articles/2001/000051.html>. This document contains information about increasing parity between the wages of men and women.
Gilbert, Olive. “The Narrative of Sojourner Truth.” American Studies at the University of Virginia. <http://xroads.virginia.edu/~HYPER/TRUTH/cover.html>. This document provides a detailed history about Sojourner Truth.
“The Life of Harriet Tubman.” New York History Net. <http://www.nyhistory.com/harriettubman/life.htm>. This site gives details about the life of Harriet Tubman, an African American woman who worked to free millions of slaves.
National Foundation for Women Legislators. <http://www.womenlegislators.org>. This site provides information about the foundation that exists to assist women leaders in the process of legislative debate, networking, re-elections, public opinion molding, and leadership.
“Projection of Education Statistics to 2007.” National Center for Educational Statistics Electronic Catalog. <http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=97382>. This report provides projections for key education statistics. It includes statistics on enrollment, graduates, classroom teachers, and expenditures in elementary and secondary schools and institutions of higher education.
Sojourner Truth: Memorial Statue Project. <http://www.noho.com/sojourner/>. This site is devoted the former slave who in the mid 1800s was a nationally known advocate for equality and justice.
“Teaching with Documents Lesson Plan: Woman Suffrage and the 19th Amendment.” U.S. National Archives and Records Administration — Digital Classroom. <http://www.archives.gov/digital_classroom/lessons/woman_suffrage/script.html>. This lesson is a play entitled “Failure Is Impossible” by Rosemary H. Knower; it was written for the 75th anniversary of the 19th amendment.
Virginia Standards of Learning Assessments for the 2001 History and Social Science Standards of Learning. United States History to 1877: Test Blueprint. Virginia Department of Education, 2003/04. <http://www.pen.k12.va.us/VDOE/Assessment/HistoryBlueprints03/2002Blueprint3USI.pdf>. This site provides assessment information for the course in United States History to 1877.
“William Lloyd Garrison.” Africans in America: Judgment Day. Public Broadcasting Service. <http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4p1561.html>. This site profiles the work of the editor of The Liberator, an anti-slavery newspaper.
“William Lloyd Garrison.” Boston African-American National Historic Site. The National Park Service. <http://www.nps.gov/boaf/williamlloydgarrison.htm>. This site gives details about the work of the editor of The Liberator, an anti-slavery newspaper.
1. Explain to students that in the 1830s and 1840s, abolitionists became increasingly outspoken about ending slavery. Abolitionists argued that slavery was morally wrong, cruel, and inhumane and that it was a violation of democratic principles. Active abolitionists were a minority in the north. Their attempts to end slavery were sometimes met with violence — e.g., William Lloyd Garrison was dragged through the streets of Boston. Abolitionists gave lectures, distributed pamphlets, and petitioned Congress in their attempts to end slavery.
2. Assign an abolitionist, such as Harriet Tubman, William Lloyd Garrison, Frederick Douglass, Sojourner Truth, or Angelina and Sarah Grimke, to pairs or larger groups of students. Have students use their textbooks, library resources, and/or Internet sites to research biographical information about their assigned abolitionist. Helpful Web sites on these individuals are listed in the Sample Resources section for this organizing topic.
3. After students have completed their research, have them compose a eulogy to commemorate their assigned abolitionist. Each eulogy should contain the following elements:
Background biographical information, such as place and date of birth and family background
The overall impact that the person’s life had on American history.
You may wish to present these elements in worksheet format so that students will have a structure to guide them in their writing.
4. Ask one student from each pair or group to present the group’s eulogy to the class. Encourage students to read their eulogies in a dramatic and emotional manner.
5. Review the material with students. List the names of the researched abolitionists on the board, and have students provide information they remember from the various eulogies.
Session 2: Varying Opinions about the Abolitionist Movement
Information from previous session
1. Emphasize to students that abolitionists varied in their approach to ending slavery. Some wished to use moral persuasion, others wanted to work through political channels, and still others wished to use violence. Draw the continuum pictured below on the board or on an overhead transparency. Explain the purpose of a continuum.