to whose ultimate decision both Zwinglians and Lutherans professed
themselves at all times anxious to submit their doctrines and practice."
He added the unpalatable advice that
1 "Con mala sodisfazione di tutta la Francia, perchè pare
ad ogniuno che Clemente pontefice abbia gabbato questo rè
cristianissimo." Marino Giustiniano (1535), Relaz. Ven., Albèri, i. 191.
2 Catharine de' Medici was born April 13, 1519.
the matters in dispute be considered by a free and impartial council, and
declared that, when the council had rendered its verdict, he would spare no
pains to sustain it. All the usual pontifical artifices proved abortive. Francis,
while valuing highly the friendship of Rome, was not willing to forego the
advantages of alliance with the Elector of Saxony and the Landgrave of Hesse.1
While the fickle monarch was thus drawn in opposite directions by
conflicting political considerations--at one time strengthening the hands of the Protestant princes of Germany, at another, making common cause with the Pope
--the same diversity characterized the internal condition of France.
Execution of Jean de Caturce at Toulouse.
At Toulouse, the seat of one of most noted parliaments, Jean de Caturce,
a lawyer of ability, was put to death by slow fire in the summer of
1532. His unpardonable offence was that he had once made a "Lutheran"
exhortation, and that, in the merry-making on the Fête des
Rois--Epiphany--he had recommended that the prayer, "May Christ reign
in our hearts!" be substituted for the senseless cry, "The king drinks!"
No more ample ground of accusation was needed in a city where the
luckless wight who failed to take off his cap before an image, or fall
on his knees when the bell rang out at "Ave Maria," was sure to be set
upon as a heretic.2
1 These interesting particulars are contained in a MS.
letter in the Zurich Archives (probably written by Oswald Myconius to
Joachim Vadian). The writer had them directly from the mouth of
Guillaume du Bellay, the French ambassador, who was with the king at the
interview of Marseilles. Du Bellay also gave some details of his own
conversations with Clement. The latter freely admitted that there were
some things that displeased him in the mass, but naturally wanted so
profitable an institution to be treated tenderly and cautiously.
Correspond. des réformateurs, iii. 183-186.
2 The truth respecting Toulouse probably lies about midway
between the censures of the Huguenot and the eulogy of the Roman
Catholic historian. According to the author of the Histoire
ecclésiastique, the parliament was the most sanguinary in France, the
university careless of letters, the population jealous of any
proficiency in liberal studies. According to Florimond de Ræmond,
quod tractus fuerit ad superiorem Judicem ... summus suus magistratus,
et, eam ob rem, censet Facultas ut ejus accusatores et qui
supplicationem superiori Judici porrexerunt, citentur in facie universitatis, causas rei allaturi."
Bullæus, vi. 238, apud Herminjard, iii. 117, note. See many interesting particulars respecting
the privileges claimed by the university, in Pasquier, Recherches de la France, liv. iii. ch. 29.
2 He was to have been thrown into the Conciergerie. See
Beza's preface to Calvin's Com. on Joshua, 1565, apud Herminjard, iii.
118, note. Parliament complained to Francis, and the latter in his
reply, Lyons, Dec. 10, 1533, ordered proceedings to be instituted for
the capture of Cop and the punishment of the person who had facilitated
his flight by giving him warning. Francis to parliament, Herminjard,
iii. 118. A reward of 300 crowns was accordingly offered for the
apprehension of the fugitive rector, dead or alive. Martin Bucer to Amb.
Blaurer, January, 1534, Herminjard, iii. 130.
and vigorous intellect which, within less than two years, conceived the plan
of and matured the most orderly and perfect theological treatise of the
Reformation—the "Institution Chrétienne." Between the sketch of Christian
Philosophy in the discourse written for the rector, and the Christian Institutes,
there is, nevertheless, a contrast too striking to be overlooked. And if
the salutation to the Virgin, in the exordium, was actually penned by
Calvin, as is not improbable, the change in his religious convictions
would appear to have been as marked and rapid as the development of his
intellectual faculties. At any rate, the recent discovery of the
complete manuscript of Nicholas Cop's oration ranks among the most
opportune and welcome of antiquarian successes in our times.1
He seeks safety in flight.
Calvin was soon reduced to the necessity of following the rector's
address had become the public talk. The young scholar--he was only in
his twenty-fifth year--sought for by the sanguinary lieutenant-criminel, Jean
Morin, barely made good his escape. Proceeding to Angoulême, he enjoyed,
under the friendly roof of Louis de Tillet, a short period of quiet and an
opportunity to pursue his favorite studies.2 Francis rejects roughly the intercession of the Bernese.
The incessant representations made to the king respecting the rapid
progress of "Lutheran" doctrines in France, and perhaps also the
occurrence of such incidents as that just mentioned, seem to have been
the cause of the adoption of new measures against the Reformation and
its professors. Already, in October, Francis had written a rough answer
to the Council of the Canton of
1 A fragment of Cop's address--about the first third--was
discovered by M. Jules Bonnet in the MSS. of the Library of Geneva,
bearing on the margin the note: "Hæc Joannes Calvinus propria manu
descripsit, et est auctor." This portion is printed in Herminjard,
Corresp. des réformateurs, iii. 418-420, and Calv. Opera, Baum, Cunitz,
et Reuss, ix. 873-876. Merle d'Aubigné used it in his Hist. of the Ref.
in the time of Calvin, ii. 198, etc. Still more fortunate than M.
Bonnet, Messrs. Baum, Cunitz, and Reuss very recently found a complete
copy of the same address in the archives of one of the churches of
Strasbourg. The newly found portion is of great interest. Calvini Op., x. (1872), 30-36.
2 Calvin to Fr. Daniel (1534), Bonnet, i. 41; Histoire ecclés., i. 9.
Berne, expressing extreme surprise that they had ventured to intercede for the
relatives of Guillaume Farel, accused of heresy, and to beg him to give no credit in this matter either to the royal officers or to the inquisitors of the faith.1
And he had used these significant words: "Desiring the preservation of
the name of very Christian king, acquired for us by our predecessors,
we have nothing in the world more at heart than the entire extirpation
of heresies, and nothing could induce us to suffer them to take root in
our kingdom. Of this you may rest well assured, and leave us to proceed
against them, without your giving yourselves any solicitude. For
neither your prayers, nor those of any one else whomsoever, could be of