Homelessness and housing reform Hume Moreland



Download 127.51 Kb.
Date05.08.2017
Size127.51 Kb.



Homelessness and housing reform

Hume Moreland

Contents


About this area profile 3

Overview 3

Socioeconomic status 3

Country of birth 4

Aboriginal population 4

Labour force 5

Income 5


Education 5

Family violence 6

Characteristics of private dwellings 6

Affordable private rental 7



Homelessness and housing service map 8

Homelessness assistance funding 8

Homelessness assistance services 8

Related initiatives 12

Social housing properties 12

Homelessness and housing service usage 14

Gender 14

Aboriginal people 14

Domestic and family violence 15

Housing outcomes for people seeking homelessness assistance 15

Public housing waiting list 15

Bond loans 15

List of tables


Table 1: SEIFA rankings for Hume Moreland by LGA, 2011 4

Table 2: Hume Moreland homelessness assistance funding 2015–16 8

Table 3: Homelessness assistance in Hume Moreland – initial assessment and planning 8

Table 4: Homelessness assistance in Hume Moreland – early intervention 9

Table 5: Homelessness assistance in Hume Moreland – generalist support 9

Table 6: Homelessness assistance in Hume Moreland – youth support and refuges 10

Table 7: Homelessness assistance in Hume Moreland – family violence support 11

Table 8: Homelessness assistance in Hume Moreland – services for Aboriginal people 11

Table 9: Homelessness assistance in Hume Moreland – brokerage 12

Table 10: Long-term social housing stock in Hume Moreland, by housing program, December 2015 12

Table 11: Homelessness assistance in Hume Moreland – THM properties June 2015 13

Table 12: Housing situation upon entry / after exiting services, Hume Moreland, by household type, 1 July 2015 to 31 March 2016 15

List of figures

Figure 1: Households in Hume Moreland and Victoria by household type, 2011 3

Figure 2: Distribution of Aboriginal people across Hume Moreland area by LGA, 2011 4

Figure 3: Weekly household income, Hume Moreland and Victoria, 2011 5

Figure 4: Family violence incident rate per 100,000 by LGA, Hume Moreland and Victoria, 2014 6

Figure 5: Occupied private dwellings in Hume Moreland and Victoria by number of bedrooms, 2011 7

Figure 6: Occupied private dwellings in Hume Moreland and Victoria by ownership status, 2011 7

Figure 7: Percentage of people seeking assistance by Aboriginal status, Hume Moreland and Victoria, 2015–16 14


About this area profile


The Victorian Government is reforming homelessness and social housing services. A new way of working will be developed in three launch sites across Victoria (Brimbank Melton, Hume Moreland and Inner Gippsland) and progressively rolled out across the state.

This profile provides demographic, homelessness and housing information for the Hume Moreland area. The data was sourced from the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) 2011 Census and from Department of Health and Human Services data.


Overview


Hume Moreland is in metropolitan Melbourne and is made up of two local government areas (LGA) – Hume and Moreland.

At the 2011 Census the population of Hume Moreland was 314,803 people, or 5.9 per cent of the overall population in Victoria. Of these, 51 per cent were female and 49 per cent were male – the same as the statewide distribution.

On average, Hume Moreland households consisted of three people, with two children per family.

Figure 1 shows the composition of households in Hume Moreland for each LGA. Moreland had a much lower proportion than Hume of family households, and a much greater proportion of single-person and group households.

In Hume 82 per cent of households were families, 16 per cent were singles and 2 per cent were groups.

In Moreland 65 per cent of households were families, 27 per cent were singles and 8 per cent were groups.

In Victoria 71 per cent of households were families, 25 per cent were singles and 4 per cent were groups.

Figure 1: Households in Hume Moreland and Victoria by household type, 2011





Source: ABS Census 2011

Socioeconomic status


In 2011 the median weekly household income in Hume Moreland was $1,214, which was on par with the Victorian median of $1,216. The median weekly rent was $297, which was slightly higher than the Victorian median of $277.

Index of socioeconomic advantage and disadvantage


The Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas (SEIFA) rankings1 for Hume Moreland in 2011 are at Table 1. The SEIFA for Hume shows that it was one of the more disadvantaged LGAs in Australia.

Table 1: SEIFA rankings for Hume Moreland by LGA, 2011



LGA

SEIFA ranking

Hume

12/80

Moreland

46/80

Source: ABS Census 2011

Country of birth


In the 2011 Census, 61 per cent of people in Hume Moreland were born in Australia. This is compared with 69 per cent for all Victoria.

The most common places of birth outside Australia were Italy (4 per cent), India (3 per cent) and Lebanon (2 per cent). In Hume 4 per cent of people were born in Iraq and 4 per cent were born in Turkey.


Aboriginal population


The 2011 Census counted 1,752 Aboriginal people in Hume Moreland, which comprised 0.6 per cent of the total population of the area. This is slightly lower than the percentage of Aboriginal people in all Victoria, which was 0.7 per cent (37,990 people).

The distribution of Aboriginal people across the two LGAs in 2011 is at Figure 2.

1,049 Aboriginal people (60 per cent) lived in Hume.

703 Aboriginal people (40 per cent) lived in Moreland.

Figure 2: Distribution of Aboriginal people across Hume Moreland area by LGA, 2011



Source: ABS Census 2011

Labour force


There were 150,281 people in Hume Moreland who reported being in the labour force in the week before Census night 2011. This represents 50 per cent of the total population in the area, which is the same as the statewide rate.

Of all the people in the labour force, 60 per cent reported being in full-time work, compared with 50 per cent for all Victoria. 28 per cent were in part-time work, 6 per cent were ‘away from work’ and 6 per cent were unemployed. Hume had a higher rate of unemployment (7 per cent) than Moreland (6 per cent).


Income


Figure 3 shows the percentage of households in Hume Moreland with a weekly income of less than $600 and more than $3,000. This data shows that Hume was slightly disadvantaged with respect to income, compared with Victoria overall.

In Hume 22 per cent of households had a weekly household income of less than $600 and 7 per cent of households had a weekly income of more than $3,000.

In Moreland 25 per cent of households had a weekly household income of less than $600 and 11 per cent of households had a weekly income of more than $3,000.

In Victoria 24 per cent of households had a weekly income of less than $600 and 10 per cent of households had a weekly income of more than $3,000.

Figure 3: Weekly household income, Hume Moreland and Victoria, 2011



Source: ABS Census Data 2011

Education


According to the 2011 Census, 32 per cent of the population in Hume Moreland were attending an educational institution. Of these, 5 per cent were in primary school, 24 per cent were in secondary school and 23 per cent were in technical or tertiary institutions. These rates are very similar to the statewide rates. In terms of participation in tertiary or technical education, Hume (17 per cent) had a somewhat lower rate than all Victorian (23 per cent), but Moreland (30 per cent) had a somewhat higher rate.

Family violence


Figure 4 shows the rates of family violence across Hume Moreland in 2014. Whereas Hume (1,539 per 100,000) had a much higher rate than Victoria overall (1,115), the rate in Moreland (894) was somewhat lower.

Figure 4: Family violence incident rate per 100,000 by LGA, Hume Moreland and Victoria, 2014





Source: Royal Commission into Family Violence Victoria Police data July 2009 – June 2014

Characteristics of private dwellings


The following figures show the characteristics of private dwellings across Hume Moreland in 2011.

Occupied dwellings


In Hume 94 per cent of private dwellings were occupied, and in Moreland 92 per cent of private dwellings were occupied. This is slightly higher than Victoria overall (89 per cent).

Number of bedrooms


Most occupied private dwellings in Hume Moreland were three-bedroom homes, although Hume had a fair proportion of homes that had four or more bedrooms (33.3 per cent), and Moreland had a fair proportion of two-bedroom homes (31.7 per cent).

Figure 5 shows the number of bedrooms in occupied private dwellings for Hume Moreland and Victoria.



In Hume 1.3 per cent of occupied properties had one bedroom, 6.9 per cent had two bedrooms, 56.2 per cent had three bedrooms and 33.3 per cent had four or more bedrooms.

In Moreland 6.5 per cent of occupied properties had one bedroom, 31.7 per cent had two bedrooms, 45.1 per cent had three bedrooms and 13.9 per cent had four or more bedrooms.

In Victoria 4.6 per cent of properties had one bedroom, 19.1 per cent had two bedrooms, 47.2 per cent had three bedrooms and 26.8 per cent had four or more bedrooms.

Figure 5: Occupied private dwellings in Hume Moreland and Victoria by number of bedrooms, 2011



Source: ABS Census 2011

Ownership status


Figure 6 shows the ownership status of private dwellings in Hume Moreland and Victoria. Hume had a much higher proportion of private dwellings with mortgages (47 per cent) and a somewhat lower proportion of dwellings that were owned outright (29 per cent) compared with Moreland and Victoria. Moreland had a much higher proportion of rented dwellings than Hume or Victoria.

In Hume 28.9 per cent of occupied private dwellings were owned outright, 47.2 per cent had mortgages and 20.4 per cent were rented.

In Moreland 34.0 per cent of occupied private dwellings were owned outright, 28.8 per cent had mortgages and 33.6 per cent were rented.

In Victoria 34.2 per cent of occupied private dwellings were owned outright, 35.9 per cent had mortgages and 26.5 per cent were rented.

Figure 6: Occupied private dwellings in Hume Moreland and Victoria by ownership status, 2011



Source: ABS Census 2011

Affordable private rental


In December 2015, according to the department’s rental report, there were 306 rental properties in Hume Moreland considered to be ‘affordable’ – that is, where the rent was no more than 30 per cent of the household’s gross income. The affordability rate in Moreland was much lower than Victoria overall, where 19 per cent of properties were considered to be affordable.

Of the total rental properties in Hume, 23 per cent (26 properties) were considered affordable.

Of the total rental properties in Moreland, only 2.3 per cent (46 properties) were considered affordable.

Homelessness and housing service map

Homelessness assistance funding


The department funds the following homelessness assistance programs in Victoria:

Supported Accommodation Assistance Program (SAAP)

Transitional Housing Management (THM) program

Housing Establishment Fund (HEF)

National Partnership Agreement on Homelessness (NPAH)

brokerage funding through SAAP and the THM program.

Table 2 shows the homelessness assistance funding for Hume Moreland provided by the department in 2015–16.

Table 2: Hume Moreland homelessness assistance funding 2015–16



Program

Funding

SAAP

$7,972,744

NPAH

$4,043,192*

THM

$1,768,240

HEF

$414,353

Total

$14,198,529

* Innovation Action Project ($2,477,938) funding is included in the NPAH funding.

Source: Department of Health and Human Services

Homelessness assistance services


The homelessness assistance programs and services provided in Hume Moreland are outlined below.

Initial assessment and planning


Initial assessment and planning is delivered at designated access points when people first present – or re-present – for homelessness assistance. It comprises:

screening to determine whether homelessness services are the appropriate response for the person

an initial needs-based assessment

referral to appropriate housing, support services and material aid

monitoring the person’s circumstances and situation while they are waiting to access services.

The funding provided for Hume Moreland during 2015–16 is outlined in Table 3.

Table 3: Homelessness assistance in Hume Moreland – initial assessment and planning

Service type

Location

Provider

Access point – general

Glenroy

VincentCare Victoria

Source: Department of Health and Human Services, 2016

Early intervention programs


Table 4 shows programs available in Hume Moreland designed to intervene when people are at risk of homelessness, to prevent them from becoming homeless.

The Social Housing Advocacy and Support Program supports public housing tenants to remain in their tenancies. This program is funded by the department through a different funding line.



HomeConnect works with people at risk of homelessness by providing support to stabilise existing housing or to find more appropriate housing. The program supports clients with chronic ill health and mental illness, and provides education and employment options, as well as wellbeing and living skills.

Table 4: Homelessness assistance in Hume Moreland – early intervention



Service type

Provider

Social Housing Advocacy and Support Program

Launch Housing

Innovation Action Project – HomeConnect

VincentCare Victoria

Source: Department of Health and Human Services, 2016

Support services


Transitional support provides case management support, which may include counselling, crisis resolution, personal care, life skills training, information and advocacy, or help to access appropriate long-term housing, employment and training.

The Accommodation Options for Families program comprises flexible support packages and private rental brokerage. Flexible packages are available for families and individuals to access short and medium-term accommodation, as well as support for up to 14 months, leading to long-term secure housing. The length and intensity of support is based on people’s needs. Intensive support is available for families with complex needs, and shorter interventions (from six weeks to six months) are available for families with less complex needs.



A Place to Call Home provides 68 properties and 12-month support packages to families. The properties are allocated to the THM program. Families living in these properties, together with the properties themselves, are transferred to public housing so that the families can stay there in the long term. Support continues for two months after the transfer to ensure that families develop strong links with their local community.

Adult initiatives under the NPAH provide assessment, referral and case-managed support that includes counselling, crisis resolution, personal care, life skills training, information and advocacy or assistance with accessing appropriate long-term housing, employment and training.

Table 5 shows the generalist support available in Hume Moreland through homelessness assistance funding.

Table 5: Homelessness assistance in Hume Moreland – generalist support

Service type

Provider

Transitional support – general

Launch Housing

Merri Outreach Support Services

The Salvation Army


Accommodation Options for Families

The Salvation Army

A Place to Call Home

Merri Outreach Support Services

Intensive case management – adults

The Salvation Army

Source: Department of Health and Human Services, 2016

Homeless youth services


Table 6 outlines the youth services available in Hume Moreland. Youth-specific services are funded through SAAP and the THM program, and four youth programs are auspiced under the NPAH:

The Reform, Restructure and Expand initiative, better known as the Enhanced Youth Refuge Response, builds on and expands existing youth services reform in Victoria.



Leaving Care focuses on intervening earlier to ensure young people have a planned approach to their transition from care to prevent them from becoming homeless.

Family Reconciliation intervenes early with young people aged 16 to 18 years who are living at home and who are at imminent risk of homelessness or newly homeless. Family Reconciliation helps young people to resolve conflicts and re-establish relationships with their families and others who play an important role in their lives.

Employment, Education and Training comprises:

integrated models of accommodation and support that provide sustainable education, employment and housing outcomes for young people between 16 and 25 who are at risk of, or experiencing, homelessness. These young people have the capacity to participate in education and training but cannot, because of a range of structural and other barriers including lack of support, lack of understanding of services and a lack of connectedness

targeted help for young people to re-engage in education and employment opportunities and develop independent living skills.

Table 6: Homelessness assistance in Hume Moreland – youth support and refuges



Service type

Provider

Outreach support

VincentCare Victoria

Hope Street Youth and Family Services

Women's Information Support and Housing in the North Inc.


Interim Support for Young people that Really Counts

Hope Street Youth and Family Services

Links to the Private Rental Market

VincentCare Victoria

Homeless children’s initiatives

Merri Outreach Support Services

Reform, Restructure and Expand – enhanced youth refuge response brokerage

Merri Outreach Support Services

The Salvation Army



Leaving Care

The Salvation Army

Family Reconciliation

Hope Street Youth and Family Services

Employment, Education and Training

Hope Street Youth and Family Services

Victorian Aboriginal Child Care Agency Co-operative Ltd



Innovation Action Project – Next Steps, youth justice support and transitional housing

Jesuit Social Services

Youth Foyer

Launch Housing

Youth refuge

Hope Street Youth and Family Services

Source: Department of Health and Human Services, 2016

Family violence services


Table 7 shows the family violence services available in Hume Moreland. It does not include services funded through the department’s child protection and family services portfolio.

Family violence initiatives under the NPAH aim to support people when they experience family violence so that they retain or gain long-term housing and independence. As far as possible, services maintain women and children safely in their own homes, and coordinate with justice responses to manage the perpetrator.

The Family Violence Stage 2: Intensive Case Management program helps people at risk of homelessness due to family violence to access and maintain long-term housing. It operates in a range of accommodation settings and uses an assertive, intensive case-management model to build on the person’s strengths and aspirations.

There are no family violence refuges located in Hume Moreland. People are referred to refuges in neighbouring areas – in aggregate these can house 12 unrelated families at any one time.

Table 7: Homelessness assistance in Hume Moreland – family violence support



Service type

Provider

Transitional support

Women's Information Support and Housing in the North Inc.

Family violence initiatives – Crossroads

The Salvation Army

Family violence initiatives – Support for Women and Children to Remain Safely in the Family Home

The Salvation Army

Family Violence Stage 2: Intensive Case Management

Victorian Aboriginal Child Care Agency Co-operative Ltd

Source: Department of Health and Human Services, 2016

Services for Aboriginal people


Table 8 outlines the services in Hume Moreland for Aboriginal people.

Table 8: Homelessness assistance in Hume Moreland – services for Aboriginal people



Service type

Provider

Family Violence Stage 2: Intensive Case Management

Victorian Aboriginal Child Care Agency Co-operative Ltd

Homeless Youth Services – Employment, Education and Training

Victorian Aboriginal Child Care Agency Co-operative Ltd

Source: Department of Health and Human Services, 2016

Brokerage


The Housing Establishment Fund provides flexible funds to help homeless people to access crisis, longer term or alternative housing options, or to help them to maintain their existing housing.

Private rental brokerage is available for families and individuals to establish or maintain a private rental tenancy. Brokerage funds can be used for:

rent in advance

bonds (where the person is not eligible for the department’s bond program)

utility costs and purchase of furniture

alleviation of rental debt

rental subsidies (for a limited time)

support to obtain and maintain private rental accommodation.

Table 9 lists stand-alone brokerage funding. Several programs offer brokerage as part of their services.

Table 9: Homelessness assistance in Hume Moreland – brokerage

Brokerage type

Provider

Housing Establishment Fund

Merri Outreach Support Services

Hope Street Youth and Family Services

The Salvation Army

VincentCare Victoria

Women’s Information Support and Housing in the North Inc.


Private rental brokerage

Berry Street

VincentCare Victoria



Youth brokerage

Merri Outreach Support Services

The Salvation Army



Adult intensive case management brokerage

The Salvation Army

Source: Department of Health and Human Services, 2016

Related initiatives


Hume Moreland Services Connect Partnership, led by Kildonan UnitingCare

Two Innovation Action Projects – HomeConnect Hub and Next Steps


Social housing properties


At the end of 2015–16 Hume Moreland had a total of 4,216 social housing properties, comprising both public and community-managed housing, and incorporating crisis, transitional and long-term housing.

Long-term social housing properties


At the end of 2014–15 Hume Moreland had 4,015 long-term social housing properties. Table 10 provides a breakdown of the properties by program.

Table 10: Long-term social housing stock in Hume Moreland, by housing program, December 2015



Housing program

Housing provider

Number of properties

Public housing

Department of Health and Human Services

3,708

Long-term community housing

Community Housing (Vic.) Ltd

Housing Choices Australia

Yarra Community Housing


187

National Rental Affordability Scheme – community housing provider owned

Community Housing (Vic.) Ltd

Housing Choices Australia



120




Total

4,015

Sources: THM property data from the Accommodation and Support December 2015 property reconciliation; Community housing and National Rental Affordability Scheme data provided through the department’s Community Housing Survey 2014–15.

Transitional housing and tenancy administration


The department allocates properties to THM providers and provides tenancy administration funding so that they can manage the properties and provide tenancy support. THMs are required to maintain all properties to an appropriate standard.

Joined-up initiatives (JUI) combine THM properties with specialist support from outside the homelessness service system to address the issues that have contributed to a person’s homelessness or housing crisis.

There were 201 THM properties in Hume Moreland at the end of 2014–15. VincentCare Victoria manages most of the properties, but a small number of properties are managed by statewide housing services. Table 11 provides details about THM properties in Hume Moreland.

Table 11: Homelessness assistance in Hume Moreland – THM properties June 2015



Property type

Number of properties

VincentCare Victoria




Crisis housing

5

General transitional housing

127

A Place to Call Home

1

Support for Young People that Really Counts

17

Supportive Housing Families NPAH

2

JUI Alcohol and Drug Supported Accommodation Program

10

JUI Alcohol and Drug Supported Accommodation Program – Youth

4

JUI Homelessness and Drug Dependency Program

4

JUI Corrections Housing Pathways Initiative

2

JUI Neighbourhood Justice Centre

1

JUI Leaving Care Housing and Support Initiative

2

JUI Mental Health Housing Pathways Initiative

2

Total

177

Statewide housing services




Women’s Housing Ltd

20

Housing Choices Australia

4

Grand total

201

Source: Department of Health and Human Services, 2016

Homelessness and housing service usage


The data in this section has been derived from:

the Victorian Homelessness Data Collection, which is collected by homelessness assistance providers and administered by the department

public housing waiting list data

bond loan data.

The accuracy of the homelessness data for Hume Moreland is compromised by the fact that only 54 per cent of funded homelessness assistance services in the area submitted their data in February 2016.

Gender


In the first eight months of 2015–16, there were 3,652 people in Hume Moreland who were helped to address and prevent homelessness. This represents 1.2 per cent of the total population of Hume Moreland, compared with 1.4 per cent throughout Victoria. Of these people, 53 per cent were female and 47 per cent were male.

Aboriginal people


In the first eight months of 2015–16, there were 220 people in Hume Moreland who identified as Aboriginal and were helped to address and prevent homelessness. This represents 12.6 per cent of the total population in Hume Moreland who identified as Aboriginal in the 2011 Census. This is very high compared with the proportion of non-Aboriginal people in Hume Moreland seeking assistance, which was 1.1 per cent. In Victoria, 1.4 per cent of the total population (Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal) sought homelessness assistance. Figure 7 shows this disparity.

Figure 7: Percentage of people seeking assistance by Aboriginal status, Hume Moreland and Victoria, 2015–16





Source: Victorian Homelessness Data Collection 2015–16, Department of Health and Human Services

Aboriginal people represented 0.6 per cent of the total population of Hume Moreland, and they made up 6 per cent of all the people in Hume Moreland who sought homelessness assistance in 2015–16. This is similar to the Victorian figure of 6.4 per cent (4,947 Aboriginal people).


Domestic and family violence


In the first eight months of 2015–16, domestic and family violence was recorded as the main reason for seeking homelessness assistance for 242 people in Hume Moreland. This represents 7 per cent of people in the area who sought assistance. The percentage for all Victoria (27.3 per cent) was significantly higher.

Of these 242 people, 136 (56 per cent) were already homeless and 106 (44 per cent) were at risk.


Housing outcomes for people seeking homelessness assistance


When people seek homelessness assistance, their housing situation is recorded at the beginning and end of the service period. Table 12 shows the housing circumstances of people in Hume Moreland before and after a period of homelessness assistance. The data suggests that singles are less likely to be housed at the end of a service period than any other group.

Table 12: Housing situation upon entry / after exiting services, Hume Moreland, by household type, 1 July 2015 to 31 March 2016



Household type

At risk / homeless

Homeless / homeless

At risk / housed

Homeless / housed

Outcome not known

Total

Lone person

5%

57%

29%

4%

6%

100%

One parent with child(ren)

3%

46%

37%

11%

4%

100%

Couple with child(ren)

2%

45%

45%

6%

3%

100%

Couple without child(ren)

2%

45%

42%

2%

9%

100%

Other family

1%

37%

47%

8%

7%

100%

Group

1%

23%

57%

14%

5%

100%

Don't know household type

3%

13%

20%

0%

65%

100%

Total households

3%

47%

37%

7%

6%

100%

Note: Unweighted data

Source: Victorian Homelessness Data Collection 2015–16, Department of Health and Human Services

Public housing waiting list


Departmental data shows that in March 2016 there were 513 people in Hume Moreland on the early housing waiting list. This represents 5 per cent of all the people in Victoria on the early housing waiting list (9,866 people).

In 2014–15 in Hume Moreland 148 people were allocated public housing through the early housing waiting list. This represents 4 per cent of all the people in Victoria who were allocated public housing through the early housing waiting list (3,322 people).

People on the early housing waiting list were much more likely to receive public housing than those on the general housing waiting list. In March 2016 there were 1,348 people in Hume Moreland on the general waiting list. Yet in 2014–15, only seven people in Hume Moreland on the general waiting list were allocated a public housing property.

Bond loans


In 2014–15 in Hume Moreland 620 people received bond loans from the department. This represents 6 per cent of all Victorians who received bond assistance.

To receive this publication in an accessible format phone (03) 9096 5578, using the National Relay Service 13 36 77 if required, or email ellen.sheridan@dhhs.vic.gov.au



Authorised and published by the Victorian Government, 1 Treasury Place, Melbourne.
© State of Victoria, Department of Health and Human Services, June 2016
Where the term ‘Aboriginal’ is used it refers to both Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. Indigenous is retained when it is part of the title of a report, program or quotation.
Available on the homelessness and housing reform launch sites page on the department’s website at .

1 The ABS created the SEIFA from social and economic census information. The index ranks geographic areas across Australia in relation to their relative socioeconomic advantage and disadvantage, which is defined in terms of people’s access to material and social resources and their ability to participate in society. A low score indicates relatively greater disadvantage and a lack of advantage in general.





Download 127.51 Kb.

Share with your friends:




The database is protected by copyright ©ininet.org 2020
send message

    Main page