Introduction of Programming Paradigms Paradigm


Post –compilation assembly



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Introduction of Programming Paradigms
Post –compilation assembly:


  • Many compilers generate assembly language instead of machine language.


  • This convention facilitates debugging, since assembly language is easier for people to read, and isolates the compiler from changes in the format of machine language files.







C-preprocessor:


  • Compilers for c begin with a preprocessor that removes comments and expand macros.


  • This allows several versions of a program to be built from the same source.






Source- to – source translation (C++):


  • C++ implementations based on the early AT&T compiler generated an intermediate program in c instead of assembly language.







Programming environments:


  • Compilers and interpreters do not exist in isolation. Programmers are assisted in their work by a host of other tools.


  • Assemblers, debuggers, preprocessors, and linkers were mentioned earlier.


  • Editors are familiar to every programmer. They may be assisted by cross-referencing facilities that allow the programmer to find the point at which an object is defined, given a point at which it is used.


  • Configuration management tools help keep track of dependences among the (many versions of) separately compiled modules in a large software system.


  • Perusal tools exist not only for text but also for intermediate languages that may be stored in binary.


  • Profilers and other performance analysis tools often work in conjunction with debuggers to help identify the pieces of a program that consume the bulk of its computation time.


  • In older programming environments, tools may be executed individually, at the explicit request of the user. If a running program terminates abnormally with a “bus error” (invalid address) message,


  • for example, the user may choose to invoke a debugger to examine the “core” file dumped by the operating system.


  • He or she may then attempt to identify the program bug by setting breakpoints, enabling tracing, and so on, and running the program again under the control of the debugger.


  • More recent programming environments provide much more integrated tools.


  • When an invalid address error occurs in an integrated environment, a new window is likely to appear on the user’s screen, with the line of source code at which the error occurred highlighted.


  • Breakpoints and tracing can then be set in this window without explicitly invoking a debugger.


  • Changes to the source can be made without explicitly invoking an editor.


  • The editor may also incorporate knowledge of the language syntax, providing templates for all the standard control structures, and checking syntax as it is typed in.


  • In most recent years, integrated environmens have largely displaced command-line tools for many languages and systems.


  • Popular open saource IDEs include Eclipse, and netbeans.


  • Commercial systems include the visual studio environment from Microsoft and Xcode environment from apple.


  • Much of the appearance of integration can also be achieved with in sophisticated editors such as emacs.



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