Joshua Lamoreaux also listed as Josue Lamoureux and Josué Lamoureux

New York City is occupied by the British New York City is an English Stronghold

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1776 New York City is occupied by the British New York City is an English Stronghold

NY Area Key Chronology

French “Church closed for 20 years, war period. English used church roughly for ordinance stores. Required virtually rebuilding – done in 1796…”

“New York French Church Records, Staten Island, New York, 1694-1886,

LDS Film #509,193

[Along the Hudson Valley…]

"…in 1776, many of the conservative, prosperous farmers of the valley looked forward to the comforting sight of redcoats on the march to restore law and order." "July 11 the British had come to the mouth of the river and the next day had landed troops,"

[Many men along the Hudson River Valley left to fight or had to flee persecution which left the women folk to escape the dangers of war on their own…] [Joshua and Elizabeth Lamoreaux sided with the British,. either by choice or by default because they would not fight for the Rebels.]

"…wives …drove the horses to the house doors, loaded the wagons with their most precious belongings, and rolled away to visit relatives and friends not so close to danger. The back-river roads were full of creaking wheels and straining horses." p 107

The Hudson, Crammer, Carl, 1939, (part of the Rivers of America Series)

"... warships had been moored above the Tappen Zee more than two weeks ... the first and last naval battle on the Hudson continued." p 109

"…the arrival of British reinforcements at New York… 2000 red coats had landed near Stoney Point… Brown Springster, Tory neighbor of the Orange Co. militia had guided them through the fog over the high pass…" p 121

"The year 1779 came and in the summer and autumn the Continental Army was back on the Hudson keeping watch over the British in New York. The Americans wintered in Morristown, New Jersey. Then in the spring the enemy[the British] began to creep up the valley once more." p 12

"The feeling between noncombatants in the valley grew bitterer than it had ever been. Mounted bands of lawless men infested the neutral ground that extended for nearly a score of miles between the upriver Continentals and the downriver British. There were tales of torture of old men and women in the effort to make them give up their savings, of sudden descents on little outlying communities and the murder of helpless inhabitants." p 127

Comments about the British or Americans? "…in a letter published in the New York "Morning Post" on Nov 7, 1783: 'the voice of the inhabitants is so universally against them that they cannot hope for a peaceful residence among us." p 136

He also mentions events that seem to be peculiar to the lower Hudson vicinity. "With the coming of every spring there was the awesome spectacle of the ice breaking up on the river, 'Conceive a solid mass, from 6 to 8 feet thick, bursting for many miles in one continued rupture… Thunder is no adequate image of this awful explosion.' [The British had to wait for the ice to break-up before they could try to attack George Washington at West Point.]

The Hudson, Crammer, Carl, 1939, (part of the Rivers of America Series)

"There were spring days, too, when the sky was black with the drumming of millions of pigeons, …There were others when the sturgeon began to run upriver and everybody was hard at work spearing the great bodies of fish all day, and at night by the flares of torches." p 101

CarlCrammer, The Hudson, 1939, (part of the Rivers of America Series)

New York City, 1776 early July...Situated on the southern tip of Manhattan Island, it was surrounded by the Hudson River on the west, the East River on the east, and the Harlem River to the north... the city was dominated by Brooklyn Heights across the East River on Long Island.

T. Harry Williams, The History of American Wars from 1745 to 1918 p59

"John Adams estimated that at the outbreak of the war, one-third of the colonists were warm patriots, one-third clung to their allegiance to the Crown (usually at great personal cost), and one-third were neutral, took no sides, and simply wished to be left alone. p 256

Opposing friends in the war, he said, "…is the sharpest thorn on which I ever set my foot…" p 666

"In addition to religion, nationality, family, and sectional antagonism, '... the age and temperament of individuals had often an influence in fixing their political character. Old men were seldom warm Whigs: they could not relish the great changes which were daily taking place; attached to ancient forms and habits, they could not readily accommodate themselves to new systems. Few of the very rich were active in forwarding the Revolution....'

"The Tories, like the patriots were moved by a variety of motives,... Most Tories kept their opinions to themselves and weathered the storm as best they could. Many of them were individuals respected and liked in their own communities. In such cases, their courage in making the decision to oppose the majority of their friends and neighbors, not to mention in many instances members of their own family, and their persistence in the face of public pressure, usually won for them a grudging respect, and public opinion protected them from open persecution." p 658-9

Page Smith, A New Age Now Begins

"Throughout the war Loyalist were elusive. At least one in five of all Americans remained loyal to George III - though not all of them showed it - …Spies and turncoats, agents and double agents abounded

The Fire of Liberty, Esmond Wright, . p 49

"An oath was therefore framed in order to tender to all suspicious persons, with a notice that every person refusing to take such oath should be considered as inimical to the State, not suffered to remain therein, but banished to New York, as an enemy to the Congress, to the 'liberties of the people,' and to the "rights of mankind." p 146

History of New York During the Revolutionary War, Vol 1 Thomas Jones

"…men who were moved toward outright loyalism. This group was centered on the DeLancey family of New York City. Loyalist never formed a large percentage of the American population, all in all, but in a few places, such as the area surrounding New York City, they were an overwhelming majority. In others, including the Hudson valley,… they were strong enough to wage extended guerrilla resistance. …on New York's western frontier, they were so numerous that the Revolution became a war of American against American." “ …a fair sized minority of that people dissented." p 123 131

"They were more interested in survival than glory… in… the western frontier of NY, the war became a vicious guerrilla struggle. In those places, the devastation and the bloodshed were frightful…" p 141,

The American Revolution, Edward Countryman

"New York City had remained a British garrison and a Loyalist haven since it's capture in September, 1776. During 1782, as it became clear that the war was lost and that the rebels remained antagonistic, refugees flooded in to camps set up on Long Island, Staten Island, and the Jersey Shore. ... a total of perhaps thirty thousand."

Victorious In Defeat, Wallace Brown, 1984 p 33.

1776 Aug 28 Westchester Co “The first encounter of the Revolution on the soil of Westchester County ….between a

party of Loyalist recruits led by one William Lounsbury and an American force commanded by Captain John Flood…” “…a commission from General Howe to raise rangers: …a party of the militia went in pursuit of him,…killing him, as he would not surrender; another was wounded four were taken prisoners.” “…each of his recruits was to receive £3.” P 348

These pages tell of other encounters that year or next [?]… “After the defeat of Long Island, the New York State convention then sitting at Harlem, deemed that place insecure, adjourned to Fishkill.” Sessions were held at “Kingsbridge (Aug 30), at Mr Odell’s house in Philipseburgh Manor (Aug 31), and at Mr Blagge’s house at Croton River (Aug 31).” “Provision was made for removing all the horses, cattle, and other livestock from Manhattan Island and the exposed portions of Westchester County into the interior; the Westchester farmers were directed to immediately thresh out all their grain, in order to furnish straw for the army; stores were taken from the State magazine in Westchester County and sent to the army…” Three British War Ships came as close as Tarrytown.

History of Westchester Co, NY, From Early Settlement..., Shonnard & Spooner

1776 Nov 3 Fishkill, NY "Resolved, That all prisoners at present confined in the jails in the Counties of Dutchess

and Westchester, be forthwith removed to Exeter, in the State of New Hampshire, there to remain in jail...

"The following list of prisoner' names who were confined in Poughkeepsie jail, in the County of Dutchess, now sent to Exeter, in the State of New Hampshire: Frederick Ham, Junr., James Lummery, (sick,) Edward Talbot, Lewis Hogg, Obediah Griffin, John Laurence (Lawrence), John Mc Donald, Thomas Barker, Samuel Glass. These persons were all more or less concerned in a late insurrection in Dutchess County, and the greatest part actually in arms." p 6-7

[There is a Azariah Whittemore listed in jail in White-Plains, Westchester.]

[See also entry for 1777 Aug 9 ] [Look for Exiter records AM Rev.]

"Minutes of the Committee & of the first Commission for Detecting and Defeating Conspiracies in the State of New York," Film # 1,035,605, item 6, MFHC & SLC-HC

[What insurrection? Check Dutchess Co history AM Rev. Check Exeter, NH records.]
[The James Lamoreaux we know of were 18 year old son of my Josue', 46 year old brother of Josue', 2 year old son of Josue' bro Isaac, 2 year old son of Josue's bro James.]
This James seems to be Joshua's older bro. His grand dau says, "James Lamoreaux (Sr) ... enlisted in the revolutionary war when he was 18... Grandfather married Martha Cross..."

Abigail Lamoreaux Scott, in a letter to AJ Lamoreaux 1919.

The Patriots’ Orange Co. Militia (Land Bound Rights) lists Isaac Lamarux, Isaac Lamore and John Lamoreux in First Regiment with Major Zachariah Du Bois.

The Militia - Orange Co, fourth Regiment lists; Joseph & Luke Lamoreux.

New York in the Revolution as Colony & State, James Roberts, 1898, (p165)

[The Patriot options for Isaac are Daniel & Jeanne's son, (Joshua's Bro,) 44; Daniel's G-sons, Andre's son, 32; Jean/John's son, 14; Pierre/Peter's son, 25; (probably them); Joshua's Isaac was born that year.

[The options for a John Lamoreaux are Jean/John, 54 bro of my Josué; son of Josué's bro Andrew, 32; son of Josue's bro Jean/John, 23 (probably him); son of Josué's bro Pierre/Peter, 10; son of Josué's bro Isaac, 8; son of Josué's bro Jacques James, 2; (my John McCord Lamoreaux was born 2 years later.) Daniel's sons John & Peter both settled in Orange Co. They stayed after the war, so, they probably fought for the Patriots.]

[Luke is the son of Daniel's Peter, 20; he has a brother Joseph, 23; these are the only Joseph & Luke.] No Lamoreaux are listed in Dutchess Co. Daniel's sons John & Peter both settled in Orange Co.
1776 Nov 5 Westchester Co, “…the burning of the Westchester County court house some soldiers of Washington’s

Army.” General orders of 2 Nov said no burning! “…besides destroying the court house, they burnt the Presbyterian Church and several private dwellings at White Plains.” “…county records did not perish in the flames,” removed earlier “by the two armies.” P402

This instance of the incidental outrages inflicted upon the people of our country as a result of the military operations in the campaign of 1776… local details of destruction, devastation, violence, and plunder almost innumerable.” “…cases of individual persecutions for political belief, they were perpetrated with activity and mercilessness by both sides-“ “British and Germans [soldiery] robbed, killed, burned, and devastated the land with little discrimination between Tory and patriot where the object was gratification of their own greed or passions.” “…a letter written from Peekskill, Jan 19, 1777… ‘…it is infinitely better to be slain in battle than to be taken prisoners by British brutes, …not only the prisoners… Every part of the country thro’ which they have march’d has been plundered and ravaged.”

History of Westchester Co, NY, From Early Settlement..., Shonnard & Spooner

1777 Mar 6 New York Isaac, Josué & Elizabeth Lamoreaux, 7th child, is born in New York – Where?

Family Bible of Isaac & Ann Lamoreaux

From Duane L"Amoureux, 19I9, have a copy

1777 March Peekskill, NY "In the month of March, 1777, Colonel Bird, with a detachment of the British army,

went up the Hudson, and at Peekskill, in the county of Westchester, destroyed all the rebel

magazines, barracks, and storehouses erected at that place, with an amazing quality of provisions, military stores, clothing and accouterments, of almost every kind; demolished their fortifications, and returned to New York without the loss of a man."

History of New York During the Revolutionary War, Thomas Jones,

Edited by Edward F DeLancey, 1879, New York Historical Society

[Was this the incident referred to in the Conspiracy trials on 1777 Aug 9?]
1777 Mar 23 Peekskill, NY British, Howe, destroys a large deposit of stores at of near Peekskill which “greatly

agitated the State convention, which caused a portion of the militia of Orange, Dutchess, and Westchester Counties to be called out, sent to the Highlands…” p426

History of Westchester Co, NY, From Early Settlement..., Shonnard & Spooner

1777 Mar 31 Small-pox at Fishkill, New York p 437

"Minutes of the Committee & of the first Commission for Detecting and

Defeating Conspiracies in the State of New York,” Film # 1,035,605, item 6.

1777 Spring Long Island, NY "In the Spring of 1777, a foraging party were at Sag Harbor, at the east end of Long

Island guarded by a company of DeLancey's provincials, consisting of about 70 men; the transports to carry the forage to New York being small vessels employed for the purpose, were under the protection of an armed schooner of 12 guns and about 40 men. Information …being given to the rebel powers… Colonel Meigs… with about 400 men, embarked in a number of whale boats, in the evening, at a place called Guilford, crossed the Sound, and about 2 o'clock the next morning landed at a small distance from Sag Harbor, …made the whole party prisoners before they were aware of their danger…

This is what the British during the war called an alert."

History of New York During the Revolutionary War, Thomas Jones,

Edited by Edward F DeLancey, 1879, New York Historical Society

[The Question

When did our Lamoreaux leave this area, Dutchess Co,? Where did they go?

Lots of opposition and persecution of Loyalists in Dutchess Co started in 1777. Committees formed 1776. Their Landlord, Beverly Robinson appeared before "The Committee" Feb 22, 1777. Was told he must take Oath of Allegiance.. Asked for time to think about it & left the area Mar 18, 1777. Wife Mrs Susanna Philipse Robinson stayed a while. By 1779 land was confiscated & both were charged with treason & threatened with death if found in the county.

The whole family could have left after rents were paid.

Another family member could have stayed on property & harvested & paid rents.

Elizabeth could have left alone, before Joshua paid rents and gone to stay with her family, his family, her bro, sis, his bro, sis, step-bro, step-sis, friends, etc. If she left alone, she probably went to her family or friends.

If they left together they probably went to his.

Joshua’s entire family could have stayed through till much later, Elizabeth had children in 1775, 1777, 1779. Their births are listed at several different places each. John McCord Lamoreaux said much later he was born in New York City. Morrisania is now in the Bronx, which is NYC.

NYC was burned badly after the British took it over 1776. Rents were very high. Conditions were very bad. Joshua,Daniel & Jesse all left NYC in 1783. Daniel & Jesse collected supplies, There is no record that Joshua did until he got to Canada.

Many people tried to go home to collect things & etc after the war, 1781 to 1783.

Daniel (nephew) and Joshua were both in DeLancey's group, which sounds like they may have been together. Daniel fought with DeLancey for 18 months. Probably before he was married, because Daniel wasn’t married till 1780 on Long Island. That’s across the British lines from Morrisania. There were three DeLancey groups. One in Morrisannia, another on Long Island

Joshua was captured; it sounds like while he was with DeLancey’s. Where was Elizabeth & the family? akrc]
The Facts]

1777 May 1 Philipse Patent Josué Lamoreaux last listing on rent rolls at Philipse Upper Patent, Duchess

Co, NY. On Lot #4 owned by and next door to Beverly Robinson, B-in-law of Benedict Arnold, officer for George Washington. One of "…75 tenants most of them undershort leases; in general very good farms; ... in Peeks Kill Hollow & from 4 to 12 miles from Peeks Kill Landing on the Hudson River... good roads." This is just south from West Point.

"At the time of the Revolutionary War this patent was owned by Philip Philipse, and [Sisters] Mary and Susannah, wives of Colonel Roger Morris and Beverly Robinson, of the British Army. Morris and Robinson together with their wives, were attained, and their property was confiscated and sold by the Commissioners of Forfeiture. Most land was sold to Patriot tenants. [see 1756 entry on Washington & Robinson.]

[I think this is a list of rents paid. Josué would have been there still on 1 May 1777.]

Early Settlers of Putnam Co, F C Haacker 1946

NY State Lib#A974.732, q H 111 SLC FHC #529,189

Philipse Patent "The Lamoureux were a French family and were settled on the (Albany) Post Road still

further north, their tract embracing the North East corner of the Lot."

History of Putnam Co, Pelletreau, 1886

The town records of Philipstown, or rather of Philipse Precinct, begin in 1772, and are contained in a paper covered book out of which a large gap has been eaten by the mice. From these records we transcribe the following:

History of Putnam Co, Pelletreau, William. 1886 - p546 & 547

Westchester Co. was raided regularly,. first by one side then by the other.

Less than Glory, Gelb, Norman, 1984 p 171

"Most women stayed home during the war, but they did things they hadn't done before. They had to do all the men's work as well as their own. They ran the farms and businesses… When battles were fought near their homes, women fed and cared for the wounded.

"Women who were loyalist had a terrible time of it. Usually they had to keep quiet or leave the country… Women whose husbands had gone off to war to fight were often alone when the invading army looted and destroyed, as armies often do. When it was necessary, women put guns to their shoulders… on the frontier… many had fought the Indians…""

From Colonies to Country, Joy Hakam, p 110

"Many women, Patriot and Loyalist alike, were forced to house the enemy, and those women whose husbands were away were forced to defend the family's property, earn a living, and protect their families as well. …Women on farms were constantly faced with the threat of losing animals and crops to the enemy. …some unscrupulous characters …turned to cattle rustling… Crops in the field were also fair game."

"When fighting armies approached, women had little choice but to flee with their children… moved in with friends and relatives.

Those Remarkable Women of the American Revolution, Karen Zeinert, p70-74

[See DeLancey references in 1778-9.]
1777 July 5 N America Total eclipse of the sun

1777 Aug 9 NY "Resolved that Benjamin Smith, Waitstill Vraghan, Francis Hoagl, Will: Shower,

John Lomaree, (Jacob Straat Jun., Peter De Pew 3rd, Corn Jn Blau Velt) be still detained in

the Goal of Poughkeepsie till further Order of this Board, or otherwise delivered by a due

Course of Law. [See also entry for 3 Nov 1776] p 354

[The options for a John Lamoreaux are 54 year old Jean/John bro of my Josué, (in Orange Co); 32 year old son of Josué's bro Andrew, (probably this one); 23 year old son of Josué's bro Jean/John, (in Orange Co); 10 year old son of Josué's bro Pierre/Peter, (in Orange Co); 8 year old son of Josué's bro Isaac, (too young); 2 year old son of Josué's bro Jacques James, (too young); (my John McCord Lamoreaux was born 2 years later.) Daniel's sons John & Peter both settled in Orange Co. They stayed after the war, so, they probably fought for the Patriots.]

"Minutes of the Commettee & of the first Commission for Detecting

and Defeating Conspiracies in the Stete of New York," Vol I & II

Film # 1,035,605, item 6, MFHC & SLC-HC

1777 Aug 30 Council of Safety for the State of New York were, "empowered to remove wives &

children of" Loyalists

War out of Niagara, H. Swiggett, 1933, MP Library 1996

1777 Sept 9 Kingston, NY An Act for the Forfeiture and Sale of the Estates of Persons who have adhered to the

Enemies of this state, and for declaring the Sovereignty of the People of this State,

in respect to all Property within the same. Passed 22nd October, 1779. "The first session of the legislature of New York, for business, began at Kingston... [Met to write the New York Act of Attainer or Confiscation Act.]

The second session began at Poughkeepsie, on the 5th of January, 1778… [The act was rewritten several times and never agreed on unanimously.]

[Beverly Robinson's name was not on original, Sept, 1777; was on act passed Oct 1788. His wife's name was on it too. Joshua Lamoreux lived on this property. Joshua & family most probably left Dutchess Co before Oct 1778. p 510, 524

History of New York During the Rev. War, Vol 1, Thomas Jones,

Edited by Edward F DeLancey, 1879,

1777 Oct Hudson River "In Oct 1777, General Clinton, who then commanded at New York, sailed up the

Hudson with about 3,000 troops, and a train of artillery, …He attacked, and took, all the rebel forts in the Highlands, to wit, Montgomery, Clinton, and Constitution…

Kingston, a large rebel village upon the west side of the Hudson, was burnt, and a number of rebel houses on the east side of the river." p 218

History of New York During the Rev. War, Vol 1 Thomas Jones

1777 Nov Hudson River "In Nov, 1777, a parcel of rebels in the dead of night passed the North (Hudson) river

from the Jersey shore, landed at Bloomingdale, the seat of General De Lancey, about 7 miles from the city of New York, surprised, and made prisoners, …plundered…"

History of New York During the Rev. War, Vol 1 Thomas Jones p 185

1777 Nov 27 The Colonies "Congress recommended to the states that they appropriate the property of residents who

had forfeited 'the right to protection'."

Encyclopedia of American History, Richard Morris, 1976.

[When did Josué & family leave their Philipse farm? Was it confiscated 1777 or 1779? see reference 1779.]
1778 Jan 3 Poughkeepsie An Act for the Forfeiture and Sale of the Estates of Persons who have adhered to the

Enemies of this state, and for declaring the Sovereignty of the People of this State, in respect to all Property within the same. Passed 22nd October, 1779.

"The first session of the legislature of New York, for business, began at Kingston… [Met to write the New York Act of Attainer or Confiscation Act.] The second session began at Poughkeepsie, on the 5th of January, 1778… [The act was rewritten several times and never agreed on unanimously.] [Beverly Robinson’s name was not on original, Sept, 1777; was on act passed Oct 1788. His wife's name was on it, too. Joshua lived on her property. Joshua & family most probably left Dutchess Co before Oct 1778.

History of New York During the Rev. War, Thomas Jones, p 510, 524

Edited by Edward F DeLancey, 1879, New York Historical Society

1778 Feb 21 Thomas Lamoreaux's Rev. War record. - On February 21, 1778, he was re-appointed as Ensign to the 5th Orange County (East Orange or Cornwall Regiment) for Colonel James Woodhull, under Captain Francis Smith. He is also listed in the History of Orange County, New York with Illustrations and Biographic Sketches of many of its pioneers and prominent men. Compled by E.M. Ruttenber and L. H. Clark, Heart of the Lakes Publishing, Interlaken, NY 1980, Vol. 1. Under Cornwall Precinct he signed Articles of Association NY.

They spelled his name "LUMMARCAUX". No wonder I couldn't find it.

For your info it is listed in

"Documents Relating to the Colonial History of the State of NY" Edited by Berthold Fernow, Vol. XV, STATE ARCHIVES, VOL. 1, Albany, NY, Weed, Parsons & Company, Printers 1887, page 289.

1778 June 24 New York Total eclipse of the sun

War out of Niagara, H. Swiggett 1933

There were four total solar eclipses between 1773 and 1778 on Sept. 18, 1773, March 1, 1775, July 5, 1777 and June 24, 1778. Of these, only the September 15, 1773 eclipse was likely to have been visible over North America.” [Obviously this one was seen too. akrc]

There were many interesting planetary conjunctions during this period. On January 6, 1772 there was a pretty twilight conjunction between Jupiter and Venus. Before sunrise on July 5, 1776 there was another Jupiter-Venus conjunction too, but it would have looked nearly as pretty on July 4, 1776! On April 9, 1774 there was a Jupiter-Mars conjunction.”

Was anything happening in the sky between 1772 and 1776?” NASA,

1778 Westchester Co., There was a small-pox epidemic "like a cordon to the south across Westchester Co.

New York & Connecticut"

War out of Niagara, H. Swiggett 1933

1778 ???, New York Abigail Ann Losee is born to Simon Losee and Margaret Bush

They were married 1759, of Huntington, LI, Nassau, NY

Family Records & Isabelle L. Cluff

1770's late Duchess Co, NY Josué Lamoraux "Resided at Duchess Co, NY ... was obliged to leave his

property to the value of two hundred pounds New York currency in land and movable estate ...

Beside services as a vollintear at the outpost with Col Dellincar (Delancy) was taken prisoner and wounded and very badly treated while with them But got exchanged and remained till the treaty of peace"

Loyalist Petition of Josué Lamoraux - 20 Mar 1786 #271 & 273 & cover

NOTE: [Remained- Where? NYC? Are there records of prisoner exchanges? Some are listed in 1777, James not Josue']

Josué Lamoreaux nephew Daniel's petition says "...formerly of , Peekskill, West Chester, New York ... his aged father & numerous family were all faithful to his majesty ... were exceedingly persecuted and all driven from a very valuable and pleasant farm ... served 18 months with Col. James De Lancy at Morrisania

[(Daniel Lamoreaux built a house at Morrisania) Morrisannia is a manor in the Bronx, across the Harlem River from Harlem.]

Daniel Lamoreaux says “ --- a very Hazard and important Post where there was attacks and continual apprehension from an enraged and cruel Enemy ---where he rec. no pay except rations, nor did he choose to live or enrich him self by Plunder"

"That for his loyalty, he has in the vigor of his youth, lost his native Country - the Hopes of a pretty Patrimony, his tender Parents and affectionate Friends ..."[His aged father was Andrew? who stayed in Westchester?] [Daniel has a brother Jesse. A Daniel & a Jesse went to Canada with Josué.]

Loyalist Petition Daniel Lamoureux, 30 Mar 1786 ; #148

[Lease rights for the best lands were inherited from father to son, ... find this source.]
[Daniel Lamouree (son of Andrew) Married Charity Wetmore in St George Church in Hempstead, Long Island, NY

They were "Both of Oyster Bay" - 1780 July 30 – He said he was from Peekskill & Morrisannia… why does this say he is from Oyster Bay??? Maybe in exile he settled there.]

During the entire period of the Revolution the City of New York was occupied by the British Army. Its fleet patrolled the Sound. Washington’s forces were encamped in the hills in the north of Westchester. Westchester received protection from neither side, and was constantly raided by both Armies. The advertising an the jacket of The Neutral Ground, by Frank I. Hough, published by J. B. Lippincott Co., 1941, reads: "Westchester County, before it became the embattled 'neutral ground' was feudal, serene and rich. When the tempest of 1776 brake, landowners and peasants, idealists and profiteers, mistress and maid, were swept away on the dark waves of war and bitterness. The seven years of privation and struggle between 1776 and 1783 took their toll. . .”

"…The region separating the two Armies is neutral in the sense that it is occupied by neither side, each wishing to keep a sufficient distance from each other, to avoid surprise attack. The people who live there are neutral perforce because, being at the mercy of both parties, they can't afford to be known as adherents of either. Every attack, every raid, moving in either direction crosses the region, and in between times, forage parties from both Armies have combed it repeatedly. Bands of ruffians prowl there with impunity; burning, raping, murdering, stripping the luckless inhabitants of what poor possessions they have somehow managed to retain far no civil government exists, nor any means of enforcing law …”

Aaron Burr controlled “…outposts in West­chester, from Tarrytown eastward across the Country. …’Not withstanding the caution I gave (against plundering) . . . I blush to tell you that the Party returned loaded with plunder. . The Party had not returned an hour before I had six or seven persons from New Rochelle to Throg's Neck with piteous appeals for stolen goods and horses. Some of these persons are of the most friendly families…” So plundering in Westchester was not confined exclusively to the British foraging forces - according to this first-hand testimony by Aaron Burr.

In Westchester County archives, the term "Skinners" was applied to the members of the Revolutionary sympathizers who turned marauders in Westchester and literally skinned the territory of food, livestock and movable property. The term “Cow Boys" was applied to the Loyalist banditti.”

If conditions in southern Westchester during the Revolution were even a fraction as shocking as authentic eye-witness accounts graphically portray, it's a wonder that anything remained … in the path of the two armies during all those long, dreary and dreadful years.” P 58-61

Barr,Lockwood. Ancient Town of Pelham, 1946.

DeLancey Westchester Co, NY

"In the year 1779, the refugees within the British lines, …were …suffered to establish a jurisdiction of their own, …These refugees having arms in their hands, no pay, provisions, nor clothing from the Crown, were now under the sanction of government, …publicly encouraged to maintain, support, and if possible enrich themselves by the spoil and plunder of the rebels, under pretence of distressing the enemy, and gaining information … [privateers & etc] These refugees consisted of three 'societies,' one …upon Staten Island, another of those upon Long Island, and the third, of those posted at Kingsbridge, Morrisania and the borough of Westchester. Those at Kingsbridge, Morrisania and the borough of Westchester, consisted of horsemen, were formed into companies, and regularly officered and commissioned. These made incursions into the country and plundered whatever they could lay their hands upon,…" "By way of retaliation … [rebels] plundered the inhabitants in the same manner as the loyal refugees…"

History of New York During the Rev. War, Thomas Jones, p 510, 524

Edited by Edward F DeLancey, 1879, New York Historical Society

"Upon the submission of Long Island to General Howe, in 1776, he appointed Oliver De Lancey raise three battalions of 500 men each for the defense of the Island. …to remain upon the Island for it's defense during the war, …one of the battalions …solely of natives, or inhabitants of Queens Co. (the 3rd battalion) In the winter of 1776-7, these battalions were stationed, one at Oyster Bay, one at Huntington, and one at Brookhaven... the island remained in a perfect state of tranquility as to any attacks or depredations from its neighbors, the New England rebels. In 1777, the first and second battalions were ordered from Long Island to Kingsbridge, in the County of Westchester. …The second battalion continued at Kingsbridge. …The New England men immediately fitted out small privateers, …landed and plundered the tories… Clinton, in the fall of 1778, sent the first & second battalions …to Georgia …until the evacuation of South Carolina… when they returned to New York …The third battalion was stationed at Lloyd's Neck… where they remained until the evacuation of New York, …(all) disbanded in Nova Scotia." p 264-270

History of New York During the Revolutionary War, Vol 1 Thomas Jones

"The Loyalist… were strongest in New York, and not only in New York City when the British occupied it. Westchester County, just north of the Harlem River, became the scene of a specially bitter civil war. James De Lancey, a nephew of Oliver De Lancey and the former sheriff of Westchester County, fought for the British after Washington's withdrawal from New York in 1776, raised a troop of horse, the so-called 'Cowboys' or the 'Westchester Refugees", and annexed cattle. His guerilla operation took place in the 'Neutral Ground', that twenty-mile-wide area that became a no man's land between the two armies, extending from Kingsbridge and Morrisonia in the south to the mouth of the Croton River and across to the Sound. The rebel counterpart were the 'Skinners', so called because they often robbed and murdered their victims. Some of them were patriots, some were banditti for whom patriotism was a cover-word for plunder." p 156

The Fire of Liberty, Esmond, Wright

Morrisania "…a large tract of land in the County of Westchester about 7 miles from NY, lying upon the banks of the East River, and divided from York Island by a small river called Harlem River, which he called by the name of Morrisania." "This family are so remarkable for 'enlarging the truth' that all stories suspected of not being true are known through out the County of Westchester, in the City of New York, and on the westernmost part of Long Island, by the name of 'Morrisanias.'" p 138- 140

History of New York During the Revolutionary War, Vol 1 Thomas Jones

"…Morrisania …Jimmy DeLancey, Oliver, and John, after giving their parole, are gone off to the enemy and their house is plundered."

The Fire of Liberty, Esmond Wright, p 73

"The Long Islanders called these vicious marauders by various names, most often Redcoats, Cowboys, Runners, Skinners, and Robbers. The gangs roamed the neutral ground, the area between the American and British armies on Long Island, taking the property of anyone they captured. The patriot gangs were called Skinners and the Loyalist gangs were Cowboys."

Journal of a Revolutionary War Woman, J Greenberg, & H McKeever p 24

Guerrilla warfare raged over the "neutral ground of Westchester County where James De Lancey's Westchester Refugees (many of whom later settled in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick) were known to their enemies as "cowboys" and "cattle rustlers."

Victorious in Defeat, Wallace Brown, 1984, p 19

"At least fifty loyalist regiments and battalions, comprising more than three hundred companies of troops, joined with the British Army in the fight against the rebels. …Among them were… Westchester Refugees from New York." p 165

"A traveler through Westchester County, New York, was startled by what he saw of how people there reacted to raids first by one side, then by the other: They feared everybody they saw and loved nobody… To every question they gave such an answer as would please the enquirer; or, if they despaired of pleasing, such an one as would not provoke him. Fear was, apparently, the only passion by which they were animated… They yielded with a kind of apathy, and very quietly, what you asked and what they supposed it impossible for them to retain… all thought, beyond what was merely instinctive, had fled their minds forever. Their houses… were in great measure scenes of desolation. Their furniture was extensively plundered or broken to pieces. The walls, floors and windows were injured both by violence and decay;…" p 172

"Some of the officers of loyalist battalions were British. Others were British Americans of social standing and position, like Beverly Robinson,… and Oliver DeLancey… Delancey's New York Volunteers fought with distinction alongside the British in the South."

Less than Glory, Gelb, Norman, 1984 p 170

[I don't think the Lamoreaux family went south. ??? 'Remained" may mean in Morrisania with Daniel, just across the river from Harlem. akrc]

1779 July 19 NYC, NY, NY John McCord Lamoreaux, 8th child, born to Josué & Elizabeth Ogden Lamoreaux

Nauvoo Temple record [John said he was born in New York City?]

Josué, [Lamoreaux] ... having been forced to flee from his native state, New York, where he, with others loyal to old King George of England, had been branded as Tories in their refusal to fight with American patriots in the Revolutionary War.”

"The Life Story of David Burlock Lamoreaux", by Edith Ivans Lamoreaux

Josué [Lamoreaux] said they lived "…in the worst part of New York ... very close and cannons fired over their land."

Canada Petition #

1779 Aug 5 Morrisania, NY “On the 5th of Aug “about 100 horses,…passed by de Lancey’s Mills to the

neighborhood of Morrisannia, where they took twelve or fourteen prisioners,… a number of men killed and wounded…” p 460

History of Westchester Co, NY, From Early Settlement..., Shonnard & Spooner

1779 Sept 22 "In the name of God, Amen. I, CHARLES JANDINE, of Staten Island, being of sound mind. I leave all my estate, real and personal, to my five daughters, Susanah Jandine, Catharine Lamb, Mary Lamb, Hannah Lawrence, and Martha Allicocke. …

A marginal note states, That on July 9, 1789, before Thomas Tredwell, Esq., Judge of Probate, it was shown that Joseph Allicocke, one of the executors, had departed from the state, and that William Smith was also absent from the state, and James Lamb, who married Mary Jandine, was appointed Administrator.”

Isabelle Cluff

New York City Wills, 1777-83- Page 221

[NOTE: This was Revolutionary War time. People were leaving, escaping, if they could. Where did they go? Were they Tories? New York City was occupied by the British at this time.]

1779 Aug 3 Westchester Co,NY "Old Wills of New York City" by Chris Tami (online at Andrew

Lamoureux listed as executor of the will of James Travis of Cortlandt Manor

(Westchester Co,NY) dated 3 Aug 1779.

Iabelle Cluff PAF Notes

1779 Oct 24 Peekskill “General Heath resumed his old headquarters at Peekskill on the 24th of October, three

days after the final evacuation by the British of the forts at Verplanck’s and Stony Points.”

History of Westchester Co, NY, From Early Settlement..., Shonnard & Spooner

[All Torries were probably out of the area and in NYC by this time.]

1779-1780 New York Bay “The winter of 1779-80 was the severest ever known in this part of the country. Not only

the whole North River, but much of New York Bay, was frozen solid,…” Washington could have captured NYC easily they were in their most “deplorable plight” It was encamped in two divisions,… Peekskill and in the highlands,” and “under Washington at Morristown.”

History of Westchester Co, NY, From Early Settlement..., Shonnard & Spooner

[John McCord Lamoreaux was about 6 months old at this extremely cold time. Where were his mother and brothers and sisters? Where was his dad, Josue?]

    1. Winter "a Desperate cold ... people walked across the ice from Long Island to Norwalk, Conn."

War out of Niagara, H. Swiggett; Mesa P Library

NOTE: [Burial Records Trinity Church, 1704-1807 Film #17,778 says someone was buried

"over the fresh water on Manhattan Island.”]

"A crisis was experienced during the winter of 1779-1780… It was a season of biting cold… (and) the attempted treason of Benedict Arnold."

The History of American Wars from 1745 to 1918, T. Harry Williams, p73

The cold was so intense that I frequently made the children lie in bed in order to keep them warm. Wood could not often be purchased for money; and if by chance a little was for sale, it cost ten pounds by the cord. I have myself paid one piaster (which is a crown with us) for a single stick. The poor were obliged to burn fat, in order to warm themselves and cook their meals.”

"One day I was at the house of the lady of General Cornwallis's aid-de-camp, who had been confined, and complained bitterly of this lack of wood; whereupon, she promised to send me some coals, which I could return at my own convenience. I showed so much joy at this, that a certain major, named Brown, who happened to be present, and was attached to the commissariat, and who had already expressed much sympathy at our want of wood, was so much affected that he immediately left the room.

"The next day, as I was looking out of the window, I saw quite a number of wagons full of chopped trees, standing still in the street. Each wagon contained two cords of wood. I went into the room where the pastor, Mylius, sat with the children before the fire-place, in which the last stick was burning, and said to him: 'Never before have I been envious; but now, the distress and pain which these poor children suffer, make me so; for just now there has come to our very door four wagons filled with wood. How happy would I be if I only had some of it!' Scarcely had I thus spoken, when a servant brought me a message from Major Brown, stating that he had sent me these loads of wood with his compliments, and begging us to send to him whenever we should again be out of fuel. Imagine my joy, and my eagerness to thank our guardian angel. I had scarcely seen his face, as the lying-in chamber of milady had been so dark. Pg 261-262

"History of New York City From The Discovery To The Present Day", William L. Stone, Pub: New York: Virtue & Yorston, 12 Dey Street. 1872.

The Records of the Dutch Church of Staten Island says after the war, “Our house of worship having been destroyed in the late unhappy war it was resolved to build a new one of brick.”

Records of the Dutch Church of Staten Island, LDS Film #509,193 item #3

1780 Feb 2 NY “On the night of Feb 2, 1780, “a force of between 4 & 5 hundred infantry and 100

horsemen, composed of British, Germans, and Colonel de Lancey’s Tories set out from Fort Knyphausen (formerly Fort Washington), south of Spuyten Duyvil…” to attack …he weather was intensely cold, and deep snow covered the ground. …The killed of both sides were buried together. P 460

In consequence… all attempts by the Americans to hold the country south of the Croton River was abandoned…our lines did not extend below Pine’s Bridge and Bedford.”462

About Feb 6, 1780 a party of Americans descended to Morrisania and at dead of night attacked the quarters of the British Colonel Hatfield. …Several British were killed, the quarters were burned, …11 men were taken prisoners. Another raid on Morrisania, on a larger scale and much more effective, was made in May.[1780] …More than 40 of de Lancey’s troops were killed or made prisoners….to capture de Lancey… he was absent. Capturing Captain Ogden…” P 462

Washington… By the end of July he had moved all his forces across King’s Ferry into Westchester Co… headquarters …at Peekskill.” P 463

Toward the end of Jan [1781] a bold and successful raid was made …from the Westchester lines upon de Lancey’s corps at Morrisania. A number of the British were killed and fifty were captured, some of their huts were burned, and the pontoon bridge across the Harlem River was cut away:…during the retreat… the British suffered a further loss of thirty-five.” P 498

In Feb (the 7th) [1781] 50 of de Lancey’s Horse came up …”

In March 2 successful attacks were made by the Americans on de Lancey’s camp at Morisannia. …just before sunrise, taking the enemy completely by surprise, killing and wounding many, and carrying away 20 prisoners. …On the 26th of March there was a similar attack, though on a smaller scale. …penetrated to the camp of the Rangers and took a number of prisoners,… We believe this was the last encounter of the Revolution in Westchester County.” P 518

History of Westchester Co, NY, From Early Settlement..., Shonnard & Spooner

  1. West Point Benedict Arnold & Andre' met at Peekskill to exchange plans for West Point for which

Andre' was caught & hung in 1780. Washington as commander of West Point, was staying on Robinson's property at the time. Arnold escaped and went to England.

Philipse Patent Robinson had left by this time. Josué Lamoreaux listed on rent rolls at Upper Philipse

Patent, Duchess Co, NY on property of B. Robinson B-in-law of Arnold, officer for George Washington, headquartered at West Point just across the river.

Early Settlers of Putnam Co, F C Haacker 1946

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