KARNATAKA, BANGALORE ANNEXURE – II PROFORMA FOR REGISTRATION OF SUBJECTS FOR DISSERTATION
Name of the candidate and address (in block letters)
I YEAR M. Sc. NURSING
INDIRA NURSING COLLEGE
MANGALORE - 575002
Name of the Institution
INDIRA NURSING COLLEGE
MANGALORE - 575002
Course of Study and Subject
M. Sc. NURSING
Date of Admission to the Course
Title of the study A STUDY TO ASSESS THE KNOWLEDGE ON IMPACT OF CELL PHONE AMONG ADOLESCENTS IN A SELECTED PRE-UNIVERSITY COLLEGE AT MANGALORE WITH A VIEW TO PREPARE AN INFORMATION BOOKLET
Brief resume of the intended work
"Technology offers us a unique opportunity; though rarely welcome,
to practice patience.”1
The cell phone is the latest invention of the 21st century. It is still a new device in many countries. People do not leave their homes without their cell phones. For many people, it's a convenient way to communicate. Many parents provide their children with cell phones for safety reasons. Cellular phones have impacted society. They have left an ever-lasting impression on our culture.2
Adolescents are the majority of cell phone users in the world. An extensive use of mobile phone by teenagers gives rise to many serious diseases at early age. Adolescent constitute 21.8% of the Indian population. Adolescent belongs to the stage of life with great energy, creativity and enthusiasm. If given right degree of support and opportunity, they are great resource for the present and future of all societies.3
6.2 Need for the study
Over usage of mobile phones leads to physiological health hazards like headaches, ear aches, warmth sensation, fatigue and musculoskeletal symptoms. Apart from the various benefits of cell phone, it’s over usage leads to mobile phone addiction. It is one of the biggest non drug addictions in the world. On 31 May 2011, the world health organization confirmed that mobile phone use may represent a long-term health risk4, classifying mobile phone radiation as a "carcinogenic hazard" and "possibly carcinogenic to humans" after a team of scientists reviewed peer-review studies on cell phone safety. One study of past cell phone use cited in the report showed a "40% increased risk for brain cancer in the highest category of heavy users.5
Recent studies have shown that the statistical value of cell phone usage is 87% worldwide6, 78.29% in India7 and 92% in Karnataka State8. About 40% of young adults admit using their cell phones for more than four hours a day. Eighty percentages of humans own a mobile phone. Out of the 5 billion mobile phones in the world, 1.08 billion are
smartphones. The Information and Communications for Development 2012: Maximizing Mobile report released by the World Bank on Tuesday says mobile communication has arguably had a bigger impact on humankind in a shorter period of time than any other invention in human history. The report also suggests that with the ownership of multiple subscriptions now common, mobile usage may outnumber the world's population in the near future. In February 2010, there were 6 billion mobile phone subscribers. Three-quarters of the world's population now have access to a mobile phone.6
In August 1995, Chief Minister of West Bengal, Shri Jyoti Basu ushered in the cell phone revolution in India by making the first call to Union Telecom Minister Sukhram. Sixteen years later the 4th generation services were launched in Kolkata. With a subscriber base of more than 929 million, the mobile telecommunications system in India is the second largest in the world and it was thrown open to private players in the 1990s. In Karnataka wireless subscriber base in million (May 2012 is 56.63%).About 40% of young adults admit using their cell phones for more than four hours a day.9
An explorative study was conducted regarding mobile phone usage among 175 teenagers in the age group of 12-20, by using structured questionnaire. The results showed that 37%use cell phone as style statement, 58% couldn’t manage a day without a cell phone .The study concluded that cell phone usage is inevitable among adolescents.10
A qualitative study was conducted regarding the impact of mobile phone on teenagers among 83 males and 78 female students between the age of 13-19 by using questionnaire method. Stratified random sampling technique was used. The study results showed that 82% of the boys and 67% of the girls use their mobile phones to access the World Wide Web. It also leads to social anxiety and social isolation. The study concluded that there is a negative impact of mobile phone on teenagers.11
A prospective cohort study was conducted regarding adolescent’s use of mobile phones overnight among 1656 school children by using structured questionnaire technique. The study results showed that 38% of the subjects use mobile overnight and its use more than once a month increased by 95%.The study concludes that there are many more threats to adolescents by the overuse age of mobile phones as most of them are unaware about the impact of cell phone12.
Recent reviews regarding the cell phone and its usage have proven the impact of cell phone among the young generation specially psychosocial and physical hazards. The investigator had number of friends who were staying with her during her B. Sc. nursing course, who were totally addicted to mobile phones and few of them were even spending 6 to 7 hours per day with mobiles. During her extensive search for the related review of literature ,the investigator became more aware about the cell phones and its impacts. Even the experts opinion also motivated the investigator to undertake the following study.
6.3 Review of literature
A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate mobile phone dependence among 200 students of a medical college, age group of 17 to 28 by using pre-designed questionnaire method. Systemic Random Sampling was used to select samples. The study results showed that 18.5% were monophobias or mobile phone dependent students.73% of students keeps their mobile phones for 24hrs a day. Forty four percentage students spend Rs.250-500 per month for their mobile recharge. The study concluded that mobile phone dependence is an emerging problem of modern era.13
A Prospective cohort study was conducted to investigate the association between psycho-social aspect of mobile phone use and mental health symptoms among 10,000 men and women each in the age group of 20 - 24 by using a questionnaire method. The Results showed that 22% of the men and 24%of the women having high use (11 or more calls or SMS per day); 23% of the men and 34% of the women indicated sleep disturbances. The study concluded that there is an association between psycho-social aspect of mobile phone use and mental health symptoms.14
A comparative survey was conducted between two countries among 50 each pre- university students regarding the mobile phone usage pattern by using a structured questionnaire technique. The study results showed that out of the 94 % of students in the above mentioned first country who owns the cell phone, 40% use while driving. But in the other country out of 88%, 80% use mobile phone while driving. The study concluded that most of the adolescents were having lack of knowledge regarding the impacts of cell phones.15
An explorative study was conducted regarding mobile phone usage among 158 students and staffs of Universities by using questionnaire method. Random sampling technique was used to select sample. The study results showed that 96% of the respondents has their own cell phones, 26% use cell phones to talk,18% use for sending sms,14% use of listening to songs and 10% of internet and email access. The study concluded that cell phone has an extensive and continuing effect on day to day life of young generation.16
A survey was conducted to access the subjective symptoms related to mobile phone use among university students by using Random Sampling method. The study results showed that 70% complaints of headache, 20% of dizziness.56% has impaired concentration and 11% reported facial dermatitis. The study concluded that a large number of young people have physical and any type of impact by the cell phone usage.17
A descriptive survey was conducted to investigate mobile phone use and dependence among 120 adolescents by using questionnaire method. The study results showed that 31% have the perception of excessive use, 33.4%are emotionally attached to their cell phone and 18% maintained exclusive relationship with their cell phones. The study concluded that there was prevalence of new addiction to cell phone among adolescents.18
A survey was conducted regarding the impact of cell phone use on social networking and development among 501 college students by using questionnaire method. The study results showed that 99% owned cell phones and nearly 90% have had cell phones for more than three years. Excessive internet use, along with pathological gambling and addictive disorder, health risk from cell phone radiation and cell phone dependency are the major social impacts found in teenagers. The study concluded that there is a negative impact of cell phone use on social networking among adolescents.19
6.4 Statement of the problem
A study to assess the knowledge on impact of cell phone among adolescents in a selected pre-university college at Mangalore, with a view to prepare an information booklet.
6.5 Objectives of the study
To determine the knowledge on impact of cell phone among adolescents as measured by a structured knowledge questionnaire.
To find the association between knowledge on impact of cell phone among adolescents and selected demographic variables.
6.6 Operational definitions
Knowledge: It refers to the scores obtained by the adolescents by giving correct responses to structured knowledge questionnaire developed by the investigator regarding impact of cell phones.
Impact: The psycho-social, physical and behavioural effect, result or outcome that occurs due to the over use of cell phone.
Cell phone: It is a device that can make and receive telephone calls over a radio link while moving around a wide geographic area.
Adolescents: A young person either girl or boy who has undergone puberty but who has not reached full maturity, a teenager. In this study refers to the children who are studying in 11th and 12th standard with in the age group of 16 – 19 years.
Information booklet: In the present study, information booklet refers to leaflet prepared by the investigator regarding cell phones and its impact, which will be distributed to the adolescents for improving their understanding.
The study assumes that:
Adolescents have high access to technology and media in this modern era.
Mobile phone is the common tool for communication, entertainment, and for exchanging information among adolescents.
The adolescents have basic knowledge regarding the psycho-social and physical impact of cell phones.
The following hypothesis are tested at 0.05 level of significance:
H1: There will be significant association between knowledge of adolescents regarding impact of cell phone and selected demographic variables.
The study will be de limited to adolescents of 16-19 years and studying in the selected pre-university college at Mangalore.
Data will be collected from adolescents of selected pre-university colleges at Mangalore.
7.1.1 Research design
In this study research method is non-experimental method. In the non-experimental method descriptive survey design will be used to assess the knowledge on impact of cell phone among adolescents.
The study will be conducted in selected pre-university college at Mangalore, the selected Pre-university college is within 5 kilometre from investigators institution. Total number of students studying in this collage is 200.
Population for the study will consists of adolescents in selected pre-university college at Mangalore.
7.2 Method of data collection
7.2.1 Sampling procedure
The sampling technique planned in the study is purposive sampling.
7.2.2 Sample size
Sample size comprises of 100 adolescents.
7.2.3 Inclusion criteria for sampling
Adolescents who are studying in the selected pre- university college, Mangalore
Adolescents who are not willing to participate in the study.
Adolescents who has received previous training regarding cell phone impact.
7.2.5 Instruments intended to be used
Structured knowledge questionnaire.
7.2.6 Data collection method
Prior permission will be obtained from higher authorities of selected colleges. The purpose and need for the study will be explained to the adolescents. A structured knowledge questionnaire regarding the impact of cell phone will be distributed and requested to be filled by the respondents. The data’s will be collected from the students within one week and an information booklet entitled general information regarding impact of cell phone will be distributed to the participants to improve their level of knowledge.
7.2.7 Plan for data analysis
Collected data will be analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics like mean, percentage and standard deviation will be used to assess the level of knowledge on impact of cell phone. Inferential statistics such as Chi-square test will be used to associate the level of knowledge on mobile phone addiction with socio demographic variables.
7.3 Does the study require any investigations or interventions to be conducted on patients, or other animals? If so please describe briefly.
Yes, in the present study the investigator will distribute a knowledge questionnaire regarding impact of cell phones to adolescents.
7.4 Has ethical clearance been obtained from your institution in case of 7.3?
Yes, ethical clearance will be obtained from institutions ethical committee
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