Which of the following directories should you back up regularly? (Choose all that apply.)
An employee named Andrea wants to back up an entire home directory in a file. Which of the following commands should be used?
a. tar -cvf home.tar /home/andrea
Which of the following commands should you use to list all members in the project.tar archive?
d. tar -tvf project.tar
An employee complains that her home directory has disappeared. Which of the following commands should you use to extract the backup archive of her home directory?
b. tar -xvf home.tar
Which of the following options is used with the tar utility to add members to an archive?
Explain the purpose of a snapshot file.
A snapshot file is used with the --listed-incremental option for the tar utility. This option specifies which files have been added to the archive. The tar utility checks the snapshot file, and if it contains files that aren’t members of the archive or the files have changed, the tar utility archives these files.
Explain the difference between full and incremental backups.
Full backups are backups of the entire file system. A full backup is also considered a backup of all files in a specific directory. An incremental backup contains all files that have changed since the last backup.
Which of the following cpio modes is used when creating an archive?
Which of the following cpio modes is used when copying files from one directory tree to another without creating an archive?
Your company has a tight budget, and you have been asked to create tar archives to save space on the backup medium. Which of the following commands enables you to archive home directories and compress them at the same time?
What’s the difference between a user cron table and a system cron table?
The main difference is the sixth field. In a user cron table, it’s the task to be performed; in a system cron table, it’s the name of the user who’s performing the task. Another difference is permissions. Only the root user has permission to edit a system cron table.
Step 7: Yes, the three files should be back, and the tar file should still be there because the tar utility doesn’t overwrite files. Instead, it makes a copy of the file and uses the copy as a member in the archive.
Step 7: Yes, the member stars is added to the archive because of the command in Step 6.
Step 9: The sun member was changed because content was added to the file in Step 8.
Step 15: The flower and moon members have been deleted from the archive.
Step 5: Students’ answers should be similar to the following:
-rw-r--r-- username/users 0 2012-04-26 19:07 blue
-rw-r--r-- username/users 0 2012-04-26 19:07 red
-rw-r--r-- username/users 0 2012-04-26 19:07 white
Step 7: They’re different because the --mode=777 option was used in Step 6. The members in file2.tar have rwx permissions for each category.
Step 8: The members are english, math, and history.