using only the primary and secondary sources listed in the bibliography.
I would like to thank my supervisor Doc. Mgr. Milada Franková, CSc., M.A. for her kind help and guidance throughout my work.
Table of Contents
I. Introduction 1
II. Race riots in the second half of the 20th century Britain 3
II. 1. Nottingham and Notting Hill 1958–1959 3
II. 1. 1. Responses to the riots 7
Housing, unemployment 7
II. 1. 2. Conclusion 11
II. 2. Urban unrest in the 1980s 12
II. 2. 1. Immigration and race since the 1970s 12
II. 2. 2. Brixton riots 15
II. 2. 3. Responses to the riots 17
II. 2. 4. Conclusion 20
III. Oldham race riots 22
III. 1. The Oldham Borough 22
III. 2. History 23
III. 3. Geographical distribution 25
III. 4. Causes of the riots 26
III. 5. Course of the riots 27
IV. Debates on the riots 32
Oldham Independent Review 32
Review of Community Cohesion in Oldham 33
IV. 1. Education 34
IV. 1. 1. Pre-16 education 34
Findings and Achievements 34
School segregation 38
IV. 1. 2. Post-16 education and training 41
IV. 1. 3. Summary of recommendations 42
IV. 2. Housing 43
The Cantle Report 46
IV. 3. Employment and economy 47
IV. 3. 1. Employment 48
IV. 3. 2. Unemployment 49
IV. 3. 3. The Ritchie Report recommendations 49
IV. 3. 4. The Cantle Report findings and recommendations 50
IV. 4. Race and Policing 51
IV. 4. 1. The Ritchie Report analysis of policing 52
IV. 4. 2. The Cantle Report Findings and Recommendations 54
IV. 5. Reflections on the reports 55
V. The Way Forward – Conclusion 60
V.1. Summary of findings and recommendations 60
V. 1. 1. Community Cohesion 60
V. 1. 2. Housing 61
V. 1. 3. Education 62
V. 1. 4. Policing and community attitudes 63
V. 1. 5. Employment 64
V. 1. 6. Conclusion 65
V. 2. The concept of race and racial discrimination 65
Works Cited 72
The increasing presence of immigrant communities from different cultural, religious, and racial backgrounds caused that the character of British society has been changing since the second half of the 20th century. Living together of mainstream British culture next to the mosaic of ethnic communities along with other factors contributed to the outbreaks of riots throughout Britain during the 20th century. Their occurrence gave rise to immediate response and provoked considerable political, ideological, and cultural debates. It led to much investigation and academic research on the issue of race and racial discrimination.
The main object of this work is to follow the emergence and course of the riots and to examine debates following the riots in British society. I divide my work into four parts. The first part provides the overview of the main riots since the 1950s. After a brief description of the riots, the work looks in greater detail at the explanation of disorders as well as at the responses and impact of them on many factors in the society.
The second part is devoted to Oldham riots of 2001 which after almost fifteen years of peace came as a surprise in what seemed to be multicultural British society. I pay attention to the history of settlement and geographical distribution of ethnic communities in Oldham providing the data given by the most recent 2001 Census.
The third part analyses debates on the riots and especially two documents – the Ritchie Report issued immediately after the riots and the Cantle Report issued in 2006 to evaluate the improvement in Oldham five years after the riots. Particular emphasis is placed on the issues such as education, housing, employment, economy, and policing. I include the key findings and recommendations of the Ritchie Report and I try to compare it with what was achieved in particular areas during the following five years. I conclude with the further recommendations of the Cantle Report.
The final part draws out some implications of the urban unrest. The aim is to suggest solutions applicable to all the areas affected by the riots, it focuses on problems concerning community cohesion and attitudes, housing, education, employment and policing. The work also pays attention to the questions of ethnic segregation which is visible and permanent in many aspects of life in British society and needs to be dealt with if multicultural society is to be developed. The work also raised the question about the nature of riots, whether they can be considered as racial and whether the concept of race is the source of social conflict. Therefore, the final part also discusses some arguments given by the cultural theoreticians and it offers the recent view of the question of race and racial discrimination.