April 19 Baltimore violence: four soldiers killed (first casualties of the war.) Lincoln orders a naval blockade of Southern ports
Lincoln asks Robert E Lee to take field command of Union forces, Lee resigns joins Confederate army.
July 21- First Battle of Bull Run
August 5- Congress passes first income tax law
January 27- Lincoln issues War Order Number 1-it is ignored
April 6-7 Battle of Shiloh 13,000 Union and 11,000 confederate soldiers are lost--- most losses in a single battle
June 2 Robert E Lee takes command of the confederate army
Sept. 24 Lincoln suspends Habeas Corpus
What is a Writ of Habeas Corpus? A writ of habeas corpus is a judicially enforceable order issued by a court of law to a prison official ordering that a prisoner be brought to the court so it can be determined whether or not that prisoner had been lawfully imprisoned and, if not, whether he or she should be released from custody. The right of habeas corpus is the constitutionally bestowed right of a person to present evidence before a court that he or she has been wrongly imprisoned.
Where Our Right of Habeas Corpus Comes From The right of writs of habeas corpus are granted in Article I, Section 9, clause 2 of the Constitution, which states, "The Privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in Cases of Rebellion or Invasion the public Safety may require it."
The Battle of Antietam Critical turning point: the likelihood of European recognition of the South is reduced.
Lincoln capitalizes on this by issuing the Emancipation Proclamation.
By itself, it doesn’t free slaves, but does change the character and course of the war.
Those critical of Lincoln say that it did not free all the slaves, just those in the confederacy.
Lincoln’s position is that under his war powers he can legally free only those slaves in rebel held territory; it is up to Congress or the states to address the question of universal emancipation.
Confirmed what they believed to be plans to force them to surrender slavery
Saw the proclamation as incitement to slave rebellion
Stiffened their resolve to defend the south against “Yankee” encroachment.
Had 2 other results:
France and England decided not to recognize the Confederacy: did not want to endorse slavery.
In the North the proclamation made the war less popular (poor, white workers were fine to save the Union, less keen on freeing slaves—scared they would take jobs) decline in northern enlistments Conscription Act of March 1863- applies to all men 20-45 unless they are wealthy enough to pay a substitute
January 1 1863 Emancipation Proclamation is signed
January 26 recruit black troops began. (black soldiers fought in every war. . but a 1792 law barred them from the army) The 54th Massachusetts Volunteers are the first black regiment recruited in the North.
185,000 black soldiers in the Union army 166 all black regiments. Nearly 70,000 black soldiers come from Louisiana, Kentucky, and Tennessee.
They are paid less than whites
16 will receive the Medal of Honor.
In the navy ¼ sailors are black.
May 22- Vicksburg begins—key to Mississippi river.
June 20 pro-union West Virginia, severs from Virginia and admitted as the 35th state with a state constitution calling for gradual emancipation.
June 24: Lee’s army changes strategy and cross s the Potomac, heading toward
Gettysburg. The battle takes place July 1-3. Confederate troops in search of shoes meet up with a small Union cavalry. Reinforcements are poured in. FINAL turning point in the war, the Union army takes a strong defensive position and turns back repeated Confederate assaults killing 28,000 = 1/3 of their army. Lee retreats to Virginia.
July 4- General Grant’s long siege of Vicksburg ends in victory.
Several other riots break out in major northern cities:
idea that they were fighting for free slaves and that the wealthy could get out of it. Some northern counties raised taxes so that residents would not have to fight.
Partisan guerrilla wars break out in Kansas, Missouri, and Arkansas. (Jesse James gets his training) People were scalped, slaughters of 180 civilians occurred, Quantrill raids. . .
Grant gains a military edge
Lincoln offers a Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction that will pardon Confederates who take an oath of loyalty
General William Tecumseh Sherman begins his march across the South.
April 14 While watching a comedy at Ford’s Theater, Lincoln is shot by John Wilkes Booth. The first President to be assassinated, Andrew Johnson becomes the president.
April 22 Booth is cornered and shot dead.
Johnson pardons all southerners but one: Major Henry Wirtz, commander of the Confederate prison in Georgia.
What did the Civil War cost America
Union had enlisted 2,324,516 soldiers: approximately 360,000 were killed.
The Confederate army had about 1,000,000 soldiers with losses of 260,000
Union: 6 million
Confederates: 3 million
New Orleans Shiloh Charleston Harbor Port Royal Sound Stones River Battle of the Ironclads Fort Henry and Fort Donelson Vicksburg Gettysburg Atlanta Chattanooga Sherman's Marh to the Sea Appomattox Courthouse