Milestones in the Civil War



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Milestones in the Civil War:

1861
April 12- South Carolina ,Fort surrenders


April 15 Lincoln declares a state of insurrection

April 17 Virginia Secedes

April 19 Baltimore violence: four soldiers killed (first casualties of the war.) Lincoln orders a naval blockade of Southern ports
Lincoln asks Robert E Lee to take field command of Union forces, Lee resigns joins Confederate army.
July 21- First Battle of Bull Run
August 5- Congress passes first income tax law

1862
January 27- Lincoln issues War Order Number 1-it is ignored



April 6-7 Battle of Shiloh 13,000 Union and 11,000 confederate soldiers are lost--- most losses in a single battle
June 2 Robert E Lee takes command of the confederate army
Sept. 24 Lincoln suspends Habeas Corpus

What is a Writ of Habeas Corpus?
A writ of habeas corpus is a judicially enforceable order issued by a court of law to a prison official ordering that a prisoner be brought to the court so it can be determined whether or not that prisoner had been lawfully imprisoned and, if not, whether he or she should be released from custody. The right of habeas corpus is the constitutionally bestowed right of a person to present evidence before a court that he or she has been wrongly imprisoned.

Where Our Right of Habeas Corpus Comes From
The right of writs of habeas corpus are granted in Article I, Section 9, clause 2 of the Constitution, which states, "The Privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in Cases of Rebellion or Invasion the public Safety may require it."

The Battle of Antietam Critical turning point: the likelihood of European recognition of the South is reduced.
Lincoln capitalizes on this by issuing the Emancipation Proclamation.

  • Legalistic document.

  • By itself, it doesn’t free slaves, but does change the character and course of the war.

  • Those critical of Lincoln say that it did not free all the slaves, just those in the confederacy.

  • Lincoln’s position is that under his war powers he can legally free only those slaves in rebel held territory; it is up to Congress or the states to address the question of universal emancipation.

South’s reaction

  • Confirmed what they believed to be plans to force them to surrender slavery

  • Saw the proclamation as incitement to slave rebellion

  • Stiffened their resolve to defend the south against “Yankee” encroachment.

Had 2 other results:

  • France and England decided not to recognize the Confederacy: did not want to endorse slavery.

  • In the North the proclamation made the war less popular (poor, white workers were fine to save the Union, less keen on freeing slaves—scared they would take jobs)  decline in northern enlistments Conscription Act of March 1863- applies to all men 20-45 unless they are wealthy enough to pay a substitute

  • January 1 1863 Emancipation Proclamation is signed

  • January 26 recruit black troops began. (black soldiers fought in every war. . but a 1792 law barred them from the army) The 54th Massachusetts Volunteers are the first black regiment recruited in the North.

  • 185,000 black soldiers in the Union army  166 all black regiments. Nearly 70,000 black soldiers come from Louisiana, Kentucky, and Tennessee.

  • They are paid less than whites

  • 16 will receive the Medal of Honor.

  • In the navy ¼ sailors are black.

May 22- Vicksburg begins—key to Mississippi river.


June 20 pro-union West Virginia, severs from Virginia and admitted as the 35th state with a state constitution calling for gradual emancipation.
June 24: Lee’s army changes strategy and cross s the Potomac, heading toward

Gettysburg. The battle takes place July 1-3. Confederate troops in search of shoes meet up with a small Union cavalry. Reinforcements are poured in.  FINAL turning point in the war, the Union army takes a strong defensive position and turns back repeated Confederate assaults killing 28,000 = 1/3 of their army. Lee retreats to Virginia.
July 4- General Grant’s long siege of Vicksburg ends in victory.

  • Unconditional surrender of 29,000 Confederates.

  • Union possesses the Mississippi.

July NEW YORK- rioting breaks out over the Union Conscription Act- blacks are lynched.

Several other riots break out in major northern cities:

idea that they were fighting for free slaves and that the wealthy could get out of it. Some northern counties raised taxes so that residents would not have to fight.


Partisan guerrilla wars break out in Kansas, Missouri, and Arkansas. (Jesse James gets his training) People were scalped, slaughters of 180 civilians occurred, Quantrill raids. . .
Grant gains a military edge
Lincoln offers a Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction that will pardon Confederates who take an oath of loyalty
1864

General William Tecumseh Sherman begins his march across the South.


Lincoln wins re-election
April 11 Lincolns last public address, he urges a spirit of generous conciliation during the reconstruction.

April 14 While watching a comedy at Ford’s Theater, Lincoln is shot by John Wilkes Booth. The first President to be assassinated, Andrew Johnson becomes the president.


April 22 Booth is cornered and shot dead.
Johnson pardons all southerners but one: Major Henry Wirtz, commander of the Confederate prison in Georgia.

What did the Civil War cost America

Union had enlisted 2,324,516 soldiers: approximately 360,000 were killed.

The Confederate army had about 1,000,000 soldiers with losses of 260,000


Union: 6 million

Confederates: 3 million




Union Victories

Indecisive Battles

Confederate Victories

New Orleans
Shiloh
Charleston Harbor
Port Royal Sound
Stones River
Battle of the Ironclads
Fort Henry and Fort Donelson
Vicksburg
Gettysburg
Atlanta
Chattanooga
Sherman's Marh to the Sea
Appomattox Courthouse

Fair Oaks (Seven Pines)
Perryville
Antietam(9-62)
Wilderness Campaign

Fort Sumter
Bull Run
Jackson's Valley Campaign
The Seven Days (7-62)
The Second Battle of Bull Run
Yorktown
Fredericksburg



Major land battles


The costliest land battles, measured by casualties (killed, wounded, captured, and missing) were:[C]

Battle (State)

Date

Confederate
Commander


Union Commander

Conf.
Forces


Union
Forces


Victor

Casualties

Battle of Gettysburg

(Pennsylvania)



01863-07-01July 1, 1863July 1–3, 1863

Robert E. Lee

George Meade

71,699

93,921

Union

46,286
U: 23,055
C: 23,231

Seven Days Battles

(Virginia)[D]



01862-06-25June 25, 1862June 25 – July 1, 1862

Robert E. Lee

George B. McClellan

92,000

104,100

Confederate

36,059
U: 15,855
C: 20,204

Battle of Chickamauga

(Georgia)



01863-09-19September 19, 1863September 19–20, 1863

Braxton Bragg

William Rosecrans

65,000

60,000

Confederate

34,624
U: 16,170
C: 18,454

Battle of Spotsylvania Court House

(Virginia)



01864-05-08May 8, 1864May 8–21, 1864

Robert E. Lee

Ulysses S. Grant

52,000

100,000

Inconclusive

31,820
U: 18,399
C: 13,421

Battle of Chancellorsville

(Virginia)



01863-05-01May 1, 1863May 1–4, 1863

Robert E. Lee

Joseph Hooker

60,892

133,868

Confederate

30,500
U: 17,197
C: 13,303

Battle of the Wilderness

(Virginia)



01864-05-05May 5, 1864May 5–7, 1864

Robert E. Lee

Ulysses S. Grant

61,025

101,895

Inconclusive

28,791
U: 17,666
C: 11,125

Battle of Stones River

(Tennessee)



01862-12-31December 31, 1862December 31, 1862 –
January 2, 1863

Braxton Bragg

William Rosecrans

35,000

41,400

Union

24,645
U: 12,906
C: 11,739

Battle of Shiloh

(Tennessee)



01862-04-06April 6, 1862April 6–7, 1862

Albert Sidney Johnston,
P. G. T. Beauregard

Ulysses S. Grant

44,699

66,812

Union

23,746
U: 13,047
C: 10,699

Battle of Antietam

(Maryland)



01862-09-17September 17, 1862

Robert E. Lee

George B. McClellan

38,000

75,500

Inconclusive;
strategic
Union
victory

22,717
U: 12,401
C: 10,316

Second Battle of Bull Run

(Virginia)



01862-08-29August 29, 1862August 29–30, 1862

Robert E. Lee

John Pope

50,000

62,000

Confederate

18,300
U: 10,000
C: 8,300


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