Mollusk photo captions

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Yoldia clams (Yoldia species) – These are small, mud-dwelling clams with a boreal distribution. Unlike most clams it is primarily deposit feeders rather than filter feeders.
Baird’s top shell (Calliostoma bairdi) – This is a common snail on muddy sand bottoms on the outer continental shelf.
Bathyal octopus (Bathypolypus arcticus) – This small octopus is found on the outer continental shelf and slope. Males have a distinctive spoon-shaped club for mating at the end of one of the arms, seen here on the left side of the animal.
Calico scallop (Argopecten gibbus) – This colorful cousin of the Atlantic bay scallop is a fisheries resource of the southeastern continental shelf, but is occasionally seen north of Cape Hatteras, NC.
Chestnut Astarte clam (Astarte castanea) – This is a common bivalve in sandy and gravelly habitats on the continental shelf. The chestnut Astarte is one of several species of Astarte clams found in the northeast.
Enope squid (Enoplotheuthis sp.) - This is a deep mid-water species from the continental slope.
Lens lucine (Myrteopsis lens) – These small clams are widely distributed on shelves from New England to South America. Closely related lucine clams (family Lucinidae) are known to harbor chemosynthetic bacteria that derive energy from the oxidation of sulfide issuing from anerobic sediments. These individuals are juveniles.
Lesser bobtail squid (Semirossia tenera) – This small, short-bodied squid is benthic (bottom-dwelling) and does not aggregate into schools as other continental shelf squids do.
Longfin squid (Loligo pealeii) – This most abundant inshore squid species supports a large fishery and spends its entire life, from eggs to adults, on the continental shelf.
Longfin squid (Loligo pealeii) school – Longfin squid are easily caught in commercial quantities in trawl nets because of their habit of schooling near the bottom on the shelf, as seen here. They normally swim head end first with tentacles and arms in front, but can jet backwards (fins first) when in danger. PHOTO CREDIT: Page Valentine, USGS.
Longfin squid (Loligo pealeii) feeding - The camera caught this longfin squid just as it snared a small fish with a lightning-fast thrust of its tentacles. Another similar blue-black fish (probably a lantern fish) can be seen at the bottom center of the picture. PHOTO CREDIT: Page Valentine, USGS.
Mastigoteuthis squid (Mastigoteuthis agassizi) – This is a deep mid-water species from the continental slope.
Northern cardita_ Astarte clam (Cyclocardia borealis and Astarte species) – These two are common bivalves on sandy shelf bottoms in the northeast.
Sea scallop (Placopecten magellenicus) on bottom – A major fishery is based upon these sea scallops, which live on the continental shelf in sandy or sandy gravel areas. PHOTO CREDIT: Page Valentine, USGS.
Sea scallop (Placopecten magellenicus) swimming – Young sea scallops can escape danger by clapping their shells to create jets of water that squirt out around the shell hinge, launching them off the bottom. Here the camera has caught one doing just that. PHOTO CREDIT: Page Valentine, USGS.

Shortfin squid (Illex illecebrosus) – This is a deepwater species that comes onto shelf and schools just off the bottom like the longfin squid, but only during part of the year. Its schooling habit also makes it the target of an important trawl fishery.
Stauroteuthis octopus (Stauroteuthis syrtensis) – This octopus with fins and a gelatinous body is from the continental slope.
Stimpson’s whelk (Colus stimpsoni) – Like its cousin the waved whelk, this is a predatory snail that is sometimes taken as seafood. It is found on the continental shelf from Labrador to North Carolina.
Warty sea slug (Pleurobranchaea tarda) – This is probably the most common shell-less snail on the northeastern continental shelf. It lives on sandy and muddy sand bottoms. Unlike its relatives the nudibranchs, it has a fully functional gill under its mantle and lacks secondary gills on its back. Contracted individuals, as they appear when caught, are on the left, an expanded individual glides along the bottom of a bowl in water on the right.
Waved whelk (Buccinum undatum)- This large snail is a common predator of bivalves on sandy bottoms on the continental shelf in the northeast and Europe. It is fished as seafood.

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