Physics b. Sc (pass) part-i paper-i mechanics marks 100 vector operation

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PAPER-I Mechanics MARKS 100

VECTOR OPERATION: Victor in 3 dimensions: introduction; Direction cosines; Spherical polar coordinates; applications; divergence and curl of a vector and gradient of a scalar their physical applications of each type; Divergence and flux of a vector field and line integral (mutual relation): Divergence theorem: Divergence physical importance and applications to specific case. Converting from differential to integral forms; Stokes theorem.

PARTICLE DYNAMICS: Frictional forces: microscopic basis of this force; Conical pendulum; the rotor, circular the banked curve; Derivation of kinematic equations x (t), v (t) using integration. Constant and non consonant forces and special examples; derivation of time dependent forces using integration method; Effect of drag forces on motion: Applying Newton’s Laws to obtain V (t) for the case of motion with time dependent drag (various) forces; terminal velocity. Projectile motion / air resistance; non inertial forms and Pseudo forces: Qualitative discussion to develop understanding. Calculation of pseudo forces for simple cases (linearly accelerated references frame). Centrifugal force as an example of pseudo force: Carioles force: Limitation of Newton’s Laws Discussion.

WORK AND ENERGY: Work done by a constant force, work done by a variable force (I - dimension) (e.g. vibration of spring obeying Hooks Law); work done by a variable force (II – dimension case): obtaining general expression of force and applying to simple cases e.g. pulling mass at the end of a fixed string against gravity; Work energy Theorem: Qualitative and Derivation using integral calculus. Basis formula; and applications.

POWER: Reference frames: Energy changes with respect to observe & different inertial frames.

CONSERVATION OF ENERGY: Definitions of Conservative and non – conservative forces and examples; work done in a closed path. One dimensional Conservative system: force as the gradient of potential energy: application to the case a spring and force of gravity: Obtaining velocity on terms of U and E; stable and unstable and neutral equilibrium. Analytic solution for x (t); 2,3 dimensional conservative systems: Change in P.E. for motion in 3-d. force as the gradient of the potential. Work done in 2,3 dimensional motion; Conservation of energy in a system of particles: law of conservation of total energy of an isolated system.

SYSTEM AND PARTICLES: Two particles systems and generalization to many particle systems: Centre of mass; Its position velocity and equation of motion; calculation of centre of mass of solid objects using integral calculus. Calculating C.M. of (i) Uniform rod (ii) Cylinder (iii) Sphere; Momentum changes in a system of variable mass: Derivation of basic equation; application to motion of a rocket (determination of its mass as a function of time).

COLLISION: Elastic collisions (one dimension); conservation of momentum during collision (Two dimensions- oblique collisions); Inelastic collision in centre of mass reference frame one and tow dimensions and applications: obtaining velocities in c. m. frame.

ROTATIONAL DAYANAMICS: Overview of rotational dynamics: Relationship between linear and angular variables; scalar and vector forms; kinetic energy of rotation; moment of inertia: Parallel axis theorem: Prove and illustrate and apply to simple cases: Determination of moment of inertia of various shapes: Equation of rotational motion and effects of application of torque; Rotational dynamics of rigid bodies. Combines rotational and transitional motion (Rolling without slipping).

ANGULAR MOMENTUM: Angular velocity; Definition, conservation of angular momentum effects of torque. Stability of spinning object: Discussion with examples; The spinning top: Effects of torque on the angular momentum, processional motion.

GRAVITATION: Review of basic concepts of gravitation; Gravitational effects of spherical mass distribution: Mathematical treatment; Gravitational potential energy: Develop using integration techniques; Calculation of escape velocity; Gravitational field and potential: Develop the idea of field of force; Universal Gravitational law: Motion of planets and Kepler’s law (derivation and explanation). Motion of satellites. Energy considerations in planetary and satellite motion, Qualitative discussion on application of Gravitational law to the galaxy.

BULK PROPERTIES OF MATTER: Elastic properties of matter: Physical basis of elasticity. Tension, Compression & shearing Elastic Modulus; Elastic limit; Fluid statics: Variation of pressure in fluid it rest and with height in the atmosphere; Surface tension: Physical basis; role in formation of drop and bubbles; Fluid dynamics: General concepts of fluid flow streamline and the equation of continuity; Bernoulli’s equation: Derivation and some applications such as dynamics lift thrust on a rocket; Viscosity, physical basis: obtaining the coefficient of viscosity, practical example of viscosity; fluid flow through a cylindrical pipe (Poiseuille’s law).

SPECIAL THEORY OF RELATIVITY: Trouble with classical mechanics: Qualitative discussion of the inadequacy of paradoxes in classical ideas of time, length, and velocity; Postulates of relativity: Statements and discussion; The Lorentz transformation inverse transformation: Derivation, Assumptions on which derived; application of the same transformation of velocities; Consequences of Lorentz transformation: Relativity of time: Relativity of length; Relativistic momentum: Derivation Relativistic energy: Derive E=mc2

Recommended Book:

R. Resnick, D. Halliday and K.S Krane, Physics Volume I & II, 4th Edition, John Wiley & sons Ins, New York. (1992).

Note: - Recommended pattern of question paper

  1. Numerical problems 40%

  2. Theoretical questions 40%

  3. Conceptual questions 20%


HORMONIC OSCILLATIONS: Simple harmonic oscillation (SHM): obtaining and solving the basic equations of motion x (t), v (t). Energy consideration in S.H.M. Application of SHM: Torsional oscillator; physical pendulum, simple pendulum; and uniform circular motion, combination of harmonic motions; lissajous patterns; equation of damped harmonic motion. Discussion of its solution; equation of forced oscillation, discussion of its solution. Examples of resonance.

WAVES: Phase velocity of travelling waves; Sinusoidal waves; Group speed and desperation; Waves speed (Mechanical analysis): Waves equation (Discussion of its solution); Power and intensity in waves motion (derivation and discussion); principal of superposition (basic ideas): Interference of waves, Standing waves. Phase changes on reflections: Natural frequency, resonance.

SOUND: Beat phenomenon (Analytical treatment); Doppler Effect, Moving source, moving observer, both object and source moving.

LIGHT: Nature of light; light as an electromagnetic waves: Speed of light in matter: Physical aspects, path difference, phase difference etc; Interference: Coherence of source; Double slit Interference, Analytical treatment; Adding of electromagnetic waves using phasors; Interference, from thin films: Newton’s rings (analytical treatment); Michelson’s Interferometer. (Michelson’s Interferometer’s use in determining velocity of light); Fresnel’s biprism and its use; Diffraction: Diffraction at single slit; Intensity is single in slit diffraction using phasor treatment and analytical treatment using addition of waves. Double slit interference & diffraction combined. Diffraction at circular aperture; Diffraction from multiple slit: Diffraction grating: use in spectrographs. Dispersion and resolving power of gratings; Holography (Qualitative discussion); Polarization: Basic definition, production of polarization by polarizing sheets, by reflection, by double refraction and double scattering; Description of polarization states: Linear, circular, elliptical polarization; Rotation of plane polarization: use of polarimeter.

THERMODYNAMICS AND STATISTICAL MECHANICS: Review of concepts: Temperature, Kinetic theory of the ideal gas, work done on an ideal gas; Internal energy of an ideal gas: To include the Equipartition of energy: Intermolecular forces (Qualitative discussion); Van deer Waals equation of state. Statistical Distribution of molecular speeds, distribution of energies: Maxell distribution and mean values Mean free path and microscopic calculation of mean free path; Distribution of molecular speeds, distribution of energies: Maxwell distribution; Maxell – Boltzmann energy distribution; Internal energy of an ideal gas; Brownian motion: Qualitative distribution. Diffusion, conduction and viscosity.

HEAT: Review of previous concepts: First law of Thermodynamics, Transfer of heat: First law of thermodynamics and its application to adiabatic, isothermal, cyclic, isothermal, cyclic and free expansion.

ENTROPY & SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS: Reversible and irreversible processes, Second law, Carnot cycle, Carnot engines: Definition, Discussion of heat engines, Refrigerators and second law, Calculation of efficiency of heat engines, Thermodynamic Temperature scales: Absolute zero, negative temperature, (discussion); Entropy: Entropy in irreversible process, Entropy and second law. Entropy & probability; Low temperature physics: Liquefaction of gases: joule- Thomson Effect.

Recommended Book:

R. Resnick, D. Halliday and K.S Krane, Physics Volume I & II, 4th Edition, John Wiley & sons Ins, New York. (1992).

Note:- Recommended pattern of question paper

  1. Numerical problems 40%

  2. Theoretical questions 40%

  3. Conceptual questions 20%



Physics lab- I Mechanics Marks- 50

  1. G by bar pendulum.

  2. G by Kater’s pendulum.

  3. Moment of inertia of a flywheel.

  4. Young modulus for a wire.

  5. Coefficients of static and dynamic friction.

  6. Viscosity by Stoke’s law.

  7. Surface tension of water by Capillary tube.

  8. Modulus of rigidity of a rod.

  9. Modulus of rigidity by static and dynamic methods.

  10. To study the damping features of an oscillating system using simple pendulum of variable mass.

  11. To study the dependence of centripetal force on mass, radius and angular velocity of a body in circular motion.

Physics lab-II Waves, Oscillation and Thermodynamics Marks- 50

  1. Waves length by Newton’s rings.

  2. Refractive index of glass by spectrometer.

  3. Waves length by diffraction grating.

  4. Waves length by Young’s fringes.

  5. Photoelectric cell and inverse square law.

  6. Speed of transverse and longitudinal waves on spring.

  7. Variation of frequency of stretched string with length and tension.

  8. Resonance in air column.

  9. Frequency of a.c main by sonometer.

  10. Velocity of sound in rod by Kundf’s tube.

  11. Investigation of phase change with position in travelling wave and measure the velocity of sound by C.R.O.

  12. Measurement of velocity of light using LASER and a rotating mirror.

  13. Measurement of velocity of specific rotation of sugar by polar meter and determination of sugar concentration in a given solution.

  14. Calibration of thermocouple, metal resistance and thermostat using a digital multimeter.

  15. Specific heat capacity of water by continuous flow method.

  16. Thermal conductivity of good conductor by Searle’s method.

  17. Thermal conductivity of bad conductor by Lee’s method.


B. Sc (Pass) NEW SYLLABUS (2011)

B. Sc (Pass) PART-1

Paper- I: Physical Geography

  1. Universal concept in Physical Geography

    1. Earth’s Origin, shape and size, rotation and revelation, composition and structure, distribution of land water.

    2. Realms of the physical environment

  2. Lithosphere

    1. internal structure of earth

    2. Rocks- origin, formation and types: Igneous Rocks, Sedimentary and Metamorphic Rocks.

    3. Plate tectonics, mountain building

    4. Geomorphic processes – endogenic and exogenic processes and their resultant landforms

    5. Earthquakes and volcanic activity, folding and faulting.

    6. Weathering, mass wasting, cycle of erosion, erosion and deposition.

    7. Landforms produced by surface water, ground water, wind and glaciers.

  3. Atmosphere

    1. Composition and structure of atmosphere.

    2. Atmospheric temperature and pressure, global circulation.

    3. Air masses and fronts

    4. Cyclones and other disturbances

    5. Atmospheric moisture and precipitation.

  4. Hydrosphere:

    1. Ocean deposits, compositions, temperature, and salinity of ocean water.

    2. Movement of the ocean water; waves, currents and tide.

  5. Biosphere:

    1. Eco- systems

    2. Formation and types of soils

Books recommended

  1. Christopher, R.W. (2000), Geo- systems, Prentice – Hall, Inc, USA.

  2. De Blij, H. J. and Muller, P.O. (1996), Physical Geography of the global Environment, USA John Wiley and Sons Inc.

  3. Gabler, R.E Sager, R.J and Wise, D.L(1997), Essentials of Physical Geography, Saunders College Publishing, New York.

  4. King, CAM (1980), Physical Geography,, Oxford, Basil Blackwell.

  5. Mcliveen, J.F.R. (1992), Fundamental of weather and climate, Prentice Hall New Jersey.

  6. Miller, G.T. (1996), Living in the Environment, Principles, connection and solution,, Wadsworth.

  7. Monk , house, F.J. (1996), Principles of Physical Geography, Hodder & Stoughton, London.

  8. Scott, R.C. (1996), Introduction to Physical Geography, West publishing Co. New York.

  9. Strahlar, A.N., Strahlar, A.H. (2004), Physical Environment, John Wiley, New York.

  10. Hussain Majid (2007), Fundamentals of Physical Geography, 3rd edition, Rawat Publications, New Delhi India.

Paper- II: Human Geography

  1. Key concept in Human Geography

  2. Meaning, Scope and status of Human Geography

  3. Basic concept and theories

  1. Environmental determinism

  2. Possibilism, Probabilism.

  3. Cognitive behaviorism

  1. Population and its characteristic

  1. Population distribution, density and growth

  2. Dynamics including fertility, morality and migration,

  3. Population composition; rural and urban population

  1. Natural resources and human activities

  1. Primary, secondary, tertiary, quaternary and quinary

  2. Agriculture, mining, forestry, animal husbandry and poultry.

  3. Industries: cottage, light and heavy

  4. Trade and transport

  5. Tourism

  1. Settlements

  1. Theory of human settlement

  2. Type of settlement,

  1. Rural settlement

  1. Dispersed, nucleated and Ribbon settlement

  2. Rural urban contrast

  1. Urbanization

  1. Introduction to urban structure and theories

  2. Land use and land cover pattern

  3. Commercial, Industrial and residential, open, green spaces/belts and transport.

  4. Presses of urbanization (city size distribution intermediate and primate city etc.)

  1. Environmental issues, causes and remedies

Books Recommended

  1. Becker, A, & Secker (2002), Human Geography: Culture, Society, and Space, New York; John Wiley and Sons

  2. Blij, H.J.D. (2002), Human Geography: Culture, Society, and Space, New York; John Wiley and Sons

  3. Hagget, P. (1997), Geography: A modern Synthesis, London. Harper International.

  4. Harper, H.L. (2003), Environment and Society: Human perspectives on Environmental Issues, New York; Prentice Hall.

  5. Knox, P.L. & S.A. Marston (2003), Places and Regions in Global Context: Human Geography, New York; Prentice Hall. (Pass) New syllabus (2011)

B.Sc(Pass) PART-II

Paper –III: Geography of Pakistan

  1. The Making of Pakistan

  1. Location and geopolitical importance Relations with neighboring states.

  2. The genesis of Pakistan.

  3. The borders of Pakistan and related problems

  4. Administrative setup

2. The land:

a) Physiography .

b) Climate and Climate regions .

c) Soil and vegetation.

3. The People:

a) Population structure, composition and distribution

b) Population change.

c) Urbanization.

4. Economy

a) Agriculture (crops and livestock)

b) Irrigation

c) Power and mineral resources

d) Industries

e) Tourism.

f) Trade

5. Transport and communication

Books recommended

  1. Ahmad Q.S (1964), Geography of Pakistan oxford University press.

  2. Burkey J.S (1991) Pakistan the continuing search for Nationhood, Western Press Oxford UK

  3. Davidson, A.P& Munir Ahmad, (2003), Privatization and the crisis of Agriculturlal Extension The Case of Pakistan (King's Soas studies in Deveiopment Geography Ashgate publishing

  4. Dichter, D (1967), Geography of N-W.F.P oxford University Press .

  5. Imperial Gazetteer of India, (1901), North west frontier province, Government of NWFP printing press Peshawar .

  6. Khan F.K(1991) Geography of Pakistan Oxford University press Karachi

  7. Tayyeb A.(1966)A political Geography of Pakistan oxford university press

  8. Sahibzada, M.A (1960) land use Survey of N.W.F.P, Part-I P and D Department of Government of Pakistan.


Laboratory And field work (GEOGRAPHY)

Practical -1
1. Introduction to maps

a) General Topographical and composite contour maps with the help of given data and information

b) Weather maps of Pakistan.

c) An introduction to aerial photographs and Remote sensing

3. Map projections General principles, classification, choice of projection, merits and demerits, construction of graticule and simple graphic methods of the following projections.

a) Cylindrical simple and Equal area and Mercator's (with table)

b) Zenithal; Gnomonic, stereographic and Orthographic (polar cases)

c) Conical, one and two standard parallels.

Practical –II

1. Simple quantitative techniques and their use in geography.

2. Methods of data collection.

3. Study of frequency distribution.

4. Averages Mean Median and Mode.

5. Mean deviation.

6. Standard deviation.

7. Variance

8. Introduction to basic computing Dos windows word processing and simple graphics.


1. Preparation of distributional maps with the help of symbols line bars shade.

2. Introduction to basic computing Dos windows word processing and simple graphics

3. Introducation to Global Positioning System (GPS) and its basic functions.


1. Instrumental surveying; making of plans with the help of chain plane table and prismatic compass.

2. Field report based on the study of geographical aspects of a selected area/activity

3.Introduction to Global positioning information system(G.I.S).

4. GIS is modern and Computer based cartography techonology.

Books Recommended for practical I, II, III & IV

1. Robinson, A.N (1999) Elements of cartography New yourk john wiley .

3. Leon A and leon; M.(1999)Introduction to computers

4. Burt ET(1996)elements of statistics for Geographers thematic maps design.

5. Khan J A (1993) weather maps interpretation of Pakistan .

6. Benton JR AR (1992)elements of plane surveying .

7. Avery TE and Berlin

8. Panda B.C (2005) Remote Sensing, Principles and applications, viva book private limited New Delhi India

Text Books

  1. Croxton fe & cowden D.j (1964) applied general statistics prentice –hall inc New york

  2. Ferund j.e &williams f.j (1973), modern business statistice prentices hall inc New york

  3. Wolpole R.f (1982) introduction to statistice macmillan publishing newyork

  4. Bancroft G.O sullivan :G(1981)Mathematics and statistics for acconts and business studies .McGraw hill newyork

  5. Dixon W j and massey F.j (1985) introduction to statisticl to statistical analysis mcgra hill book co London .

  6. Yle G.u &kenall mg (1991), an introduction to the theory of statistical Charles griffin &Co ltd London .

  7. Mason R.D lind D A and marchal w .G (2001) statistical techniques in business and economics mcgraw hill new York .

  8. Burden R.L and fairs j.d (2005)Edition Numerical analysis prindle weber and Schmidt boston.




Definition of Statistics ,its scope and limitations, statistical data , nature and sources of data , Qualitative and Quantitative data , Classification and Tabulation methods ,One way and Two way classification ,Graphs and Diagrams, Frequency distribution , Relative and cumulative frequency distributions, Measure of location and Dispersion for ungrouped and grouped data, Moments ,Measure of Skewness and Kurtosis, Sheppard’s correlation , Charller’s check.


Interpolation , Interpolation by graph , Different operators and their properties , Newtons forward and backword formulae, Newtons divided difference formula , Lagrange’s formula , Direct and inverse interpolation , Central difference formula (Gauss,Central,Bessel) Use of programmers and computers.


Progression, Geometric progression, Simple and Compound interest, sinking funds ,annulties, mortgage, terminal values, discounting application to depreciation and investment analysis.


Components of time series , , Methods of isolation of these components , Concepts of cycle , Trends , Seasonal and random movements , Methods of projection and estimation.Uses of time series data in evaluation of G.N.P , N.N.P inflation and deflation.

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