Read the passages and find the best mark the answers

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Read the passages and find the best mark the answers

The official language of the Czech Republic is Czech, a highly complex western Slavic tongue. Any attempt from foreigners to speak Czech will be heartily appreciated, so do not be discouraged if people fail to understand you, as most will be accustomed to hearing foreigners stumble through their language. If you don't know any Czech, brush up on your German, since, among the older generation at least, it is still the most widely spoken second language. Russian, once the compulsory second language has been practically wiped off the school curriculum, and the number of English speakers has been steadily increasing, especially among the younger generation.
1-It is clear from the passage that…………. .

***A)more Czechs speak German than any other foreign language

B)as their own language is so difficult, Czechs prefer German

C)everyone in the Czech Republic speaks several languages

D)Czechs usually laugh at foreigners who try to speak Czech

E)Czechs learn English during childhood and German later

2-The author informs us that……….. .

A)it is now illegal for Czechs to speak Russian

B)Czechs do not want to speak German as it reminds them of the German occupation

C)most Czech schools offer courses in the Russian language

D)the influence of Russia is still felt in certain areas of the Czech Republic

***E)Czechs were once required to study Russian at school

3-This passage would most likely appear in ………… .

A)a grammar book of the Czech language

B)a history book of the Czech Republic

C)a book about English language teaching

***D)a travel guide for the Czech Republic

E)an article on the social history of the Czech people

The religion of the Jewish people, Judaism, is based largely on the teachings of Moses and other leaders as recounted in the Old Testament of the Bible. It is significant for being the oldest monotheistic religion - belief in one supreme being, which is given various names by the Jews themselves, including Yahweh, Jehovah and God. The two other important sacred books are the Talmud and the Torah, which contain the many laws and observances orthodox Jews are supposed to keep. The principal festival is the Feast of Passover: the principal place of worship is the synagogue and the priests are called Rabbis. Judaism is also noted for being the religion from which Christianity and Islam developed. There are about 14 million followers, about 3 million in Israel itself, and the remainder distributed throughout the world.
4-The passage suggests that Judaism is an important religion because …………….. .

A)it has three gods, all of whom are extremely powerful

B)it has many laws that the orthodox must follow

C)Moses was brought up under Jewish tradition

***D)it was the first religion to believe in a single god

E)it has the largest number of followers among the major religions

5-It can be understood from the passage that………….. .

A)Yahweh and Jehovah are the names of Jewish holy writings

B)synagogues are rarely used these days, except by the orthodox

C)the constitution of Israel is based largely on the Torah

D)the job of the Rabbi is to enforce the law of the Talmud

***E)the Jewish religion has at least three important sacred books

6-According to the passage, ………………… .

A)a large majority of the world's Jews live in Israel

***B)Christianity and Islam have historical ties with Judaism

C)Judaism is the most common religion in the world

D)there is quite a strong Christian influence on Judaism

E)the Jewish religion is influenced by the teachings of both Islam and Christianity

Laws are the collection of rules by which any state maintains order within a society. In Great Britain, the law-making process is conducted by Parliament. Proposed new laws are presented as Bills and if, after debate, they are accepted by a majority vote in the House of Commons, they duly become law. In Great Britain, as in most countries, there are several distinct types of laws. Constitutional law is concerned with the processes of the government itself Company law deals with the operation of many of the nation's commercial and financial activities. These are branches of State law, that is, laws made by acts of Parliament. Common law, by contrast, is based on past decisions taken by the courts on various issues.
7-The aim of laws, as described in the passage, is …….. .

A)to punish people who insist on violating them

B)to secure the people's control of the government

***C)to protect the government and people from chaos

D)to increase the government's authority over the people

E)to keep threats to the existence of the state under control

8-The author informs us that Constitutional law………….. .

A)cannot be changed by simple acts of Parliament

B)is composed of several distinct types of Bills

C)causes great concern to Members of Parliament

D)has little bearing on the government of Britain

***E)is related to the way the government does its job

9-As is stated In the passage, the difference between State and common laws is that………. .

A)State laws only effect Members of Parliament, not common people

B)common law was only valid in the past, while State law is still used

C)only State laws actually have financial consequences to the people

***D)the former are made by acts of Parliament, the latter, by the courts

E)the latter is applied to common people, but not to parliamentarians

The term 'castle' is most commonly applied to the fortresses belonging to European kings or important nobles during the Middle Ages. The first of this type were built by the Normans in France, during the eleventh century. They were constructed of wood and consisted simply of a tower built on a mound and stood in a courtyard, which was surrounded by a fence and a ditch. By the twelfth century, the wooden tower had given way to a stone one, containing living accommodation for the whole household, centred on the Great hall, and surrounded by a strong wall. As new methods of attack developed, the outer fortifications became more elaborate in order to withstand them.
10-We can conclude from the passage that…………. .

***A)a castle was a certain type of early defensive structure

B)every noble in the Middle Ages had his own castle

C)the first fortress was built in Europe in the Middle Ages

D)the first castle built by the Normans remained inhabited for a century

E)castles were used for defence, not as residences

11- The author makes it clear that in the12th century, …. .

A)the Normans became less influential in Europe

***B)the towers were built of stone

C)a castle consisted only of a tower

D)a castle was still a residence only for the army

E)castles were strong enough to repel any attack

12-We learn that castles became stronger and more defensive………….. .

A)as new and better construction methods were developed

B)as they began to accommodate larger populations

***C)in reaction to the development of new military strategies

D)as more and more buildings were added for the increasing population

E) when stone and wood were used together as building materials

Mozart made his first visit to Prague with his wife Constance in 1787, staying with his friend and patron Count Thun. A year earlier, his opera The Marriage of Figaro, which had failed to please the opera snobs in Vienna, was given a marvellous reception in Prague. Encouraged by this, he chose to premiere his next opera, Don Giovanni, in Prague rather than in Vienna. He arrived with an incomplete score in hand, and finished it there, dedicating it to the 'good people of Prague'. Mozart's final visit to Prague took place in 1791, the year of his death. The climax of the stay was the premiere of Mozart's final opera, La Calmness di Tito, according to legend, completed on the coach from Vienna to Prague.
13- We learn from the passage that TheMarriage of Figaro………….. .

A)was given its first ever performance in 1786, in Prague

B)was more highly appreciated in Vienna than in Prague

***C)had obviously not been a success in Vienna

D)was clearly the first opera that Mozart had ever written

E)encouraged Mozart to write his next opera Don Giovanni

14-The passage tells us that Mozart…………… .

***A)gave the first performance of Don Giovanni in Prague

B)wrote and performed two complete operas while in Prague

C)only visited Prague twice, 4though he really liked the city

D)died in 1791 while he was visiting Prague to see his opera

E)moved from Vienna to Prague, where he was more appreciated

15-It is mentioned in the passage that La Clemenza di Tito…… .

A)was Mozart's least popular opera in Prague

B)was based on a legend which Mozart had heard in Prague

C)brought Mozart to Prague for a very short visit

D)was given its final form in Prague

***E) was apparently unfinished when Mozart left Vienna

Ever since the 1978 Camp David Agreement and the 1979 peace treaty signed between Egypt and Israel, the Suez Canal has been filled with a constant flow of maritime traffic. It is 163 km long, but still not wide enough to accommodate modern ships sailing in opposite directions. There are plans to widen the canal but, for now, ships can pass only at two points - the Bitter Lakes and Al-Ballan. With a depth of 19,5 metres, the canal is deep enough for most ships, except for super tankers. The canal is the prime source of hard currency for Egypt's troublesome economy. Each of the 50 ships that pass through the canal each day is charged a fee based on its size and weight. The average fee is about $70,000.
16- It is implied in the passage that………… .

A)the famous Camp David is located near the Suez Canal

B)the Suez Canal was constructed sometime after 1979

C)there are no bridges anywhere that cr6ss the Suez Canal

***D)in the period before 1979, fewer ships used the Suez Canal

E)the traffic on the Suez Canal makes shipping dangerous

17- The passage suggests that…………. .

A)the Egyptians could make more money if they widened the Suez Canal

B)without the canal, the Egyptian government would be much better off

C)super tankers must proceed very carefully while going through the canal

***D)the bigger and heavier a ship is, the more it has to pay to use the canal

E)the Israelis get a sizeable commission from the Suez Canal's traffic

18-It can be determined from the figures in the passage that…………. .

A)most ships on the Suez Canal are under 20 metres tail

B)a large ship pays about $1,400 to pass through the canal

***C)the Egyptians make, on average. over $3,500,000 a day from the canal

D)the Suez Canal is less than 20 metres wide in most parts

E)passage through the canal costs almost $100 per kilometre

The Normans originally came from Scandinavia and were of Viking descent. During the tenth century they invaded and conquered the northern part of France, which is still called Normandy. In the next century, under William the Conqueror, they invaded and subdued England. This event brought about the end of Saxon England and saw the start of a new era of English history, with new forms of architecture and a new form of social and political order called the feudal system. It is interesting to note that while William was conquering England, other Norman chiefs sailed down the coast of France and Spain, entered the Mediterranean Sea and conquered Sicily and some parts of southern Italy. Norman knights from France and Italy also played a leading role in the Crusades.
19-It can be determined from the passage that……………… .

A)for centuries, there was a war between the Normans and Vikings

B)before coming to France, the Normans were peaceful people

C)the Normans conquered France with the help of the people living in Normandy

***D)England was conquered by William in the eleventh century

E)the Normans escaped from Scandinavia due to the oppression of the Vikings

20-In addition to changing the government of England, the Normans…………… .

A)incorporated many Saxon words into their language

B)brought an end to the English feudal system

***C)altered the way the English constructed buildings

D)forced the Saxons to help them invade Sicily and Italy

E)ordered the re-writing of English history books

21-From the passage, we understand that…………… .

A)the Sicilians and Italians welcomed the Norman conquerors

***B)the Normans were involved in conflicts in many places

C)the Crusades were lost largely because of the Normans

D)the French and Italians are essentially the same people

E)the Norman chiefs had soldiers of many nationalities

Each year, about 7.000 people in the United States are bitten by poisonous snakes. Fewer than a dozen of these persons die, but many are left with disability of a limb and scarring at the site of the bite. Persons at greatest risk are those who handle snakes for purposes of entertainment, religion or science. Outside the high-risk group, hunters, farmers and fishermen are the most likely to be bitten. The best way to tell the difference between a poisonous and a non-poisonous bite is to identify the snake. A non-poisonous bite doesn't usually cause much pain or swelling, though the wound may bleed freely. When there is any doubt as to whether the snake is venomous, presume that the bite was poisonous and take precautions.
22-According to the passage, the people who have the highest chance of being bitten by a snake are those who ………. .

A)hunt animals for sport or who deal with farming

B)try to catch snakes and put them in captivity

C)are unable to distinguish between different snakes

***D)work directly with snakes or worship using them

E)are very religious and don't think they'll be bitten

23-The passage informs us that in the USA ……….. .

***A)fewer than twelve people die of snakebites annually, although many people are bitten

B)people who have been bitten by snakes get rid of its effects

C)completely in the long term only twelve percent of those who have been bitten by snakes lose their lives

D)farmers and fishermen are more likely to be bitten by snakes than entertainers using snakes

E)many people bitten by snakes are too afraid to revisit the place where it happened

24-The author suggests that if you have been bitten, and haven't managed to identify the snake, …………. .

A)you shouldn't panic but should wait to see whether the bitten area will swell or not

B)you should make the wound bleed in order to remove any poison

C)you can assume you're not at risk if the bite doesn't hurt a lot

D)it is doubtful that the snake that bit you was venomous

***E)you should be treated as if the snake was poisonous

The word 'politics' comes from the Latin politia, meaning 'policy', and politics is generally defined as the science or art of government. Politics has played ah increasing part in human affairs since men and women first organised themselves into societies, and most of history is an account of politics in one form or another. There were brief periods, of relatively free or representative government during the Greek and Roman eras. But until the seventeenth century, politics was mostly the concern of powerful monarchs or other people in positions of high authority, such as church leaders. The rise of political parties during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries introduced the concept of government by consent rather than by force.
25-In the writer's opinion, politics………….. .

A)has always been dominated by monarchs or religious leaders

B)has had little effect on ordinary people since the beginning of history

***C)is really what a great deal of history is about

D)has always been a very expensive business

E)is a much more interesting subject than history

26-Obviously, during the Greek and Roman eras, there were short periods…………. .

***A)when the government members represented the people

B)when people didn't have to give taxes to the government

C)which were completely free from any kind of politics

D)when government members all came from the same, royal family

E)when there was absolutely no government whatsoever

27-It is clear from the passage that in the 17th century………….. .

A)government and politics were always in the hands of kings

B)there was a change in that governments started to rule by force

C)church leaders began to govern countries instead of kings

D)the state of politics was a cause of great concern to most leaders

***E)a radical change in the concept of government began to take place

Rubber trees are tapped - that is, cuts are made in the bark so that the latex, a milk-like Juice, containing about 30-40% rubber, can be obtained. The latex is then processed by exposing it to heat and wood smoke, or by mechanical means, so as to separate the rubber from the 'water, mineral salts, sugars, resins and protein matters. The rubber obtained in this way is known as, 'crude' - latex is extensively used in industry for making foam rubber, products. footwear, dolls etc. Untreated crude rubber is naturally soft and lacks the required strength for making into manufactured articles. To improve its strength and usefulness, it is vulcanised, or heated with sulphur, and the proportion of sulphur used determines the hardness and elasticity of, the rubber.
28-From its description, we can say that latex………… .

A)is a hard substance similar to rubber

***B)must be a fairly thin, white liquid

C)is almost entirely pure rubber

D)is a by-product of rubber

E)is less useful than crude rubber

29-It~s stated in the passage that untreated crude rubber is not used in industry, because…….. .

A)its content of sulphur carries a nasty odour

B)its milky colour is undesirable

C)it lacks any kind of elasticity

***D)it's neither hard nor strong enough

E)it contains far too many impurities

30-In the process of vulcanisation, the principle is, that………… .

A)the heat applied to the mixture should be high enough for rapid evaporation

B)the sulphur contained in the rubber should be extracted as much as possible

***C)how hard or flexible the rubber becomes depends, on its sulphur content

D)the more sulphur is used, the harder and the more elastic the rubber becomes

E)the rubber can be separated from water by being heated at high temperatures

The origins of a written literature can be found in most of the civilisations of the ancient world; in India. China and among the Jewish people, whose great work of literature is the Old Testament of the Bible. However, it is the Greeks whose literature is taken to represent the start of Western literature. Their greatest single contribution was drama, a form of literature that has continued undiminished to the present day. Other literary forms that developed from the time of the ancient Greeks and Romans onward have been poetry in its many different styles and forms, the essay, biography and autobiography, and the novel. Other types of written work from these periods, dealing with such matters as history, philosophy, politics, religion, science and criticism may also be classified as literature from the point of view of style.
31- We understand from the passage that………. .

***A)the Greeks were not alone as writers of early literature

B)The Romans greatly influenced the Greek playwrights

C)Jews wrote the Bible in places like India and China

D)the Jews are responsible for the start of religious writing

E)all ancient civilisations had their own characteristic literature

32-It is clear from the passage that………….. .

A)the best drama ever written was that of the Greeks

***B)drama is only one of many forms of literature

C)drama has become increasingly better through the ages

D)of all Greek literature, only drama remains today

E)Greek and Roman drama contains lots of poetry

33- This passage suggests that written history, philosophy and science………….. .

A)generally appear to have much more style than other literature

B)are quite unrelated to what most scholars usually call literature

***C)can be considered literature because of the way they were written

D)are much more important than forms stitch as drama and poetry

E)frequently receive large amounts of criticism by literary people

Our tour group of forty people made the train Journey from Hong Kong to Guangzhou on Christmas Day, 1979. We were taken to the thirty-three storey White Cloud Hotel. Even though it was only two years old, the rooms and furnishings already seemed frayed and old. Tips were not allowed and the hotel staff appeared rude. Breakfast was served promptly at seven forty-five. Forty fried eggs appeared on forty plates laid out at four separate tables, ten to a table. Most of our group were still asleep in their beds while their eggs awaited them. Metal teapots were banged on to the tables, together with eighty pieces of toast, twenty per table. At nine sharp, breakfast was over. Eggs, tea and toast were taken away by waitresses within five minutes. This was our introduction to life in Communist China.
34-The author makes it clear that the white Cloud Hotel……….. .

A)was really quite a small hotel

B)was modern but lull of antiques

C)had thirty three rooms in total

***D)had rather unfriendly staff

E)was close to a train station

35- It's implied in the passage that breakfast at the White Cloud Hotel……….. .

A)was served from seven to seven forty-five

B)was delivered by room service to some guests

C)could be selected from a wide-ranging menu

D)was generous and delicious with fast service

***E)was served whether guests wanted it or not

36-We can conclude from the author's statements that her overall impression of the hotel was that…………. .

A)it was generally efficient and well-run

B)it was extremely luxurious and relaxing

C)the service was slow and inefficient

***D)it was shabby and totally impersonal

E)the catering at the hotel was superb

By his own account, Quintus Horatius Flaccus was a terrible soldier. He fought for the losing side in civil wars. When the order came to "Attack!", he dropped his shield and ran in the wrong direction. Back in Rome, he got a job as a petty bureaucrat. It was not a very good job, but it left him plenty of time to write. And his writing is what the poet whom we know as Horace is still remembered for to this day. Maybe it is a good thing that he dropped his shield and ran. Who remembers the ones who died, or their cause? This is, perhaps, the proof that the pen really is mightier than the sword!
37-Quintus Horatius Flaccus is best known as ……….. .

A)a terrible soldier

B)a coward who ran away from battles

C)the man who reformed the Roman bureaucracy

D)the man who proved that the pen is mightier than the sword

***E)the poet who wrote under the name of Horace

38-The author believes that …………. .

***A)writers are more memorable than soldiers

B)soldiers who died fighting for a good cause are remembered

C)Rome was a dangerous place for poets

D)it is safer to be a bureaucrat than a poet

E)soldiers are more patriotic than poets

39-We learn from the passage that Horace" job as a bureaucrat……….. .

A)occupied him too much to write poetry

B)prepared him for higher ranks in his later life

***C)was not a high-ranking one

D)proved that he was not a coward

E)was not actually less dangerous than being a soldier

The Hindenburg was the last in a series of airships designed to carry passengers and cargo over long distances. It could carry fifty passengers in twenty-five luxury cabins with all the comforts of a first class hotel. Cruising at 125 km per hour, it could cross the Atlantic in half the time of the great luxury ocean liners, which it had been built to compete with. But in 1937, the Hindenburg came to an unfortunate end in New Jersey just as it was about to land. In spite of extensive safety precautions, the highly flammable hydrogen with which it was filled burst into flames. Remarkably though, sixty-two of the ninety-seven people on board were able to escape.
40-It is clear from the passage that………… .

A)the Hindenburg was one of the most successful airships of all times

***B)the Hindenburg had a component containing hydrogen

C)in speed and size, the Hindenburg was much like a luxury ocean liner

D)the Hindenburg exploded as it was taking off from New Jersey

B)none of the passengers survived the disaster

41-The passage tells us that………… .

A)only the very rich could afford to travel on airships like the Hindenburg

***B) the luxury ocean liners could cross the Atlantic twice the time that an airship could

C)the number of passengers an airship could carry was almost half that of a luxury ocean liner

D)life aboard the great airships was cramped and uncomfortable

E)an ocean liner was slower, but much more luxurious than an airship

42-It is stated in the passage that………… .

A)the Hindenburg was one of the first great airships

B)there were sixty-two people on board at the time of the disaster

C)ocean liners filled with hydrogen often ended up with explosions

***D)after the Hindenburg disaster, there were no more airships of the same type

E)the great airships had a passenger capacity of from twenty-five to fifty passengers

Mountaineering as a sport has developed since about 1857, when the Alpine Club was founded in London. Earlier, climbers did not climb for pleasure but for some scientific or monetary motive, Dr Paccard of Chamonix was the first to scale Mont Blanc, in 1786, to show that man could live above the snow-line, but it was the lectures of Albert Smith, who climbed the peak in 1851, that kindled British interest. In 1854, Wills climbed the Wetterhorn and eleven years later, Whymper made his famous ascent of the Matterhorn. By 1880, all the major peaks of the Alps had been scaled, and so climbers went further afield to the Andes and the Himalayas.
43-The passage states that before the 1850s, ……….. .

A)one had to pay in order to climb mountains

B)mountain climbing cost a lot of money

C)the Alpine Club opened in London

D)people only climbed for research purposes

***E)climbing was not regarded as a hobby

44-British People in general first paid attention to mountaineering when………. .

A)Mont Blanc was climbed for the first time

B)the Alpine club was initially founded in London

C)they realised that man could live above the snow-line

***D)a man made a series of, speeches on the subject

E)Dr Paccard climbed Mont Blanc in 1786

45-It is implied that European climbers first started climbing mountains outside Europe………….. .

A)because the Alps in Europe took far too long to climb

B)once they had been inspired by Albert Smith's lectures

C)in order to obtain the sizeable financial benefits on offer

D)so that they could make field maps of other areas

***E)as they wanted to climb previously unclimbed mountains

Fossil analysis reveals that at least five periods in the last 600 million years have seen a drastic reduction in the number of species of flora and fauna on the Earth. However, on previous occasions such changes were brought about by asteroids or dramatic climatic changes. Experts in general believe that this decline is the work of man. The dominance of a single species type, homo sapiens, threatens to turn the rest of the living 'world upside down. With a population of barely six billion, humans are rapidly destroying irreplaceable ecosystems. This sixth round of global dying of species could be far larger than the first five.
46-According to the passage, the dominant belief among scientists is that……….. .

A)throughout history there have been periods when many species of life have become extinct

B)the present climatic change known as global warming is probably a natural phenomenon

C)the Earth is in danger of being struck by an asteroid

***D)the present decline in the number of species is caused by the activities of mankind

E)we are experiencing the fifth period of species dying out

47-From the passage, we understand that the term "homo sapiens” is…………. .

A)a method of analysing fossils

B)a way of referring to a large number of species of flora and fauna

***C)another term for the human race

D)an irreplaceable ecosystem which is being destroyed

E)a hostile environment in which many species die

48-The author predicts that …………. .

A)there will be no harmful effects from so many species dying

B)the world might be turned upside down by colliding with an asteroid

C)mankind will find a solution to the problem

***D)more species may die out this time than ever before

E)the human population will soon reach six billion

Rays of sunlight travel from 150 million kilometres away, and when they reach the Earth, they are parallel rays. The curve of the Earth means that the rays are vertical at the Equator but at quite a low angle when they reach temperate latitudes. As the rays lose heat passing through the atmosphere, the more direct the journey, the greater the heat which penetrates through to the surface of the Earth. The vertical rays in equatorial latitudes mean that it is much hotter at the Equator than it is in the regions where the sun's rays strike at a low angle. It is these variations in temperature that are largely responsible for the changes in weather.
49-The purpose of this passage is to explain…………. .

A)the distance between the Earth and the Sun

B)why sun-rays travel in a vertical position

****C)why the weather is different in different parts of the Earth

D)why sun-rays are parallel when they reach the Earth

E)the way in which the Earth goes around the Sun

50-From the information given in the passage, it is clear that…………. .

***A)temperate regions are cooler than equatorial regions as sun-rays travel through more atmosphere to reach them

B)it is hotter in equatorial regions because they are closer to the Sun

C) when it is summer in the northern hemisphere. it is winter in the southern hemisphere

D)sun-rays lose heat in passing through space

E)summer is when the Earth is closest to the Sun

51-The angle at which the sun's rays strike the surface of the Earth is determined by……. .

A)the density of the Earth's atmosphere

B)the parallel nature of the sun-rays

C)the direct journey which the sun-rays make to equatorial regions

***D)the curvature of the Earth

E)the variations in temperature on the Earth

The concept of a national library is a recent one in. the developing countries. In the developed countries, national libraries have existed since at least the sixteenth century. By the nineteenth century, most countries in Europe had already established national libraries. The typical national library is meant to be the finest collection of books in the country, the national book archive, and a source of national pride. Although it is important for a national library in a developing country to collect the national literature, and any other literature pertaining to that country, it is also important for the library to collect a wide range of scholarly literature published in other countries.
52-We learn from the passage that………. .

A)every country must have a national library.

B)national libraries only exist in developed countries

C)by the nineteenth century most developing countries had established national libraries

***D)developed countries have had national libraries for longer than developing ones

E)a national library is relatively easy to establish

53-According to the passage, in the 19th century, there were few………… .

***A)European countries without a national library

B)developing countries that hadn't established a national library

C)libraries in the developing countries owning books published in other countries

D)libraries having the finest collection of world literature

E)developing countries having a work of literature that has existed since the l6thcentury

54-The author believes that a national library in a developing country should……….. .

***A)contain the country's written works as well as foreign scholarly works

B)try to be better than a similar library in a developed country

C)take into account the prevailing climatic conditions of the country

D)develop a concept that has existed for a longer time in developed countries

E)establish guide-lines for the national literature

The 'forest fire season' in Canada generally extends from the latter part of April to mid-October. During last year's fire season, 9,317 forest fires burned a total of 2,618,299 acres of forest land. Weather conditions contributing to fire spread, coupled with unusually frequent and violent electrical storms, resulted in one of the most severe outbreaks of forest fires on record. Over the, season, 35.3% of all fires 'were caused by lightning. While these fires are generally considered to be more disastrous because of their tendency to start in difficult-to-reach areas -'88% of the total acreage burned last was attributed to lightning - man is nonetheless responsible for the greatest portion of forest fires. Human negligence was blamed 'for a total of 6,018 forest fires last year.
55-The passage informs us that last year's forest fires were Particularly bad because of......... .

***A)unfavourable weather conditions, combined with violent lightning

B)the amount of damage caused to wildlife

C)the inefficiency of the fire-fighters in reaching the burning area quickly

D)the unusually long 'forest fire season’

E)human ignorance and carelessness

56-We are told that fires started by lightning cannot easily be controlled because…….. .

A)they are extremely violent and severe

B)they happen so frequently

***C)they usually start in inaccessible places

D)they generally take place at night

E)storms make it hard for firemen to work

57- In view of the figures given In the-age, most of the damage caused by forest fires last year

A)was a result of fires started deliberately by humans

***B)came from fires which were started by lightning

C)resulted from the lack of, people available to fight fires

D)happened because of fires started accidentally by humans

E)came about because people lit fires in remote places

That evening we arrived in Delhi, the great walled city of the Mogul Empire, scattered with tombs and forts, many decayed or built over. Some scholars say that there are seven cities on the sites of Old and New Delhi, while some say more. The history is rich and stretches back centuries. At one time, Shah Jahan, the ruler who built the Taj Mahal, reconstructed Old Delhi, restoring large bazars and streets leading to the fortress. As there was no wall on the eastern side, where the River Yumuna flows; Delhi was sacked regularly over the centuries, the last time being in the eighteenth century, when the Persian ruler Nadir Shah looted treasures that included the Peacock Throne and the Koh-i-noor diamond.
58- From the description in the passage, It is apparent that Delhi …….. .

A)is about seven centuries old, according to some scholars

B)has obviously not changed very much since it was first built

C)is an extremely wealthy city, with many rich inhabitants

***D)is full of poorly-maintained and neglected historical sites

E)was completely surrounded by walls during the Mogul Empire

59- We understand from the passage that Shah Jahan ……… .

***A)was interested in restoration and new buildings

B)was one of the earliest rulers of Old Delhi

C)built the Taj Mahal in the suburbs of Old Delhi

D)constructed several large bazaars as well as a fortress

E)built the Taj Mahal and Old Delhi at the same time

60-From the information in the passage, It is likely that Nadir Shah…….. .

***A)entered the city of Delhi from the eastern side

B)was the first raider to enter Delhi after the 18th century

C)was the only ruler to enter Delhi successfully in centuries

D)paid a lot of money for the goods he got in Delhi

E)only took the Peacock Throne and the Koh-i-noor diamond from Delhi

The shiny metal supermarket shopping trolley. port of the landscape since the 1960s, is on the way out. Sainsbury's is introducing what it calls a bionic trolley, made of recyclable plastic, which is lighter, easier to control and, in theory, lasts for ever. Its headquarters in Ashford, Kent, has ordered 450 plastic trolleys and eventually the company plans to replace 250.000 metal ones at its 395 stores. The new brightly coloured plastic trolley is made of a substance called Durethan, which is a recyclable material used for making cars. The only metal part of the trolley will be the nuts used to hold it together. A Sainsbury's spokeswoman said that unlike the existing metal trolleys, which have to be removed from service if damaged and have an average life of seven years. the new trolleys can be taken apart and repaired.
61-We may conclude from the passage that the old supermarket trolleys………… .

A)were supposed to last for ever when they were first introduced

B)are being replaced in response to customer demand

C)are not at all heavy or difficult for shoppers to use

D)are often removed from the shops and left lying around

***E)are less environmentally-friendly than the new ones

62-It is obvious from the passage that Sainsbury's .…. .

A)plans to supply the new trolleys to other firms

***B)is a company which runs a chain of supermarkets

C)is replacing all its trolleys with 450 plastic ones

D)will be constructing its own trolleys from Durethan

E)has about 250.000 plastic trolleys in storage

63-One way in which the new 'bionic' trolleys differ from the old metal trolleys is that……. .

A)the new ones will only have to be repaired about every seven years

B)the old style of trolley has to be repaired on a regular basis

C)the old metal ones have to be sent away for regular servicing

D)the new ones will last for about seven years longer than the old ones

***E)the new trolleys are reparable and thus don't have to be replaced

In 1948. in an effort to stabilise the currency, the Chinese government announced the issue of a new form of currency, called the Gold Yuan Certificate. This measure was necessary because the people had lost all confidence in the old currency, called the Fa Bi. Inflation had escalated to the point where one US dollar was worth 11 million Fa Bi Official announcements called for all Chinese to turn in their old banknotes, their gold and silver and their foreign currency. Gold Yuan Certificates would be given in exchange, supposedly backed by gold and each worth four to one American dollar. Immediately there was a gold rush, as most private depositors withdrew their precious metals and foreign currency from local banks, because no one with common sense believed that there was any gold to back those certificates.
64-The writer states that the Chinese government had to issue the Gold Yuan Certificates………… .

A)in response to people and banks hoarding foreign currency

B)owing to financial pressure from American bankers

C)after the supply of the Fa Bi dropped to an all-time low

***D)because the people had lost faith in the old currency

E)in order to compete with the American dollar on an equal basis

65-We learn that the Gold Yuan Certificates………. .

A)represented gold actually held by the Chinese government

***B)were the invention of the Chinese government's efforts to combat inflation

C)were each worth approximately eleven million Chinese Yuan

D)could be readily exchanged for American dollars at most banks

E)were intended by the government to be used alongside the old Fa Bi

66-One may deduce that people rushed to take their valuables out of the bank…….. .

***A)because they believed the certificates were worthless

B)in order to buy more gold in the gold rush

C)because banks were going bankrupt

D)so that they could buy Gold Yuan Certificates

E)because they wanted to buy US dollars

Cities are a universal symbol of civilisation. They have been found in every country that has gone beyond a simple agricultural economy, regardless of whether there was industrial or technological development. The history of civilisation is the history of the city. From their origins as places where people gathered for mutual safety or defence, cities have gone on to become marketplaces for goods and ideas, seats of government, and centres of religious devotion. By division of labour and by easing communication between people, cities created the opportunity to invent new technologies and new ways of viewing life. While many individual geniuses have come from rural backgrounds, it has been in the cities that they have found inspiration and scope for their talents.
67- The author argues that cities……… .

A)have only arisen in countries that are industrially or technologically developed

B)are also centres of agricultural activity and development

***C)are a worldwide phenomenon and have cultural and historical significance

D)have developed in every country that has had a simple agricultural economy

E)have created more geniuses than have rural areas

68-We learn from the passage that initially, cities ………. .

A)were simply places where people could find work

B)were primarily marketplaces where goods were traded

C)had importance. as governments were located there

***D)functioned as places of safety in times of danger

E)were centres where people gathered for religious reasons

69-The author suggests that geniuses……….. .

A)are almost never found in the country as they are of little use in such an environment

B)eventually come to realise that they are better off in the stimulating setting of the city

C)visit cities to get ideas and then return to their houses in more peaceful rural places

D)have no chance to improve themselves in intellectually uninspiring rural situations

***E)can be born anywhere, but have more opportunity to develop their talents in cities

One of the strangest sea stories is that of the sailing ship Mary Celeste. On November 5th 1872, she left New York bound for Genoa with a cargo of industrial alcohol and eleven people on board. A month later, she was seen by another ship, but the captain noticed that the Mary Celeste was sailing strangely, and decided to investigate. He found the ship to be completely deserted. The sails were set and in good condition, there was plenty of food and water, all the crew's personal possessions were on board, and there was food and drink on the cabin table. No one has ever been able to explain what happened, though there have been explanations varying from a mutiny among the crew to aliens in a spaceship taking everyone away.
70-The reason why there was no one on board the Mary Celeste………… .

A)was discovered by the captain of another ship

B)is that aliens took the captain and crew away in a spaceship

C)took several years to be discovered

***D)has never been found

E)was the mutiny among the crew

71-The Mary Celeste was sailing strangely because…….. .

***A)there was no one on board to sail the ship

B)it was not big enough to resist the giant ocean waves

C)the sails were not set properly

D)the ship was too heavy because of the crew's personal possessions

E)her cargo of industrial alcohol was above her capacity

72-It is clear from the passage that…….. .

A)there was a mutiny among the crew

B)the Mary Celeste was one of the finest sailing vessels of her day

C)the Mary Celeste was not well equipped for a long voyage

***D)the people on board the Mary Celeste disappeared inexplicably

E)the crew of the Mary Celeste had been hit by an epidemic

We are all born with a number of instinctive physical reactions, things we do automatically, which are called primitive reflexes. One of the most interesting is called "grasp reflex". If you touch the palm of a baby's hand, the fingers will close around, whatever object is doing the touching. The baby's grip is so strong that if a baby grasps a rod with both hands, it can be lifted right off the ground. Some psychologists think that this goes back to our evolutionary past when we had to be able to hang on to tree branches or to our mother's fur as she moved. The reflex disappears at about six months of age.
73-We understand from the passage that primitive reflexes……….. .

A)are concentrated in the palm of a baby's hand

B)are a way of lifting babies off the ground

C)sometimes disappear after six months

***D)are things which we do automatically from the time we are born

E)are objects about which babies' fingers tend to close

74-It is clear from the passage that………….. .

A)human babies are good at hanging on to tree branches

B)psychologists make babies hang from tree branches to test their theories

C)until six months of age babies think their mothers have fur

***D)very young babies are sometimes stronger than we might think

E)only people living in primitive conditions have reflexes

75- According to some psychologists, ………….. .

***A)"grasp reflex" can be explained by the evolutionary phases of the human species

B)a baby's grip is much stronger among the members of primitive societies

C)lifting a baby off the ground provides good exercise for growing babies

D)babies instinctively hang onto their mothers

E)human beings are all born with a number of instinctive physical reactions

In 1857, when scholars in the new reading room of the British Museum looked up from their books, they could gaze upon the inspiring vastness of the blue and copper dome above them. By the time it closed, 140 years later, they were cursing the many hours they had to look at the dome while they waited for their books to arrive. A book would seldom arrive within two hours of being ordered, and sometimes readers would have to wait up to two days. This was because, in addition to the museum, the books were stored all over London, and some as far away as a depot in Yorkshire.
76- We learn from the passage that……… .

A)after 140 years, the once beautiful dome had become ugly

***B)the reading room of the British Museum closed in 1997

C)readers protested against the closure of the reading room

D)the staff of the reading room of the British Mu8eum were helpful and efficient

E)the dome of the reading room of the British Museum attracted readers more than the books

77-The passage states that readers in the reading room of the British Museum……….. .

A)were actually there to admire the architecture of the building

B)requested the authorities to keep the books on the premises

C)did not mind waiting for their books because the building was so beautiful

D)often complained about the inefficiency of the staff there

***E)often had to wait a long time for their books to arrive

78- According to the passage, the books read in the reading room of the British Museum ……. .

A) were published over a period of 140 years

B)attracted scholars from all over London and as far away as Yorkshire

***C)were not always stored there

D)were so boring that readers preferred to look at the dome

E)included the best examples of the national literature

The piranha, in spite of its tiny size, is one of the most feared fish in the world. Piranhas live in the Aaron River, have very sharp teeth, and are capable of eating four times their body weight daily. This would not be so bad, if it were not for the way they attack in numbers. Even the smallest movement, like splashing your hand in the water, is enough to attract 300 piranhas in an instant A piranha attack can transform a live cow into a skeleton in a matter of minutes. When there is nothing else to eat, they will even eat each other.

79-According to the passage, the piranha…………. .

A)is the world's smallest fish

B)would not be so bad if it was better understood

***C)has sharp teeth and a large appetite

D)lives largely on a diet of its own species

E)is a salt water fish, similar to the shark

80-The passage tells us that…………… .

***A)piranhas are dangerous because so many of them gather to attack their prey

B)a single piranha can eat a cow in a matter of minutes

C)the average piranha eats four other piranhas every day

D)piranhas are useless because they are not edible

E)the Amazon River is full of cow skeletons

81-It is stated in the passage that in the absence of food, piranhas………….. .

***A)feed on each other

B)migrate to other rivers

C)get smaller in size

D)face a decline in their numbers

E)attack anything moving in the water

On August 11, 1911, the Mona Lisa, Leonardo da Vinci's masterpiece, was stolen from the Louvre Museum in Paris. The thief, Vincenzo Peruggia, a Louvre employee, stored the painting in the false bottom of a trunk in his flat for two years and then tried to sell it to his native Italy for $95,000. Italian officials promptly arrested him and returned the 300-year old masterpiece to France without a scratch. At his trial in Florence, Peruggia convinced the jury that his act was one of patriotism - that his sole motive was to return the famous painting to the land of its creator. Because of this declaration, he received a relatively light sentence of 1 year and 15 days.
82- It's understood from the passage that the thief, Vincenzo Peruggia, ……….. .

A)stole the Mona Lisa at the wish of the Italian authorities

***B)was an Italian living and working in 'France

C)had stolen many other priceless works of art

D)was a master criminal wanted in many countries

E)was a descendant of Leonardo da Vinci

83-After its two-year stay in Peruggia's flat, the Mona Lisa……….. .

A)had a few scratches on its surface

B)was found by the French police

C)had been totally destroyed

***D)was completely undamaged

E)was sold to an Italian museum

84-Peruggia's trail resulted in a somewhat easy punishment because……… .

A)his crime was considered a minor one

B) the Jury believed that the Mona Lisa actually belonged to Italy

C)the Mona Lisa was not damaged at all

D)the painting was safely returned to the Louvre Museum

***E)the Jurors were moved by his love of Italy

A century ago, the feats of the magician Harry Houdini thrilled audiences in Europe and America. We now remember him for his daring escapes from strait-jackets, chains and locked chests. His astonishing illusions of stage magic are all but extinct in the West, but are alive and thriving in the East. The reason is simple., Houdini's kind of magic relied or potent chemicals, which were easy to get in Victorian times. Today, however, the people in the West are more safely conscious, and there is little hope ,of finding the highly toxic ingredients necessary for Houdini's spells. But if you visit any Indian bazaar, even in the smallest towns, you can buy anything from phosphorus to nitric acid at bargain prices.
85-Harry Houdini……….. .

A)was an Indian who performed his tricks mostly in Europe and the USA

***B)was a famous magician who lived about a hundred years ago

C)was the least safety-conscious chemist of the Victorian era

D)used to buy all his chemicals in Indian bazaars

E)had his life changed by a visit to India

86- It is stated in the passage that………. .

***A)the sort of magic Houdini performed a century ago can be seen in India today

B)Houdini's kind of magic died out because it was boring, due to its extreme safety

C)famous magicians such as Houdini perform in Indian bazaars

D)Houdini cheated his audiences because he used chemicals instead of real magic

E)India has produced some of the most famous magicians in the world

87-The author believes that………… .

A)we can easily find the chemicals used by Houdini anywhere in the world

B)the people in the West no longer like magical performances

***C)Westerners are more interested in their safety now than, In the past

D)Houdini took the secrets of his craft to India before he died

E)chemicals needed by magicians should be freely available to everyone

There are two kinds of water pollution. The first is when rubbish, sewage or chemicals are thrown into the water. This waste upsets the natural environment and can prove dangerous or fatal to fish and other life in the water. The second type of pollution is thermal, or warm water pollution. This is most commonly caused by hydroelectric power plants. These take water from a lake or river, convert it into steam for running the plant's turbines, change the steam back into water, then return the water to the original lake or river. Though this water is no dirtier than when it was taken out, it is often five to ten degrees above its original temperature. This causes a change in the environment which can be as dangerous to, aquatic life as waste 'pollution.
88-It is stated In the passage that …………. .

A)thermal pollution is more dangerous than pollution from rubbish or chemicals

B)warm water pollution Is as harmful as thermal pollution

C)hydroelectric plants put dirty water back into the environment

***D)thermal pollution occurs when the temperature of a river or lake is raised

E)aquatic life is merely disturbed by thermal pollution

89-Rubbish, sewage or chemicals………… .

A)are all part of the natural environment

***B)can kill aquatic life when they are thrown into the water

C)are the main cause of warm water pollution

D)are by-products of hydroelectric plants

E) have, on occasions, proved to be beneficial to aquatic life

90-The author argues that……….. .

A)there is nothing that can be done to correct thermal pollution

B)water pollution is a fact of life that we must learn to live with

C)tile world would be better off without hydroelectric power stations

D)fish are less affected by the second kind of pollution than by the first

***E)both kinds of pollution are equally bad for the natural environment

The SAT is a a-hour test of both verbal and mathematical abilities which is used as part of the process for evaluating applicants for admission to American universities. In 1995, the College Board, which administers the SAT, re-centred the scoring scale for the test. It did so by re-establishing the original average score of 500 on the 200-800 scale. The scale had not been adjusted since 1941, when it reflected the norm of some 10,000 students, frequently from public schools and applying to the nation's most selective universities. Over the years the average score had shifted below 500 as a larger number of students began taking the test, and verbal and maths scores had ceased to become comparable. Now the scores represent a more diverse university-bound population of about 2 million students.
91-The passage informs us that the SAT test……………. .

A)has ceased to be used by the nation's most selective universities

***B)is one of the tests used to evaluate potential university students

C)is the only criterion used for university acceptance in America

D)can only be used to test either maths or language, but not both

E)has recently evolved into a multi-million-dollar industry in the USA

92- It's mentioned in the Passage that…………….. .

***A)formerly those who entered for the SAT were often from public schools

B)the results of the SAT are no longer important to students

C)the SAT test has become much more difficult over the years

D)the average score on the SAT has remained virtually unchanged since 1941

E)no university applicant has ever got an SAT score of 800

93-The article tells, us that the average score on the SAT ……. .

A)rose dramatically in 1995 because of the number of students taking it

B)can be either 200 or 800 in any given year

C)was achieved by approximately 2 million students in 1995

***D)dropped a bit during the period from 1941 to 1995

E)cannot be computed due to the large numbers used

In the face of advancing Japanese troops during World War II, US and Filipino forces under General Douglas MacArthur abandoned Manila and retreated west to the Bataan Peninsula. Crippled by malaria, weakened from their decision to share their food rations with the civilians, and demoralised after MacArthur's departure for Australia, the surviving defenders surrendered when they became convinced that no outside help would arrive. What followed became known as the Bataan Death March. The Japanese led 55,000 American and Filipino prisoners on a brutal six-day, 120-mile trek to a prison in the Pampanga Province. Each day on the way ended with the slaughter of all prisoners too ill to continue. More than half the captives died in this way and another 25% perished in the camp before the war ended.
94-According to the passage, General MaCArthur………….. .

A)ended the war in the Pampanga prison camp in Bataan

B)ordered his soldiers to march across the Bataan Peninsula

C)suffered from malaria and gave his food to the civilians

***D)had gone to Australia before the soldiers surrendered

E)decided to march to Australia to avoid being captured

95-The passage tells us that the march to Pampanga Province …. .

A)started after the prisoners had tried to escape

***B)ended at a prison camp after nearly a week

C)was led by thousands of Americans and Filipinos

D)cost the lives of 55,000 Americans and Filipinos

E)was stopped when everyone was too ill to go on

96-The author implies that by the end of the war, …………… .

***A)fewer than one-fourth of the original prisoners were still alive

B)only the Filipino prisoners had survived the ordeal

C)the Japanese had murdered all of the captured soldiers

D)the remaining 40,000 soldiers continued to help in the war effort

E)no one had come to help the survivors at the prison camp

New research suggests that among smokers who get lung cancer, women are nearly twice as likely as men to develop the most deadly form of the disease. Experts say that the British study represents the first time scientists have discovered a significant difference between the sexes in the risk of small-cell lung cancer. Virtually always caused by smoking, it is the hardest form of lung cancer to treat successfully. The study showed that women under 65 were 1.7 times more vulnerable than men to small-cell lung cancer, which spreads so rapidly that by the time it is diagnosed, it is usually too late to operate.
97-The most deadly form of lung cancer…………. .

A)is more likely to develop in men than in women

B)accounts for 17 percent of deaths among women under the age of 65

C)is more common in Britain than anywhere else

D)is caused by smoking in rare cases

***E)tends to spread too quickly to be treated by surgery

98-It has only recently been discovered that small-cell lung cancer ……….. .

A)also affects women as frequently as it does men

B)can be successfully treated

C)is the worst type of cancer

***D)is more common among- women than among men

E)can be diagnosed in earlier stages

99-It is stated in the passage that …………… .

A)scientists are hopeful of finding a cure for small-cell lung cancer

B)new research into cancer is good news for anyone suffering from the disease

***C)the chance of overcoming cancer is the lowest for patients with small-cell lung cancer

D)British scientists were the first to discover small-cell lung cancer

E)small-cell lung cancer is diagnosed 1.7 times more effectively in women under

One of the most famous panics in the United States was begun by a radio broadcast. In 1938, CBS radio broadcast a dramatisation of a science fiction novel by H.G. Wells called 'War of the Worlds". It told the story of an invasion from Mars with the Martians landing in New Jersey and taking over New York fifteen minutes later. The story was told in a realistic fashion with the actors playing reporters giving "live" reports from the scene. At the beginning of the broadcast, there was an announcement that the story was fictional, but most people tuned in too late to hear it. As a result, there were traffic jams all over New York and New Jersey as people tried to flee what they thought was a real invasion.
100- According to the passage…………. .

**A)a panic was caused by people believing a fictional radio broadcast

B)H.G. Wells was a famous non-fiction author

C)a reporter named H.G. Wells spread a fictional story to frighten people

D)Martians landed in New Jersey in 1938

E)reporters giving live reports playe4 a trick on people

101-One reason people panicked was that………….. .

***A)the majority of them missed the announcement that the story was fiction

B)New Jersey, which was invaded by Martians, was very close to New York

C)people believed that Martians were cruel and frightening creatures

D)CBS radio was known for its serious documentary programs

E)the television scenes were so realistic that almost anyone would believe them

102-One generalisation we can make from the passage is that … .

A)Martians have the power to take control of New Jersey and New York in just 15 minutes

B)New York and New Jersey often suffer from traffic jams

C)H.G. Wells wrote stories credible enough to take in everyone

D)radio stations often broadcast fictional stories deliberately to cause a panic

***E)sometimes people will believe things no matter how improbable they are

The worst hurricane in memory to hit the south-eastern part of the North Carolina coast was Hurricane Hazel in 1954. This storm destroyed every building on three islands. Apparently, the disaster didn't occupy people's minds for long, as in the decades that followed, beach houses sprang up everywhere, most of which were built by people who had never experienced a major storm. By the time Hurricane Fran struck in 1996, so dense was the development that a storm weaker than Hazel inflicted much greater damage. A man who had his newly renovated beach front home commented that he had had no idea that a storm could simply sweep his house away.
103-After Hurricane Hazel hit the North Carolina coast in 1954, ………… .

A)strict building codes made it impossible to build in coastal areas

B)every building in North Carolina was destroyed

***C)people seemed to forget how bad the destruction had been

D)the president declared a National Disaster

E)Hurricane Fran followed soon after

104-It can be inferred from the passage that the beach houses built after 1954 were……….. .

A)constructed by the native inhabitants of the area

***B)mostly built by newcomers to the area

C)better built than the earlier ones

D)mostly destroyed by Hurricane Hazel

E)able to withstand more powerful storms due to new building technology

105- It is stated in the passage that compared to Hurricane Hazel, Hurricane Fran……….. .

A)inflicted greater damage because it was a much stronger storm

B)was responsible for more deaths because the area was more densely populated

C)was a weaker storm and so caused less damage

D)led to about the same amount of destruction

***E)caused greater destruction even though it was a weaker storm

The prospectors who braved the Canadian winters to find gold in the Yukon and Klondike Rivers experienced the most difficult conditions imaginable. Every man who entered the area had to carry a years supply of food and mining equipment over the steep and frozen mountain passes. In order to do this, each man had to carry 25 kilos of stores about 10 kilometres, leave it there, and return for another load. Therefore to remove all of his stores less than 80 kilometres, each man had to walk nearly 1500 kilometres. It is estimated that of the 100,000 men who set out for the Klondike, fewer than 40,000 actually arrived. Only 4000 ever found gold, and very few of these became rich.
106-It is stated in the passage that ………… .

A)about 40% of the men who tried to find gold in the Klondike became rich

B) only about 4% of the people who set out for the Klondike actually arrived

C) each of the 40,000 men had to walk about 1500 kilometres just to carry 25 kilos of stores

***D)more than 60,000 of the people trying to reach the Klondike failed on the way

E)nearly everyone who reached the Klondike was able to find some gold

107-The conditions around the Yukon and Klondike Rivers were so difficult because ………. .

A)the gold mines were all on the steep and frozen mountain passes

B)each man needed 25 kilos of stores to get him through the winter

C)the area was not big enough to support all of the 100,000 men who set out for the Klondike

****D)of a number of reasons including difficult terrain and harsh weather conditions

E)they were nearly 1500 kilometres away from the nearest store

108- We can conclude from the passage that……….. .

***A)very few of the prospectors actually achieved what they'd aimed for

B)searching for gold in the Canadian winter is the quickest way to get rich

C)it is less difficult to find gold in Canada than in some other places

D)there is still plenty of gold waiting to be found in the Yukon and Klondike Rivers

E)a prospector is someone who lends money to people searching for gold

Contrary to common knowledge, the water, milk and meat of coconuts only begin the list of uses of this versatile tree. The outer husk of the ripe nuts contains fibres that, when separated, can be twisted into twine rope of amazing toughness. It is quite resistant to rot from dampness or seawater. Despite the advent of nails and screws, this rope continues to be widely used for binding together the timbers of houses and the parts of canoes, tools and the like. Expert craftsmen can make sizeable ropes, which, after use, become quite flexible. The inner shell of the ripe nut can be cut and carved into ladles, scrapers, combs and cups and will take a high polish. Furthermore, the sap of the coconut -1 can be fermented to make a pleasant tasting wine, while the fresh sap can be used as food for babies.
109- According to the passage, twine rope………. .

***A)can be used for some of the same functions as nails

B)is the best possible material for making small boats

C)cannot be made into small ropes, but only big ones

D)can easily be damaged if not protected from rain and sea water

E)is sometimes used in the manufacture of polishes

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